1st Edition

Small and Short-Range Radar Systems

By Gregory L. Charvat Copyright 2014
    428 Pages 247 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    428 Pages 247 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Radar Expert, Esteemed Author Gregory L. Charvat on CNN and CBS

    Author Gregory L. Charvat appeared on CNN on March 17, 2014 to discuss whether Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 might have literally flown below the radar. He appeared again on CNN on March 20, 2014 to explain the basics of radar, and he explored the hope and limitations of the technology involved in the search for Flight 370 on CBS on March 22, 2014.

    Get His Book Now

    Coupling theory with reality, from derivation to implementation of actual radar systems, Small and Short-Range Radar Systems analyzes and then provides design procedures and working design examples of small and short-range radar systems. Discussing applications from automotive to through-wall imaging, autonomous vehicle, and beyond, the practical text supplies high-level descriptions, theoretical derrivations, back-of-envelope calculations, explanations of processing algorithms, and case studies for each type of small radar system covered, including continuous wave (CW), ultrawideband (UWB) impulse, linear frequency modulation (FM), linear rail synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and phased array. This essential reference:

    • Explains how to design your own radar devices
    • Demonstrates how to process data from small radar sensors
    • Provides real-world, measured radar data to test algorithms before investing development time

    Complete with downloadable MATLAB® scripts and actual radar measurements, Small and Short-Range Radar Systems empowers you to rapidly develop small radar technology for your application.

    RAdio Direction And Ranging (RADAR)
    Radio Transmitters and Receivers
    Generating Electromagnetic Fields and Maxwell's Equations
    Far Field and Near Field
    Constitutive Parameters, or the Medium in which a Wave Propagates
    Electric and Magnetic Antennas
    Most-Used Solution to the Wave Equation for Radar Systems
    Transmission Lines
    Scattering Parameters
    Characteristics of Antennas
    Friis Transmission Equation
    Radio Receivers
    Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receivers
    Heterodyne Receivers and the Frequency Mixer
    Single Sideband (SSB) Receivers
    Noise Figure
    Receiver Sensitivity
    Radio Transmitters
    Pulsed Radar System
    Phase Coherent Radar System
    A Simple Phased Coherent Radar System
    Pulsed Phase Coherent Radar Systems
    Estimating Radar Performance using the Radar Range Equation
    Small and Short Range Radars
    I. Short-Range Radar Systems and Implementations
    Continuous Wave (CW) RADAR
    CW RADAR Architecture
    Signal Processing for CW Doppler Radar
    Frequency Counter
    Frequency-to-Voltage Converter
    Discrete Fourier Transform
    The Radar Range Equation for CW Doppler Radar
    Examples of CW Radar Systems
    The MIT Independent Activities Period (IAP) Radar in Doppler Mode
    Expected Performance of the MIT 'Coffee Can' Radar in Doppler Mode
    Working Example of the MIT 'Coffee Can' Radar in Doppler Mode
    An X-Band CW Radar System
    Expected Performance of the X-Band CW Radar System
    Working Example of the X-Band CW Radar System
    Harmonic Radar
    CW Harmonic Radar System at 917 MHz
    Harmonic Radar Tags
    Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar
    FMCW Architecture and Signal Processing
    FMCW Architecture
    Mathematics of FMCW Radar
    Signal Processing for FMCW Radar and the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
    Frequency Counter and Frequency-to-Voltage Converters
    Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
    Coherent Change Detection (CCD)
    FMCW Performance
    The Radar Range Equation for FMCW Radar
    Range Resolution
    Examples of FMCW Radar Systems
    X-Band UWB FMCW Radar System
    Expected Performance of the X-Band UWB FMCW Radar System
    Working Example of the X-Band UWB FMCW Radar System
    The MIT Coffee Can Radar System in Ranging Mode
    Expected Performance of the MIT Coffee Can Radar System in Ranging Mode
    Working Example of the MIT Coffee Can Radar System in Ranging Mode
    Range-Gated UWB FMCW Radar System
    Analog Range Gate
    S-Band Implementation
    Expected Performance of the Range Gated SBand FMCW Radar System
    Working Example of the Range Gated S-Band FMCW Radar System
    X-Band Implementation of a Range-Gated FMCW Radar System
    Expected Performance of the Range Gated X-Band FMCW Radar System
    Working Example of the Range Gated X-Band FMCW Radar System
    Synthetic Aperture Radar
    Measurement Geometry
    The Range Migration Algorithm (RMA)
    Simulation of a Point Scatterer
    Cross Range Fourier Transform
    Matched Filter
    Stolt Interpolation
    Inverse Fourier Transform to Image Domain
    Simulation of Multiple Point Targets
    Estimating Performance
    The Radar Range Equation Applied to SAR
    Resolution of SAR Imagery
    Additional Processing
    Coherent Background Subtraction and Coherent Change Detection (CCD)
    Motion Compensation
    Practical Examples of Small Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging Systems
    UWB FMCW X-Band Rail SAR Imaging System
    Expected Performance
    Maximum Range and Minimum Target RCS
    Range Resolution Estimate
    Measured Results
    MIT Coffee Can Radar in Imaging Mode
    Expected Performance
    Maximum Range and Minimum Target RCS
    Range Resolution Estimate
    Measured Results
    Range-Gated FMCW Rail SAR Imaging Systems
    Expected Performance
    Measured Results
    Expected Performance
    Phased Array Radar
    Near-Field Phased Array Radar
    Near-Field Beamforming using SAR Imaging Algorithms
    Performance of Small Phased Array Radar Systems
    The Radar Range Equation for Phased Array Radar Systems
    Resolution of Near Field Phased Array Imagery
    Coherent Background Subtraction and Coherent Change Detection (CCD)
    An S-Band Switched Array Radar Imaging System
    System Implementation
    Performance Estimate
    Free Space Results
    Simulated Sidelobes
    Measured Sidelobes
    Low RCS Imagery
    MIT IAP Phased Array Radar Course
    Ultrawideband (UWB) Impulse Radar
    Architectures for UWB Impulse Radar
    Basic UWB Impulse Radar System
    UWB Impulse Radar using Frequency Conversion
    Signal Processing for UWB Impulse Radar
    Computing Range to Target
    Synthetic Aperture Radar
    Coherent Change Detection (CCD)
    Expected Performance of UWB Impulse Radar Systems
    The Radar Range Equation for UWB Impulse Radar
    Range Resolution for UWB Impulse Radar
    UWB Impulse Radar Systems
    X-Band UWB Impulse Radar System
    Expected Performance
    Ranging Example
    X-Band Impulse SAR Imaging System
    Expected Performance
    Impulse SAR Data Acquisition and Processing
    Imaging Example
    II. Applications
    Police Doppler Radar and Motion Sensors
    The Gunnplexer
    Police Doppler Radar
    K-Band Police Doppler Radar
    Estimated Performance
    Experimental Results
    Digital Signal Processing for an Old X-Band Police Doppler Radar Gun
    Expected Performance
    Working Example
    Doppler Motion Sensors
    Automotive Radar
    Challenges in Automotive Domain
    The Automotive Domain Surrounding Sensing
    Performance Limitations of Today's Automotive SRRs
    Challenges with Vehicle Integration
    SRR Packaging Challenges
    Automotive 77 Ghz vs. 24 Ghz
    Cost and Long Term Reliability
    Regulatory Issues
    Elements of Automotive Radar
    Analog Front End
    Radar Processor
    Waveforms for Automotive Radar
    Doppler Shift
    Linear Frequency Modulation
    Frequency Shift Keying
    Hybrid Waveform of FSK and LFM
    Pulse Compression LFM Waveform
    Range and Range Rate Estimation
    Target Detection
    Matched Filter and Ambiguity Function
    Estimation Accuracy
    Direction Finding
    Linear Array Antenna
    Digital Beamforming
    Simultaneous Processing for Range, Doppler, and Angle
    Fusion of Multiple Sensors
    Automotive Sensor Technology
    Fusion Algorithm
    Architecture Aspect
    Error Model of the Sensor
    Data Association
    Dynamic Models
    Algorithm Summary
    Online Automatic Registration
    Case Studies of ADAS Fusion System
    Adaptive Cruise Control
    Forward Collision Warning and Braking
    Radars and the Urban Grand Challenge
    Through-Wall Radar
    Radar Range Equation for Through Wall Radar
    Through-Wall Model
    1D Model for Simulating Range Profiles
    2D Model for Simulating Rail SAR Imagery
    2D Model for Switched or Multiple Input Multiple Output Arrays
    Examples of Through-Wall Imaging Systems
    S-Band Range Gated FMCW Rail SAR
    Expected Performance
    S-Band Switched Array
    Expected Performance
    Real-Time Through-Wall Radar Imaging System
    Expected Performance


    Gregory L. Charvat, Ph.D is co-founder of Butterfly Network Inc., visiting researcher at the Camera Culture Group MIT Media Lab, academic advisor to startups, and editor of the Gregory L. Charvat Series on Practical Approaches to Electrical Engineering. He was a technical staff member at MIT Lincoln Laboratory from September 2007 to November 2011, where his work on through-wall radar won best paper at the 2010 MSS Tri-Services Radar Symposium and is an MIT Office of the Provost 2011 research highlight. He has taught short radar courses at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where his Build a Small Radar Sensor course was the top-ranked MIT professional education course in 201l and has become widely adopted by other universities, laboratories, and private organizations. He has developed numerous rail SAR imaging sensors, phased array radar systems, and impulse radar systems; holds several patents; and has developed many other radar sensors and radio and audio equipment. He earned a Ph.D in electrical engineering in 2007, MSEE in 2003, and BSEE in 2002 from Michigan State University, and is a senior member of the IEEE, where he served on the steering committee for the 2010 and 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology and chaired the IEEE AP-S Boston Chapter from 2010-2011.

    "This book is absolutely unique in its focus on hands-on construction and demonstration of a variety of small, low-power, short-range radar systems. It is supported by extensive online support resources: measured data sets, MATLAB® analysis software, additional documentation, and demonstration videos. With the aid of this book, anyone with basic electronic circuit skills can construct and operate their own small radar systems and demonstrate essential radar techniques, from such basic operations as moving target detection and speed measurement to sophisticated imaging methods. …It is no exaggeration to say that no other book compares with this one. There are many books on radar systems generally and radar signal processing specifically, and also a few books or chapters in edited books that specifically address FMCW radar, but none has the emphasis on practical radar construction with detailed circuit design and experimental data seen in this text. …Short-range radars are increasingly ubiquitous, not only in the traditional police, motion sensing, and proximity applications, but increasingly in automotive safety, through-wall imaging, and others. This book is a comprehensive guide to the technology of this increasingly important area."
    —Dr. Mark A. Richards, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA

    "The book is applications-oriented with just enough information, delivered at just the right points, to give the reader a straightforward, clear understanding and appreciation of radar for practical applications. I can think of no other texts that specifically apply conventional radar theory to general short-range problems. As inexpensive imaging and short-range radars are becoming increasing prevalent, it is important that good texts be available to teach engineers about the right way to go about building radars and optimizing their performance. …The selection and presentation of topics is perfect for the modern radar engineer. Proceeding from a general description of radar theory to specific radar systems to particular applications is logical and intuitive. Nothing within the scope of the book is left out: it is very complete. …This book is a great reference, one that should be on every radar designer’s bookshelf. It is segmented enough with self-contained sections to make it easy to find solutions to specific engineering problems down the road. I particularly like the parallel structure of the various radar implementations. Giving the expected performance of each radar system, for example, guides the reader in his/her selection of a particular configuration for a given application. …The references are numerous and complete, and the author is well-known as an active contributor in the radar field. In addition, the text provides sufficient theory to justify each next step. …Unlike conventional radar texts, Charvat’s book gives the reader the knowledge and understanding to develop and use radars for practical, everyday applications. The presentation reminds me of a car-repair manual, with careful step-by-step instructions and well-illustrated with highlighted photographs and circuit diagrams, but with just enough math to justify the various approaches used."
    —Prof. Carey Rappaport, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

    "This textbook fills a large void by providing real world examples of Doppler, ranging, and synthetic aperture radar systems along with extensive examples of radar sensitivity and design parameters. Its coverage of fundamental radar principles in a form directly accessible to students is unique, and provides a needed hands-on based approach to the subject. It enables radar investigations using systems that can be readily built at reasonable cost, straightforward computer analysis code, and well verified test data. Students can use these features to learn radar by example in a manner previously very difficult to accomplish. …The material fills a niche not currently found in the literature: real-world examples of small radar systems that can be implemented by students and professionals new to the field. There is a large need for such material in the university and educational community, as most radar courses feature large and complex system designs costing significant amounts of money. This fact tends to produce a large disconnect in student minds between the theory they are learning and actual practice in how to implement this theory. In other words, the student assumes that it must take a team of people and a lot of resources to successfully implement and deploy radar systems. However, the principles of radar work equally well on small systems. The ability to have students assemble, test, and process data from these systems is really invaluable. I have seen this type of hands-on learning provide insights and synthesis of material much quicker than traditional methods of learning important radar principles. Having a textbook with validated examples of small radar systems, and with simple computer code and test data sets to check knowledge of theoretical constructs, provides the needed bridge to this type of learning. …The material is most definitely interesting, primarily by virtue of worked-out calculations giving real-world answers to common radar design problems (and then showing processed data examples). There are practically no sources of publicly available test data for SAR algorithms or for FMCW ranging radars. These worked-out examples are therefore unique and badly needed. …I am impressed with the breadth of topics covered. For the target audience, this material seems ideally suited and I do not find any significant missing topics. After assimilating this material and working through the exercises, students will be much more ready to tackle the classic radar textbooks (Skolnik, etc.) and will have a much more intuitive feel for core principles."
    —Dr. Philip Erickson, Principal Research Scientist, MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Massachusetts, USA

    "I wish I had a book like this when I was developing short-range radars. The author provides a variety of practical circuits and block diagrams that practicing engineers and students will find useful. …The best feature of this book is the wealth of practical information in the form of block diagrams, circuit diagrams, and measurement results that help the reader understand how to turn the theory of small radars into practice. I like the author’s approach of providing just enough theory to help the reader understand the operation of short-range radars and to interpret the measurement results. …I’m not aware of any other book directed solely toward small and short-range radars. I believe this book is complementary to comprehensive treatments such as Principles of Modern Radar by Richards, Scheer, and Holm and Skolnik’s Radar Handbook."
    ––Prof. Daniel Fleisch, Ph.D, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio, USA

    "This book presents a nice introduction to short-range radar systems with both theoretical and practical insights. I would recommend it to anyone interested in not only understanding but also building short-range radar systems. …The book covers all essential aspects of short-range low-power radar systems. A major strength of the book lies in the combination of both theoretical and practical insights. The examples provided in the book are particularly helpful in not only understanding but also in building actual systems."
    —Prof. Xiaoguang ‘Leo’ Liu, Ph.D, University of California, Davis, USA

    "This book is one of the first to discuss short-range radar (SRR) systems in detail, from both theoretical and practical standpoints. ... The book is a good source of information about radar technology and the latest state of the art in small and shortrange radars."
    —Satyajayant Misra, from IEEE Wireless Communications - June 2015

    "Finally, bedtime reading for the radar enthusiast! Readers should not succumb to the unintended implication that this book will put them to sleep. On the contrary, this is an eye-opener. It is an interesting book that is quite easy to dip into. This book is a great reference for a hands-on approach toward understanding, construction, and use of a variety of home-made, short-range radar systems."
    IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine, August 2016

    "Although the majority of radar systems – for applications such as air traffic control, maritime navigation and military surveillance – are designed to detect and track targets at long range, there is an important class of radars that work at much shorter ranges. These are becoming more and more attractive for applications that include radar imaging from drone platforms, automotive radar (for collision avoidance and autonomous operation) and through-wall radar. This book therefore fills an important niche. Its author is well-qualified to write such a book, with a wide experience both in academic and industry research and development, as well as in amateur radio.

    The author’s background gives the book a strong practical approach, though not at the expense of rigour. It includes plenty of practical designs and examples of results, encouraging the reader to build and test the designs. It is organised in ten chapters: Chapter 1 covers the basics of radar; Chapters 2 and 3 describe Continuous Wave (CW) and Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars; Chapter 4 covers Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging; Chapters 5, 6 and 7 treat, respectively, small SAR systems, phased array radar and ultrawideband (UWB) impulse radar; Chapters 8, 9 and 10 cover different applications of short-range radars – police Doppler and motion sensors, automotive radar and through-wall radars. Authors from General Motors contributed to Chapter 9, thus ensuring that it is up-to-date and relevant.

    A supporting website provides MATLAB® simulation scripts and video demonstrations and every encouragement to contact the author to provide feedback and to ask questions.

    In summary, this is a rather unusual and attractive book that can be confidently recommended. It may be of particular value in the design of laboratory exercises for undergraduate and masters-level students, but also to those in academia and industry who research and develop radars in these new and increasingly important domains."
    — H.D. Griffiths, from The Aeronautical Journal, August 2019