1st Edition

Ship’s Ballast Water Analysis Microfluidic Technology in Algae Analysis

    176 Pages 103 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments mandates ships undertake ballast water treatment to reduce, remove or kill organisms of concern before being allowed to discharge their water. This book introduces technologies and devices that are used for the analysis of treated ballast water. Emphasis is placed on the separation, manipulation, detection, counting and sizing of microalgae in a microfluidic chip which shows great potential for developing miniatured analysis devices.


    • Introduces technologies and devices that are related for the analysis of the treated ballast water.
    • Identifies need of reliable devices to monitor viable organisms in treated ship’s ballast waters.
    • Covers recent research in microfluidics-based cell sorting and developments of lab-on-a-chip devices.
    • Addresses Ballast Water Management Convention to be implemented by 2024.
    • Reviews electric- and optical-based methods for organism counting, sizing and viability differentiation.

    This book is aimed at researchers and professionals in marine engineering, ocean technology, environmental engineering, and microfluidics.

    1. Introduction and Basic Concepts

    Yasmeen Zamir Ahmed, Zhijian Liu and Yongxin Song

    2. Resistive Pulse Sensing of Particles and Microalgae

    Yongxin Song and Xiangchun Xuan

    3. Automatic Separation and Manipulation of Microalgae   

     Zhijan Liu, Mengqi Li and Yongxin Song

    4. Smartphone-Based Lab-on-Chip Device for Living Algae Detection

    Yongxin Song and Deyu Li

    5. Electrostatic Charges on Microalgae Surface: Mechanism and Ballast Water Analysis

    Na Li and Yongxin Song

    6. Surface Charge-Based Living Microalgae Detection in a Microchannel

    Yongxin Song

    7. Dielectrophoresis-based cell viability assessment

    Junyan Zhang and Xiangyu Zhang

    8. Commercial Devices for Living Algae Detection

    Na Li and Yongxin Song


    Yongxin Song is a professor in the college of marine engineering, Dalian Maritime University (DMU). He received his PhD degree in Marine engineering from Dalian Maritime University in 2012. Since joining DMU, he has worked as an assistant professor (2004), Associate Professor (2012) and Professor (2017-now). He is a creative scientist at the forefront of exploring new sensing methods and lab-on-chip devices and their applications in the field of marine engineering. He is committed to making breakthroughs in any topic of microfluidic sensing technology where using conventional approaches to shrink the devices are challenging. His research areas involve of mechanical engineering, colloid and interface, electrical engineering. Dr. Song pioneered several ground-breaking studies in microfluidic chip-based marine pollution analysis, such as electric and surface charges based living algae detection. He is the local co-chair of the 2016 International Conference on microfluidics and nanofluidics and lab-on-chip, gest editor and topic advisory board of the Micromachines journal, section chair of the 2018 International Conference on microfluidics and nanofluidics and lab-on-chip. He has published more than one hundred high quality international journal papers, with more than twenty patents licensed.

    Junyan Zhang is currently an associate professor in the college of marine engineering, Dalian Maritime University (DMU), Dalian, China. His research interests include electrokinetic phenomena, microfluidics and nanofluidics, colloid and interface science, ballast water detection, as well as flexible devices for sensing. He has published more than 10 high quality papers. In addition, he has been working as a fourth engineer on ocean-going ships for over 18 months. He was granted a funding (2021-2023) by National Natural Science Foundation of China, the name of which is “Characteristics of microalgae surface charge and analysis of microalgae viability in ship ballast water”. He has developed a novel method to evaluate the viability of microalgae in ballast water through aqueous two-phase system.

    Mengqi Li is an Associate Professor in the college of marine engineering, Dalian Maritime University (DMU). He received his PhD degree in Mechanical engineering from University of Waterloo in 2018. From 2019 to 2020, he worked at University of Waterloo as a Postdoc Fellow. Since joining DMU in 2020, he has worked as an Associate Professor until now. His research interests include microfluidics and nanofluidics, colloid and interface science, soft matter, electrokinetic phenomena, as well as electrochemical detection techniques. He has published more than 30 high quality papers and applied more than ten patents. Moreover, he harbors an interest in ballast water treatment and detection techniques. He has developed a novel technique in identifying the viability of microalgae through liquid-liquid interface under electric field, which has attracted great attention.

    Ming Li is currently an Associate Professor and NHMRC Emerging Leadership Fellow in the School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering at The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia. She obtained her PhD from the University of Wollongong in Australia and conducted postdoctoral training at the University of Houston and the University of California, Los Angeles, in the USA. She was a Lecturer and then Senior Lecturer at Macquarie University before joining UNSW. Her research interests include microfluidics, biosensors, lab-on-a-chip technology, and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS).

    Xiangchun Xuan is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Clemson University. He received his PhD degree from the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at University of Toronto in 2006 and Bachelor of Engineering degree from University of Science and Technology of China in 1995. Dr. Xuan was a recipient of NSF CAREER award in 2012 and Clemson University Distinguished Doctoral Mentoring Award in 2022. His research interests cover the fundamentals and applications of microfluidics with special interest in particle and cell manipulations. He has published over 150 journal articles with a Google Scholar h-index of 55.

    Na Li, received the Ph.D. degree in Environmental Science and Engineering from Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China in 2020. She completed postdoctoral studies at the Marine Engineering College of Dalian Maritime University. Her research interests include environmental chemistry, molecular biology and aquatic toxicology. In addition, she was received multiple tech grants, such as Basic scientific research projects in universities, Science and technology talent innovation support policy projects, Doctoral initiation program and so on.