Shaping Entrepreneurship Research: Made, as Well as Found is a collection of readings designed to support entrepreneurship research. Focused on a worldview in which the future is open-ended and shapeable through human action – i.e. “made”, this collection reframes entrepreneurship as a science of the artificial rather than as a natural or social science. It posits an open-ended universe for the making of human artifacts even if large swathes of nature and society are not within the control of the people making them.
The book explores the notion of “made” through 25 foundational readings – classics from the history of ideas. Organized into five sections, each classic is individually introduced by the editors in one of five chapters written to explain its relevance and significance for a “made” view of entrepreneurship. Readers will benefit from exposure to these classic ideas and ongoing research in a variety of areas that fall somewhat outside the line-of-sight of traditional entrepreneurship research. Both individually and collectively, the readings suggest opportunities to ask new questions and develop new ways of framing entrepreneurship research that carry the discussion beyond worlds found to worlds made as well as found.
The book is crafted to be valuable to three groups of scholars: young scholars with limited or no access to research infrastructure but with a desire to participate in deep conversations; young scholars with access to research infrastructure who also desire to listen-in on a different kind of conversation; and established entrepreneurship scholars who are contemplating an alternative set of foundational ideas to support their conversations in the discipline.
Table of Contents
Part 1: Motivation
1. Introduction: A pluralistic approach to entrepreneurship research
2. The Sciences of the Artificial (Herbert A. Simon)
3. Three Varieties of Knowledge (Donald Davidson)
4. The Market as a Creative Process (James M. Buchanan and Viktor J. Vanberg)
Part 2: Maker
5. Introduction: Entrepreneurial Agency
6. Bounding Rationality to the World (Peter M. Todd and GerdGigerenzer)
7. Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought (George Lakoff and Mark Johnson)
8. The Construction of Preference (Paul Slovic)
9. The Technology of Foolishness (James March)
10. Great Men, Great Thoughts, and the Environment (William James)
Part 3: Making
11. Entrepreneurial Process
12. Words, Works, Worlds, Ways of Worldmaking (Nelson Goodman)
13. Competition as a Discovery Procedure (F.A. Hayek)
14. The Transactional Self (Jerome Bruner)
15. The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm (S. J. Gould and R. C. Lewontin)
16. The Coasian and Knightian Theories of the Firm (Donald J. Boudreaux and Randall G. Holcombe)
Part 4: Made
17. Introduction: Entrepreneurial Outcomes
17. The State of Humanity (Julian L. Simon)
18. From the Past to the Future (Julian L. Simon)
19. The Possibility of Social Choice (Amartya Sen)
20. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs In The West And Fails Everywhere Else (Hernando De Soto)
21. Beyond Markets and States: Polycentric Governance of Complex Economic Systems (Elinor Ostrom)
22. Social Attitudes, Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (Alexander Gerschenkron)
Part 5: Method
23. Studying entrepreneurship as a three-legged artifact
24. Economics as a Historical Science (Herbert A. Simon)
25. The Art and Science of Cause and Effect (Judea Pearl)
26. Conceptual Metaphor in Everyday Language (George Lakoff and Mark Johnson)
27. Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity (Richard Rorty)
28. What Pragmatism Means (William James)
29. Conclusion: Creative Powers of a Free Civilization (F.A. Hayek)
Saras D. Sarasvathy is Professor of Business Administration at the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Virginia, USA and Jamuna Raghavan Chair Professor in Entrepreneurship, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore.
Nicholas Dew is Associate Professor of Business and Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School, USA.
Sankaran Venkataraman is the MasterCard Professor of Business Administration and Senior Associate Dean at the Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Virginia, USA.