Shaft Alignment Handbook: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Shaft Alignment Handbook

3rd Edition

By John Piotrowski

CRC Press

862 pages | 32 Color Illus. | 879 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2006-11-02
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Description

Rotating machinery is the heart of many industrial operations, but many engineers and technicians perform shaft alignment by guesswork or with limited knowledge of the tools and methods available to accurately and effectively align their machinery. Two decades ago, John Piotrowski conferred upon the field an unprecedented tool: the first edition of the Shaft Alignment Handbook.

Two editions later, this bestselling handbook is still the most trusted and widely embraced guide in the field. The third edition was reorganized, updated, and expanded to be more convenient, intuitive, and to reflect the latest developments in the area. Dedicated chapters now discuss the basics of alignment modeling, each of the five basic alignment methods, and electro-optic methods. Significant new material reflects recent findings on detecting misalignment, machinery movement from offline to running conditions, multiple element drive trains, and specific information on virtually every type of rotating machinery in existence. Entirely new chapters explore bore and parallel alignment.

Providing detailed guidance based on years of hands-on experience, the Shaft Alignment Handbook, Third Edition is a practical tool to help avoid costly shutdowns, dangerous failures, and early replacements.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION TO SHAFT ALIGNMENT

Benefits of Good Machinery Alignment

Consequences of Defective Alignment

Four Basic Ingredients Necessary to Insure Alignment Success

Eight Basic Steps to Align Machinery

How Qualified Are You to Detect and Correct Machinery Misalignment?

Why Should People Be Tested on Their Alignment Skills?

Experience Evaluation for Machinery Alignment

Who Needs to Be Trained and Qualified in Shaft Alignment?

Assessing a Person's Knowledge and Experience Level in Shaft Alignment

Alignment Qualification or Certification Testing

Periodic Alignment Checks

Alignment Record Keeping

References

DETECTING MISALIGNMENT ON ROTATING MACHINERY

The Four Maintenance Philosophies

Types of Forces that Occur on Rotating Machinery

Bibliography

FOUNDATIONS, BASEPLATES, INSTALLATION, AND PIPING STRAIN

Varying Composition of Earth's Surface Layer

How Do We Hold This Equipment in Place?

Problems to Look for in Your Foundations and Baseplates

Checking for Excessive Static Piping Forces on Rotating Equipment

Visual Inspection Checklist

How Long Will Rotating Machinery Stay Accurately Aligned?

References

FLEXIBLE AND RIGID COUPLINGS

Coupling and Shaft Misalignment Tolerances-What is the Difference?

The Role of the Flexible Coupling

What to Consider When Specifying a Flexible Coupling

Types of Flexible Couplings

Rigid Coupling Design

Flexible Coupling Lubrication

Coupling Installation

Coupling Hub Attachment Methods

Keys and Keyways

Bibliography

PRELIMINARY ALIGNMENT CHECKS

Foundation and Base Plate Checks

Dial Indicator Basics

Damaged, Worn, or Improperly Installed Machinery Component Checks

Runout

Machine Housing to Base Plate Interface Problems

Verifying that the Soft Foot Has Been Eliminated

Other Methods for Correcting Soft Foot Problems

SHAFT ALIGNMENT MEASURING TOOLS

Dimensional Measurement

Classes of Dimensional Measurement Tools and Sensors

Sweeping 90° Arcs Twice to Measure a Misalignment Condition

Why Measurements Are Taken at 90° Intervals

Rotating Both Shafts to Override a Runout Condition

Tips for Getting Good Alignment Measurements

Engaged Couplings Will Produce Measurement Errors

Rim Indicator Setup Variations

Rim Readings Indicate Twice the Centerline Offset

Validity Rule

Partial Arc Mathematics

Bracket or Bar Sag

Xmas Tree Brackets and Face Sag

Zero Sag Brackets

Dial Indicator Shaft Alignment System Manufacturers

Dial Indicator Manufacturers Hardware Specifications

Bibliography

CORRECTING MISALIGNMENT

Installing Machinery for the First Time

Bolt-Bound Conditions

Last Resort Measures for Bolt-Bound Conditions

Machinery Positioning Basics

Types of Movement Tools

What to Do When Things Are Not Working

Misalignment Rantings

Bibliography

ALIGNMENT MODELING BASICS

Graphing and Modeling Alignment Techniques

Basic Alignment Models

Scaling the Drive System onto the Alignment Model

Cardinal Alignment Graphing and Modeling Rules

Bibliography

DEFINING MISALIGNMENT: ALIGNMENT AND COUPLING TOLERANCES

What Exactly Is Shaft Alignment?

Does Level and Aligned Mean the Same Thing?

Measuring Angles

Types of Misalignment

Definition of Shaft Misalignment

Checking the Misalignment Tolerance

Shaft versus Coupling Alignment

How Straight Are Rotating Machinery Shafts?

REVERSE INDICATOR METHOD

Basic Mathematical Equations for the Reverse Indicator Method

Modeling Reverse Indicator Method Using the ''Point-To-Point'' Technique

Rim Readings Are Always Twice the Offset Amount

Modeling the Reverse Indicator Method Using the Line-To-Point Technique

Bibliography

FACE AND RIM METHODS

Mathematical Relationship in Machinery Alignment

Sixteen-Point Method

Twenty-Point Method

Problems with Taking Face Readings

Modeling the Face and Rim Method

Artificial Face Surface

References

DOUBLE RADIAL METHOD

Basic Mathematical Equations for the Double Radial Method

Modeling the Double Radial Method

SHAFT TO COUPLING SPOOL METHOD

Basic Mathematical Equations for the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method

Modeling the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method

FACE-FACE METHOD

Basic Mathematical Equations for the Face-Face Method

Modeling the Face-Face Method

ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRO-OPTICAL SHAFT ALIGNMENT SYSTEMS

Optical Encoder System

Laser-Detector Systems

Laser System Manufacturers Hardware Specifications

Laser System Manufacturers Software Specifications

References

MEASURING AND COMPENSATING FOR OFF-LINE TO RUNNING MACHINERY MOVEMENT

What Type of Machinery Is Likely to Change Equipment's Position When Running?

What Causes Machinery Movement to Occur?

Conducting the Off-Line to Running Machinery Movement Survey

Taking "Hot" Alignment Measurements Immediately after Shutdown

Four General Categories of OL2R Measurements

Calculating Machine Case Thermal Expansion Using the Strain Equation

Inside Micrometer-Tooling Ball-Angle Measurement Devices

Vertical, Lateral, and Axial OL2R Movement

Proximity Probes with Water-Cooled Stands

Optical Alignment Equipment

Optical Parallax

Using Optical Tooling for Measuring Machinery Movement

Establishing Reference Planes

Alignment Bars with Proximity Probes

Applying Laser-Detector Systems for OL2R Measurements

Ball-Rod-Tubing Connector System

Vernier-Strobe System

Instrumented Coupling Systems

Aligning Shafts for Running Conditions (Also Known as Running Alignment or ''Hot Operating Alignment'')

Bibliography

ALIGNING MULTIPLE-ELEMENT DRIVE SYSTEMS

Multiple-Element Drive Train Alignment Laws

Multiple-Element Drive Train: Graphing and Modeling Techniques

Multiple-Element Drive Train Modeling-One Set of Shafts at a Time

Multiple-Element Drive System Graphing-Modeling All the Shafts at One Time

Mixing Different Alignment Measurement Methods

Modeling Right-Angle Drive Systems

Final Comments on Aligning Multiple-Element Drive Trains

References

ALIGNING V-BELT DRIVES

Belt Drive Systems-Advantages and Disadvantages

V-Belt Standards Information

Sheave Information

V-Belt Recommendations and Rules of Thumb

Sheave and Belt Wear

Adjusting Belt Tension

Preliminary Alignment Checks for V-Belts and Sheaves

Types of Sheave Misalignment Conditions

Using a Straightedge to Measure Misalignment

Measuring the Misalignment at the Sheaves

V-Belt Machine Measurements

Modeling V-Belt Alignment Problems

V-Belt Alignment Modeling Sample Problem

Laser Alignment Systems for V-Belts and Sheaves

Bibliography

BORE ALIGNMENT

Aligning a Rotating Shaft with a Stationary Hollow Cylinder

Aligning Two Hollow Cylinders

Basic Measurement Principles and Nomenclature

Cylinder Alignment Procedure

Bucking in Process

Correcting the Misalignment

Laser Bore Alignment Systems

PARALLEL ALIGNMENT

Rough Alignment of Parallel Rolls

Using Optical Alignment Equipment for Roll Parallelism

Aligning the Rolls in the Vertical (Up/Down) Direction

Aligning the Rolls in the Lateral (Side to Side) Direction

Using Laser-Detector Systems to Measure Parallelism

Using Roll, Pitch, and Yaw Positions of Rolls to Measure Parallelism

Aligning Rolls and Their Drives-Sample Problem

ALIGNMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR SPECIFIC TYPES OF MACHINERY

Drivers

Bibliography

THE HISTORY OF MACHINERY ALIGNMENT

APPENDICES

Appendix A: Machinery Data Card

Appendix B: Sample Preliminary Alignment Record Sheet

Appendix C: Sample Installation and Shaft Alignment

Appendix D: Torque Values (SAE Grade 2 Bolts).

Appendix E: Torque Values (SAE Grade 5 Bolts)

Appendix F: Torque Values (SAE Grade 8 Bolts)

Appendix G: Shaft Alignment and Related U.S. Patents

Appendix H: Shaft Alignment Training Questionnaire

Appendix I: Shaft Alignment Services Questionnaire

Appendix J: Alignment Internet Web Sites

Appendix K: Single Plane Balancing

INDEX

About the Series

Mechanical Engineering

A Series of Textbooks and Reference Books

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI041000
SCIENCE / Mechanics / General
TEC009070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mechanical
TEC016000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Design / General