220 pages | 34 B/W Illus.
Once the existence of free radicals was proven, an avalanche of studies on free radical-mediated biological processes ensued. The study of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) is center stage in biological free radical investigations. Written by a biochemist, Signaling Mechanisms of Oxygen and Nitrogen Free Radicals discusses the regulatory functions of ROS and RNS in physiological and pathophysiological states.
An exploration of the main questions of signaling mechanisms of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in enzymatic processes, this book draws attention to the chemical mechanisms of these reactions. It elucidates the differences between signaling functions and damaging effects of ROS and RNS in biological systems. The text also covers free radical signaling processes catalyzed by enzymes, producers of superoxide and nitric oxide that are able to use produced ROS and RNS as signaling species in their own catalytic processes. It then examines ROS and RNS signaling produced by mitochondrial enzymes. The author explores signaling functions of ROS and RNS in enzymatic heterolytic reactions, supplying important data on ROS and RNS signaling in the catalysis by the enzymes which do not produce free radicals by themselves. He provides information on signaling by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in apoptosis and aging/senescence and concludes with coverage of mechanisms of free radical signaling in enzymatic processes.
The book provides new understanding of signaling functions in living organisms related to cardiovascular processes, cancer, inflammation, hereditary diseases, and their regulation of physiological functions such as development, aging, and senescence. This information can support the development of new drugs and novel treatment methods.
Introduction: Free Radical Damage versus Free Radical Signaling
Free Radical Signaling in Reactions Catalyzed by EnzymesProducers of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Signaling in Reactions Catalyzed by Xanthine Oxidase
ROS Signaling by Phagocyte and Nonphagocyte NADPH Oxidases
ROS Signaling in Reactions Catalyzed by Nitric Oxide Synthases
Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Signaling in Mitochondria
ROS Signaling in Mitochondria
Signaling Functions of Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite in Mitochondria
ROS and RNS Signaling in Catalysis of Heterolytic Reactions by Kinases, Phosphatases, and Other Enzymes
The Other Enzymes
ROS and RNS Signaling in Apoptosis
Stimulation and Inhibition of ROS-Induced Apoptosis
Mitochondrial ROS as Apoptosis Initiators
Mechanism of Superoxide Signaling in Apoptosis
Enzymatic Apoptotic Cascades Mediated by ROS
RNS in Apoptosis
ROS and RNS Signaling in Senescence and Aging
Free Radicals in Aged Cells, Tissues, and Whole Organisms
Mechanisms of Free Radical-Mediated Damage in Aging and Senescence
Antioxidant Treatment against Aging and Senescence: Possibility of Enlargement of Life Span
Mechanisms of ROS and RNS Signaling in Enzymatic Catalysis
Major Reactive Signaling Molecules: O2−, H2O2,・NO, ONOO−
ROS and RNS Signaling by Reactions with the Sulfhydryl Groups of Enzymes
Mechanism of ROS Signaling during Inactivation of Phosphatases
Mechanisms of ROS Signaling in Reactions Catalyzed by Protein Kinases
Chain Mechanism of Superoxide Signaling
Nucleophilic Mechanism of Superoxide Signaling in GTPase-Catalyzed Reactions