1st Edition

Silicon and Silicide Nanowires Applications, Fabrication, and Properties

Edited By Yu Huang, King-Ning Tu Copyright 2013
    484 Pages 8 Color & 179 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

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    Nanoscale materials are showing great promise in various electronic, optoelectronic, and energy applications. Silicon (Si) has especially captured great attention as the leading material for microelectronic and nanoscale device applications. Recently, various silicides have garnered special attention for their pivotal role in Si device engineering and for the vast potential they possess in fields such as thermoelectricity and magnetism. The fundamental understanding of Si and silicide material processes at nanoscale plays a key role in achieving device structures and performance that meet real-world requirements and, therefore, demands investigation and exploration of nanoscale device applications. This book comprises the theoretical and experimental analysis of various properties of silicon nanocrystals, research methods and techniques to prepare them, and some of their promising applications.

    In Situ Observations of Vapor–Liquid–Solid Growth of Silicon Nanowires, S. Kodambaka
    Experimental 4
    Silicon Nanowire Nucleation Kinetics
    Silicon Nanowire Growth Kinetics
    Summary and Outlook

    Growth of Germanium, Silicon, and Ge–Si Heterostructured Nanowires,
    Shadi A. Dayeh and S. Thomas Picraux
    Introduction 23
    The VLS Growth Mechanism
    Size Effects in Nanowire Growth
    Temperature Effects on Nanowire Growth
    Pressure Effects on Nanowire Growth
    Dopant Precursor Influence on Nanowire Growth
    Defects during VLS Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires
    Ge Core/Si Shell Heterostructured Nanowires
    Unique Opportunities for Bandgap Engineering in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Transition Metal Silicide Nanowires: Synthetic Methods and Applications,
    Jeremy M. Higgins, Andrew L. Schmitt, and Song Jin
    Formation of Bulk and Thin-Film Metal Silicides in Diffusion Couples
    Silicide Nanowire Growth Techniques

    Metal Silicide Nanowires: Growth and Properties, L. J. Chen and W. W. Wu
    Epitaxial Growth of Silicide Nanowires on Si Substrate
    Growth of Free-Standing Silicide Nanowires and Their Properties
    Formation of Silicide/Si/Silicide Nano-Heterostructures from Si Nanowires

    Formation of Epitaxial Silicide in Silicon Nanowires,
    Yi-Chia Chou, Kuo-Chang Lu, and King-Ning Tu
    Introduction to Solid-State Phase Transformation in Thin Film
    Nanoscale Silicide Formation by Point Contact Reaction between Ni/Co and Si Nanowires
    Homogeneous Nucleation of Nanoscale Silicide Formation

    Interaction between Inverse Kirkendall Effect and Kirkendall Effect in Nanoshells and Nanowires,
    A. M. Gusak and T. V. Zaporozhets
    Basic Notions
    Instability of Hollow Nanostructures
    Formation of Hollow Shells
    Cross-Over from Formation to Collapse

    Electrical Transport Properties of Doped Silicon Nanowires, Aya Seike and Iwao Ohdomari
    Fabrication Processes and Electrical Measurements
    Introduction of Strain into Nanowire Channels by Oxidation, and Evaluation of Stress within Individual Nanowires
    Electrical Characterization of Nanowire FETs

    Silicon Nanowires and Related Nanostructures as Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes,
    Liangbing Hu, Lifeng Cui, Seung Sae Hong, James McDonough, and Yi Cui
    Lithium-Ion Batteries and Different Types of Anodes
    Advantages and Challenges of Silicon Anodes
    Thin Film Silicon Anodes and Microsized Particles
    Vapor–Liquid–Solid (VLS)-Grown SiNWs as High-Capacity Anode
    Surface Characterization and Electrochemical Analysis of the Solid–Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) on Silicon Nanowires
    Si Core–Shell Structures for Anodes
    Other Si Nanostructures
    Solution-Processed Si Nanostructures
    Some Fundamental Aspects
    Remaining Challenges and Commercialization

    Porous Silicon Nanowires,
    Yongquan Qu and Xiangfeng Duan
    Synthesis of Porous Silicon Nanowires
    Properties of Porous Silicon Nanowire
    Applications of Porous Silicon Nanowire

    Nanoscale Contact Engineering for Si Nanowire Devices,
    Yung-Chen Lin and Yu Huang
    Scope of the Chapter
    Synthetic Approaches to Nanoscale Silicides
    Contact Formation through Solid-State Reaction
    Silicide Growth Mechanism
    New Technical Approaches or Structures for Low-Contact Resistance FET and Short-Channel Device
    Electronic Properties of Silicide NWs and Silicide/Si/Silicide Heterostructures


    Yu Huang is a faculty member in the Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), USA. She received her PhD in physical chemistry from Harvard University, USA. Her research focuses on the fundamental principles governing nanoscale material synthesis and assembly at the molecular level, which can be utilized to design nanostructures and nanodevices with unique functions and properties to address critical challenges in electronics, energy science, and biomedicine. She has received several recognitions including MRS student award, the Grant Prize Winner of Collegiate Inventors’ Competition, the IUPAC Young Chemist Prize, Lawrence Postdoctoral Fellowship, MIT Technology Review World’s Top 100 Young Innovator Award, NASA Nanotech Brief Nano 50 Innovator award, the Kavli Fellowship, the Sloan Fellowship, the PECASE, DARPA Young Faculty Award and, the NIH Director’s New Innovator Award.

    King-Ning Tu received his PhD in applied physics from Harvard University in 1968 and was associated with IBM T. J. Watson Research Center for 25 years before joining the UCLA, USA, in 1993. He is distinguished professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Department of Electrical Engineering at the UCLA. He has over 500 journal publications with citations over 18,000 and h-factor of 74. He received the TMS John Bardeen Award in 2013. He has co-authored the textbook Electronic Thin Film Science and authored the books Solder Joint Technology: Materials, Properties, and Reliability and Electronic Thin-Film Reliability. His research interests are focused on metal–silicon reactions, solder joint reactions, point-contact reactions in nanowires, polarity effect of electromigration on interfacial reactions, and kinetic theories of interfacial reactions.