Smart Growth and Sustainable Transport in Cities: 1st Edition (e-Book) book cover

Smart Growth and Sustainable Transport in Cities

1st Edition

By Amir Shakibamanesh, Mahshid Ghorbanian, Seyed Navid Mashhadi Moghadam

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218 pages | 34 B/W Illus.

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Description

This book delves into the urban planning theory of “smart growth” to encourage the creation of smart cities, where compact urban spaces are optimized to create transit-oriented, pedestrian- and bicycle-friendly areas, with a clear focus on developing a sustainable, humanistic transport system.

Over the last century, increased demographic changes and use of motor vehicles in the wake of “urbanization” led to the rapid expansion of cities, giving rise to economic, social and environmental problems. Sprawls and extension into natural areas caused a scattered urban context replete with empty spaces. This book provides an effective solution to this with an overview of the historical application of smart growth principles as a response to the issue of sprawling cityscapes, and sheds light on the theoretical information and methodologies used by cities to re-develop the urban landscape. It also encloses a checklist for practitioners and decision makers to inform the developmental process and integrate smart growth strategies into land use planning.

This book effectively engages with the global problem of urban sprawl in cities and hence will be an asset to both urban planning professionals, and graduate and postgraduate students of urban studies and the related disciplines.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: Smart Growth: From Theoretical Approaches to Practical Concepts

Abstract

An introduction to a necessity: What did Urban Sprawl do to the cities?

Compact city

Public Transit-oriented development (TOD)

Major public transit-oriented development policies

The benefits of implementing public transit-oriented development

Disadvantages of public transit-oriented development implementation

Obstacles to the implementation of public transport-oriented development

Types of public transit-oriented development

The definition of smart growth

Smart Growth or smart planning for urban growth

Smart Growth vs Urban Sprawl

Smart Growth: an opportunity for communities

Smart Growth from the perspective of transit

Smart Growth for improving the quality of life

Smart Growth: a solution for housing

Nature conservation by Smart Growth

Smart Growth: an effective step towards urban sustainability

Goals and objectives of Smart Growth

In Search of the principles of Smart Growth

The first Principle: Mixed use

The second principle: compact building design

The third principle: Creating a range of housing opportunities and choices

The fourth principle: creating walkable neighborhoods

The fifth principle: Fostering distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place

The sixth principle: Preserving open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas

Seventh principle: Strengthening and directing development towards existing communities

The eighth principle: Providing a variety of transportation choices

The ninth Principle: making development decisions predictable, fair, and cost effective

The tenth principle: encouraging community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions

Additional principle, the need of collaboration of different players

The impact of Smart Growth on urban life

Urban Economy

Urban community

Urban environment

A brief look at the benefits of Smart Growth

Conclusion

References

Notes

CHAPTER 2: Smart Growth vs Urban Sprawl

Abstract

Introduction

What is urban sprawl?

The coinage of the term sprawl in urban literature

A brief overview of urban sprawl definitions

Causes of Urban Sprawl

Aspects of urban sprawl

Urban sprawl and economy

Urban sprawl and land use patterns

Urban sprawl and density

Urban sprawl and morphological patterns

The consequences of urban sprawl

The consequences of urban sprawl based on impact location

Types of consequences of urban sprawl

Urban sprawl versus smart growth

Conclusion

References

Notes

CHAPTER 3: A review of global experiences in evaluating urban development plans and policies based on smart growth

Abstract

Introduction

North America

The Idaho experiences

The California experience

The Maryland experience

The experience of Ontario’s Greater Golden Horseshoe Smart Growth Plan

Portland Experience

San Diego Regional Comprehensive Plan

China

Beijing 2035

Shanghai 2050

India

New Delhi

Mumbai Smart Growth

Iran

Bojnourd City

Kerman

Discussion and conclusion

References

Notes

CHAPTER 4: a review of critiques of smart growth

Abstract

Introduction

Important criticisms of smart growth

Lack of attention to the residents’ preferences and, as a result, the failure in realization of smart growth policies socially and economically

Lack of concrete effects of increasing various public transport options on people's dependence on cars

The lowness of smart growth processes

Preventing the growth of urban suburbs

Making a strict layer of compliance with rules and regulations

land allotment and limitation of environmental dynamics

Restricting residential options and raising the cost of housing

Increasing legal regulations and creating social constraints

Traffic densification and mixed urban uses

Increasing urban density and social problems

Discussion and conclusion

References

CHAPTER 5: A comprehensive checklist of generalizable and achievable goals, strategies and policies for smart growth (With an emphasis on pedestrian-oriented transportation)

Abstract

Introduction

Reducing reliance on personal transportation providing a variety of transportation options

Optimal land use in line with targeted development in existing urban areas

Improvement and modification of level of service standards in the areas with public transport.

Proper connection of the local streets network to higher transportation levels

Proper connection of different types of transportation networks

Creating an area for centers of activity around transportation systems

Making pleasant and attractive walkways

Satisfying parking needs

Granting incentives to reduce traffic during busy hours

Coordinating different transportation services to take advantage of the full benefits of neighborhoods and developments supporting public transport

Making land use compatible with transportation

The use of a wide range of quality housing options for all income groups

Creating walkable communities

Appropriate mix of uses and density

Zoning based on form

Retrofit existing streets and sidewalks to create walkable neighbourhoods

Improving the comfort, convenience and safety of sidewalks

Establishing basic services near residential areas, workplaces and public transport routes

Designing pedestrian oriented commercial areas

Providing safety for pedestrians and non-motorized vehicles

Increasing pedestrians’ field of view

Reducing the length of pedestrian crossings on the streets

Easy access for the disabled and underprivileged people to sidewalks, streets, parks and other public services.

Setting appropriate design standards for improving the quality of sidewalks

Traffic calming in residential neighbourhoods

Protecting and beautifying existing and new sidewalks

The presence of attractive edges on the street

The presence of voluntary and social activities on the streets

Increasing the readability of urban routes

Visual and physical permeability

Proper utilization of existing urban signs

Understanding the economic opportunities that encourage activity on footpaths

Creating an equilibrium between development and environmental protection

Proper utilization of various uses

Preventing urban sprawl: Moving towards planning and designing a compact city

References

Notes

CONCLUSION

About the Authors

Amir Shakibamanesh is an urban designer with more than 12 years of professional experience. He currently works as an associate professor of urban design at the University of Art, Tehran, Iran. He is the author or co-author of more than 25 scholarly articles and monographs, and the author of 8 books and book chapters. His research interests include urban modelling, urban simulation, virtual reality and urban scene analysis.

Mahshid Ghorbanian is an urban designer and planner with more than 10 years of professional experience. She currently works as an assistant professor of urban design and planning at the Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran. She is the author or co-author of more than 14 scholarly articles and monographs, and the author of 8 books and book chapters. Her research interests include urban modelling, urban spatial structure and health, morphological and visual analysis of city textures, and urban transportation in the complex city network.

Seyed Navid Mashhadi Moghadam is a PhD candidate at the Faculty of Art and Architecture at Tarbiat Modares University in Iran. His research focuses on social aspects and dynamics in power distribution between citizens and governance.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI030000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geography