There are approximately 50,000 small water supplies in the UK alone, and thousands more worldwide. Dealing with the idiosyncratic characteristics of small water supplies requires specialist knowledge, and this book provides invaluable guidance for professionals.
Based on the extensive practical experience of the author, this book covers how small independent supplies differ from public water supplies, and outlines the health dangers they pose, along with detailed instruction in water sampling and risk assessment techniques. Clapham describes the different types of water supplies including their construction and treatment systems, and discusses common problems encountered. A wide range of case studies bring the theory to life, and both UK and European legislation is discussed. There is also a sizeable section dealing with small water supplies in developing countries.
Introduction. The Hydrological Cycle. Geology. Small or Private Supplies. Small Water Types. Spring Supplies. Wells. Boreholes. Surface Water Supplies. Rainwater Collection. Desalination. Fog Collection. Other Associated Components. Physical Properties of Water. Risk Assessment. Rainfall and Weather. Sampling Programmes. Sanitary Surveys and Risk Assessment. Water and Health. Microbiological Considerations. Indicator Organisms. Outbreaks of Disease Associated with Small Water Supplies. Waterborne Diseases. Viral Diseases. Enteroviral Diseases. Viral Gastroenteritis. Viral Hepatitis. Bacterial Diseases. Campylobacter. Cholera. Escherichia coli. Bacillary Dysentery or Shigellosis. Typhoid. Yersinia. Other Bacteria of Potential Concern. Environmental or Adventitious Bacteria. Protozoan Diseases. Amoebic Dysentery. Cryptosporidium. Cyclospora. Giardia. Naegleria. Helminth Infestations. Drancunculiasis. Water-related Diseases. Dengue Fever. Lymphatic Filariasis. Malaria. Yellow Fever. Other Water-related Diseases. Water-contact Diseases. Shistosomiasis. Cyanobacteria. Chemical Contaminants. Inorganic Chemicals. Aluminium. Arsenic. Asbestos. Copper. Iron. Lead. Manganese. Nitrates. Nitrites. Other Inorganic Chemicals. Organic Chemicals. Disinfection By Products and Trihalomethanes. Organic Solvents. Pesticides. Polynuclear or Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Other Organic Chemicals. Radioactive Contamination. Radon. Uranium. Treatment Options. Disinfection. Chlorination. Ozonation. Ultraviolet Irradiation. Contaminant Removal. Activated Carbon Filters. Ion Exchange Units. Membrane Filtration Units. Other Treatment Systems. Action to Improve Supplies. Insufficiency. Advice. Boil Water Advisory Notices. Formal Statutory Action. Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption. UK Drinking-water Legislation. Water Industries Act 1991. The Private Water Supplies Regulations 1991. Other Methods of Improvement. The Drinking Water Inspectorate. USA.