Sewer Processes : Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Sewer Processes
Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition

ISBN 9781439881774
Published April 23, 2013 by CRC Press
399 Pages 108 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise.

Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes revisions of chapters from the previous edition, adds three new chapters, and presents extensive study questions.

  • Presents new modeling tools for the design and operation of sewer networks
  • Establishes sewer processes as a key element in preserving water quality
  • Includes greatly expanded coverage of odor formation and prediction
  • Details the WATS sewer process model
  • Highlights the importance of aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic processes

Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, provides a basis for up-to-date understanding and modeling of sewer microbial and chemical processes and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied for the design, operation, and the maintenance of wastewater collection systems. The authors add chemical and microbial dimensions to the design and management of sewer networks with an overall aim of improved sustainability for the system itself and the surrounding environment.

Table of Contents

Sewer Systems and Processes

Introduction and Purpose

Sewer Developments in a Historical Perspective

Types and Performance of Sewer Networks

Sewer as a Reactor for Chemical and Microbial Processes

Water and Mass Transport in Sewers

Sewer Process Approach


In-Sewer Chemical and Physicochemical Processes

Redox Reactions

Kinetics of Microbiological Systems

Kinetics of Heterogeneous Reactions

Temperature Dependency of Microbial, Chemical, and Physicochemical Processes

Acid–Base Chemistry in Sewers

Iron and Other Heavy Metals in Sewers


Microbiology in Sewer Networks

Wastewater: Sources, Flows, and Constituents

Microbial Reactions and Quality of Substrate


Sewer Atmosphere: Odor and Air–Water Equilibrium and Dynamics

Air–Water Equilibrium

Air–Water Transport Processes

Sewer Atmosphere and Its Surroundings

Reaeration in Sewer Networks and Its Role in Predicting Air–Water Mass Transfer

Acid–Base Characteristics of Wastewater in Sewers: Buffers and Phase Exchanges

Aerobic and Anoxic Sewer Processes: Transformations of Organic Carbon, Sulfur, and Nitrogen

Aerobic, Heterotrophic Microbial Transformations in Sewers

Illustration of Aerobic Transformations in Sewers

A Concept for Aerobic Transformations of Wastewater in Sewers

Formulation in Mathematical Terms of Aerobic, Heterotrophic Processes in Sewers

DO Mass Balances and Variations in Gravity Sewers

Aerobic Sulfide Oxidation

Anoxic Transformations in Sewers


Anaerobic Sewer Processes: Hydrogen Sulfide and Organic Matter Transformations

Hydrogen Sulfide in Sewers: A Worldwide Occurring Problem

Overview of Basic Knowledge on Sulfur-Related Processes

Introduction to Hydrogen Sulfide in Sewer Networks

Predicting Models for Sulfide Formation

Sulfide-Induced Corrosion of Concrete Sewers

Metal Corrosion and Treatment Plant Impacts

Anaerobic Microbial Transformations in Sewers

Integrated Aerobic–Anaerobic Concept for Microbial Transformations


Sewer Processes and Mitigation: Water and Gas Phase Control Methods

Overview of Mitigation

Sewer Process Control Procedures

Selected Measures for Control of Sewer Gases

Final Comments


Sewer Process Modeling: Concepts and Quality Assessment

Types of Process Models

Deterministic Sewer Process Model Approach

Additional Modeling Approaches


WATS: A Sewer Process Model for Water, Biofilm, and Gas Phase Transformations

WATS Model: An Overview

Process Elements of WATS Model

Water and Gas Phase Transport in Sewers

Sewer Network Data and Model Parameters

Specific Modeling Characteristics

Examples of WATS Modeling Results


Methods for Sewer Process Studies and Model Calibration

Methods for Bench Scale, Pilot Scale, and Full Scale Studies

Methods for Determination of Substances and Parameters for Sewer Process Modeling

Final Remarks


Applications: Sewer Process Design and Perspectives

Wastewater Design: An Integrated Approach for Wastewater Treatment

Sewer Structural and Operational Impacts on Wastewater Quality

Sewer Processes: Final Comments and Perspectives


Appendix A: Units and Nomenclature

Appendix B: Definitions and Glossary

Appendix C: Acronyms


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Thorkild Hvitved-Jacobsen, MSc, is professor emeritus at Aalborg University, Denmark. In 2008, he retired from his position as professor of environmental engineering at the Section of Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark. His primary research and professional activities concern environmental process engineering of the wastewater collection and treatment systems, including process engineering and pollution related to urban drainage and road runoff. His research has resulted in more than 320 scientific publications in primarily international journals and proceedings. He has authored and coauthored a number of books published in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan.

Jes Vollertsen, PhD, is a professor of environmental engineering at the Section of Water and Soil, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark. His research interests are urban storm water and wastewater technology, where he combines experimental work on bench scale with pilot-scale studies and field studies. He integrates the gained knowledge on conveyance systems and systems for wastewater and storm water management by numerical modeling of the processes. He is an experienced consultant for private firms and municipalities as well as on litigation support. He is a reviewer for a national research committee in relation to environmental engineering.

Asbjørn Haaning Nielsen, PhD, is an associate professor of environmental engineering at the Section of Water and Soil, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark. His research and teaching has primarily been devoted to wastewater process engineering of sewer systems and process engineering of combined sewer overflows and storm water runoff from urban areas and highways. He has extensive experience with chemical analyses of complex environmental samples, particularly relating to the composition of wastewater and sewer gas. He is a committee member of the Danish National Committee for the IWA.


"… a fine technical guide suitable for any environmental engineering collection and provides a comprehensive, updated approach to wastewater engineering that incorporates the latest developments. … a top pick for any student of environmental engineering and many working in the field."
Midwest Book Review, September 2013

"… an up-to-date description of the biophysicochemical factors and processes driving the sulfur cycle in sewer networks. … allows the reader to better understand which parameters matter in these particular conditions. … the authors particularly underline the difficulty of predicting concrete corrosion due to complexity of corrosion mechanisms."
Eric D. van Hullebusch, Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée, France

"The second edition of this book is very welcomed. The Process Engineering approach taken in this book means that it bridges several engineering disciplines and is accessible to students, academics and practioners alike."
Professor Catherine Biggs, The University of Sheffield

"… a very comprehensive and updated approach, allowing post graduate students of environmental engineering and related fields to have a solid and orientated formation on relevant aspects of wastewater engineering … . The book includes solved illustrative examples and case studies, which reinforce this publication as an excellent engineering guide for helping planners, consultants, and utilities to avoid and/or control risks of significant problems caused by sulfides in sewer systems.

This guide book expands the general understanding of sewer performance with a bioreactor approach to explain and demonstrate, in a rigorous but relatively simple way, how environmentally relevant process engineering can be applied when dealing with design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems… ."
—José Saldanha Matos, Technical Superior Institute of the Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

Praise for the Previous Edition

"This book can be used as a resource for environmental engineering courses; it will also be very useful to those who design, manage, and service sewer systems. The book differs from other books on sewer systems in that it includes a process dimension by considering the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor."
—L.E. Erickson, Kansas State University, in CHOICE, June 2002