Edited by a leading scholar in the field, this new title in the Routledge Major Works series, Critical Concepts in Sociology, is a four-volume collection of canonical and cutting-edge research on the intellectual origins and the development of ‘socal exclusion’, a critical concept in the social sciences in general and sociology in particular.
The pervasiveness of the concept is well illustrated by the fact that it is almost impossible to access a policy document from most governments or international agencies dealing with issues of poverty, inequality, under-development, poor educational attainment, poor health, rural development, or urban regeneration, without finding ‘social exclusion’ identified as a problem and methods for including the excluded proposed as solutions. And yet the term is a protean one and has been employed in different ways by academics across a range of disciplines and fields. Moreover, it is translated into practice in different ways which reflect its complex and contested meaning. Researchers and students in all the core social science disciplines and in a range of professional programmes—including those in health, education, social work, housing, planning and training for religious ministry—must contend with the concept, the reality it seeks to describe, and the ways in which the term has influenced both the development and implementation of public policy in the widest sense of that term.
This four-volume collection draws together key texts relevant to this important topic. Volume One reviews the nature and history of the term ‘social exclusion’ and examines ways in which the idea has been used in social research. Volume Two covers income distribution; the nature of class in post-industrial societies and the related dimensions of inequality in relation to gender, ethnicity and age; social exclusion in the changing city; and the general political context of post-democracy with special reference to partnership and participation. Volume Three explores the use of the term ‘social exclusion’ and programmes of social inclusion in specific policy areas including taxation and cash benefits, urban regeneration, health, education, housing, and transport. The final volume in the collection gathers together material to examine programmes specifically directed towards countering social exclusion, with particular reference to community development, and ‘joined-up’ government policy. It also considers radical alternatives to those policies.
Fully indexed and with a comprehensive introduction newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, Social Exclusion will is an essential reference work, destined to be valued by scholars and students as a vital research resource. It will also be of especial interest to policy-makers and practitioners engaged with ‘social exclusion’ as a social problem.
Table of Contents
Volume I: Social Exclusion: The History and Use of a Concept
Part 1: The Pre-History of the Concept
1.1 The Idea of the Residuum in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
1. T. R. Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population (London, 1798), bk. I, ch. I, bk. IV, ch. III.
2. John MacNicol ‘In Pursuit of the Underclass’, Journal of Social Policy, 16, 3, 1987, 293–318.
3. T. H. Marshall, ‘Citizenship and Social Class’, Sociology at the Crossroads (Heinemann, 1963), pp. 73–86.
4. Maurice Roche, ‘Social Citizenship and Dominant Paradigm: The British Case’, Rethinking Citizenship (Polity, 1992), pp. 11–38.
1.3 ‘Culture of Poverty’
5. Oscar Lewis, ‘The Culture of Poverty’, La Vida (Secker and Warburg, 1967), pp. xxxix–xlviii.
6. D. L. Harvey and M. H. Reed, ‘The Culture of Poverty: An Ideological Analysis’, Sociological Perspectives, 39, 1996, 465–95.
1.4 Absolute and Relative Poverty
7. Peter Townsend, ‘Concepts of Poverty and Deprivation’, Poverty in the United Kingdom: A Survey of Household Resources and Standards of Living (Allen Lane, 1979), pp. 31–60.
8. M.G. de la Rocha, E. Jelin, J. Perlman et al., ‘From the Marginality of the 1960s to the ‘New Poverty’ of Today: A LARR Research Forum’, Latin American Research Review, 39, 1, 2004, 183–203.
1.6 The Re-emergence of the Idea of an Underclass
9. W. J. Wilson, ‘The American Belief System Concerning Welfare’, When Work Disappears (Vintage Books, 1996), pp. 149–82.
Part 2: The Development of the idea of Social Exclusion
2.1 Ideas of Social Solidarity in European Socialism and Christian Democracy
10. P. Baldwin, ‘Welfare, Redistribution and Solidarity’, The Politics of Social Solidarity (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 1–36.
2.2 The Emergence of the Concept and its Different Meanings
11. H. Silver, ‘Social Exclusion and Social Solidarity: Three Paradigms’, International Labour Review, 133, 1994, 531–78.
12. R. Levitas, ‘The Concept of Social Exclusion and the New Durkheimian Hegemony’, Critical Social Policy, 16, 1, 1996, 5–20.
2.3 Political Definitions of Social Exclusion
13. Social Exclusion Unit, ‘Bringing Britain Together: A National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal’ (HMSO, London, Sept. 1998).
14. Social Exclusion Unit, ‘Social Exclusion and Why it Matters’, Preventing Social Exclusion (HMSO, 2001), ch. 1.
15. Rob Atkinson and Simin da Voudi, ‘The Concept of Social Exclusion in the European Union: Context, Development and Possibilities’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 38, 3, 2000, 427–48.
Part 3: Social Exclusion as an Academic Issue
3.1 Operationalizing Social Exclusion: Measuring Through Quantitative Research
16. T. Burchardt et al., ‘Degrees of Exclusion: Developing a Dynamic Multi-Dimensional Measure’, in J. Hills et al. (eds.), Understanding Social Exclusion (Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 51–65.
3.2 The Language of Social Exclusion
17. N. Fairclough, ‘The Third Way: The Political Discourse of New Labour’, New Labour, New Language? (London: Routledge, 2000), pp. 30–43.
3.3 Social Exclusion in Qualitative Research
18. Michael Rustin, ‘A Tale Class of Differences in Contemporary Britain’, in P. Chamberlayne et al. (eds.), Biography and Social Exclusion in Europe: Experiences and Life Journeys (Policy Press, 2000), pp. 77–96.
3.4 Dynamism as a Theme: Trajectories Through Life
19. L. Leisering and R. Walker, The Dynamics of Modern Society (Policy Press, 1998), pp. 3–16.
Volume II: Incomes, Politics, the City, and Work: The Broad Context of Contemporary Social Exclusion
Part 4: Social Exclusion and Income Distribution: A Review of the Evidence
4.1 Changes in Income Distribution in High-Income Countries: The Post-Industrial Increase in Inequality
20. J. H. Westergaard, Who Gets What? The Hardening of Class Inequality in the Late Twentieth Century (Polity Press, 1995), pp. 65–77, 123–36.
21. Michael Förster and Marco Mira d’Ercole, Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries in the Second Half of the 1990s (OECD, 2005), pp. 8–37.
4.2 Changes in Income Distribution in Post-Soviet Societies
22. L. Podkaminer, ‘A Note on the Evolution of Inequality in Poland, 1992–99’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 27, 5, 2003, pp. 755–68.
4.3 Changes in Income Distribution in the Large Southern Democracies
23. Ricardo N. Bebczuk and Leonardo C. Gasparini, Globalisation and Inequality: The Case of Argentina (OECD, 2000), pp. 17–21, 34–7.
24. R. Nagaraj, ‘Indian Economy Since 1980: Virtuous Growth or Polarisation?’, Economic and Political Weekly, 35, 32, 2000, 2831–7.
25. Thomas E. Skidmore, ‘Brazil’s Persistent Income Inequality: Lessons from History’, Latin American Politics and Society, 46, 2, 2004, 133–50.
Part 5: The Politics of Post-Democracy: Exclusion from Power
5.1 Post-Democracy Defined
26. C. Crouch, ‘Why Post-Democracy?’, Post-democracy (Fabian Society, 2000), pp. 1–21.
27. J. I. Nelson, Post-Industrial Capitalism (Sage, 1995), pp. 1–32.
5.2 Class in Post-Industrial Capitalism
28. G. Therborn, Why Some Peoples are More Unemployed than Others (Verso, 1985) pp. 14–36.
29. K. Eder, ‘Class and Social Movements’, The New Politics of Class (Sage, 1993), pp. 1–15.
30. Alison Stenning, ‘Where is the Post-Socialist Working Class? Working-Class Lives in the Spaces of (Post-)Socialism’, Sociology, 39, 5, 2005, 983–99.
5.3 The Politics of Identity or the Politics of Inequality
31. Nancy Fraser, ‘Rethinking Recognition’, New Left Review, 3, 2000, 107–20.
32. Martha E. Gimenez , ‘With a Little Class: A Critique of Identity Politics’, Ethnicities, 6, 3, 2006, 423–39.
5.4 Gender and Social Exclusion: The Particular Situation of the Female Single Parent and the Politics of Child-Rearing
33. Janet E. Kodras. and John Paul Jones III, ‘A Contextual Examination of the Feminization of Poverty’, Geoforum, 22, 2, 1991, 159–71.
34. Henryk Domanski, ‘Is the East European "Underclass" Feminized?’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 35, 2002, 383–94.
35. Marylin Carr and Martha Chen, ‘Globalization, Social Exclusion and Gender’, International Labour Review, 143, 1–2, 2004, 129–61.
5.5 Social Movements and the Excluded
36. J. Craig Jenkins and Michael Wallace, ‘The Generalized Action Potential of Protest Movements: The New Class, Social Trends, and Political Exclusion Explanations’, Sociological Forum, 11, 2, 1996, 183–207.
Volume III: The Role of Public Policy: Inclusion or Exclusion?
Part 6: Redistribution of Income
37. Andrew Leicester, ‘Thinking About Inequality’, Economic Review, 21, 2, 2003, 1–4.
6.1 Two Nations: The Inheritance of Poverty and Affluence
38. Anthony B. Atkinson, Increased Income Inequality in OECD Countries and the Redistributive Impact of the Government Budget (Oxford Scholarship Online Monographs, 2004), pp. 221–49.
39. Charles Simkins, What Happened to the Distribution of Income in South Africa Between 1995 and 2001? (University of the Witwatersrand, 2004), pp. 1–15.
6.2 Urban Regeneration
40. L. Bremner, ‘Reinventing the Johannesburg Inner City’, Cities, 17, 3, 2000, 185–93.
41. Erik Swyngedouw, Frank Moulaert, and Arantxa Rodriguez, ‘Neoliberal Urbanization in Europe: Large-Scale Urban Development Projects and the New Urban Policy’, Antipode, 34, 3, 2002, 542–77.
42. Marcelo Lopes de Souza, ‘Urban Planning in an Age of Fear: The Case of Rio de Janeiro’, International Development Planning Review, 27, 1, 2005, 1–19.
6.3 Social Exclusion and Health
43. Martin Powell and Graham Moon, ‘Health Action Zones: The "Third Way" of a New Area-Based Policy?’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 9, 1, 2001, 43–50.
44. Ronald Labonte, ‘Social Inclusion/Exclusion: Dancing the Dialectic’, Health Promotion International, 19, 1, 2004, 115–21.
Part 7: Education
7.1 Education and Social Mobility: Is Mobility Increasing or Decreasing? The Role of Schooling and Qualifications
45. Geoff Whitty, ‘Education, Social Class and Social Exclusion’, Journal of Education Policy, 16, 4, 2001, 287–95.
46. Anthony Lemon, ‘Shifting Geographies of Social Inclusion and Exclusion: Secondary Education in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa’, African Affairs, 104, 414, 2005, 69–96.
47. Nafsika Alexiadou, ‘Social Inclusion and Social Exclusion in England: Tensions in Education Policy’, Journal of Education Policy, 17, 1, 2002, 71–86.
7.2 Catching Them Young: Headstart, Educational Priority Areas and Plowden, and Sure Start
48. D. C. Morton and D. R. Watson, ‘Compensatory Education and Contemporary Liberalism in the United States: A Sociological View’, International Review of Education, 17, 3, 1971, 289–308.
49. Central Advisory Council for Education (England), ‘Education Priority Areas’, Children and Their Primary Schools (‘The Plowden Report’) (HMSO, 1967), pp. 50–68.
7.3 Private and Public and Where You Live: The Relationships Among Educational Inequality, Income Inequality, and Spatial Inequality
50. Jacqui Croft, ‘Positive Choice, No Choice or Total Rejection: The Perennial Problem of School Catchments, Housing and Neighbourhoods’, Housing Studies, 19, 6, 2004, 927–45.
51. Molly Warrington, ‘Mirage in the Desert? Access to Educational Opportunities in an Area of Social Exclusion’, Antipode, 37, 4, 2005, 796–816.
7.4 School Exclusion and School Failure: Policy Material on Children Excluded From Schools and Those Who Between 16 and 25 are Not in Education, Employment, or Training
52. John Bynner and Samantha Parsons, ‘Social Exclusion and the Transition from School to Work: The Case of Young People Not in Education, Employment, or Training (NEET)’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 2, 2002, 289–309.
53. Ross Fergusson, ‘Discourses of Exclusion: Reconceptualising Participation Amongst Young People’, Journal of Social Policy, 33, 2, 2004, 289–320.
Part 8: Housing
54. Chan Kam Wah, ‘Excluding the Disadvantaged: Housing Inequalities in Hong Kong’, Third World Planning Reviews, 23, 1, 2001, 79–96.
55. Alex Marsh and David Mullins, ‘The Social Exclusion Perspective and Housing Studies: Origins, Applications and Limitations’, Housing Studies, 13, 6, 749–59.
Part 9: Transport
56. Noel Cass, Elizabeth Shove, and John Urry, ‘Social Exclusion, Mobility and Access’, Sociological Review, 3, 3, 2005, 539–55.
Part 10: Culture and Social Exclusion
57. Jonathan Long and Peter Bramham, ‘Joining Up Policy Discourses and Fragmented Practices: The Precarious Contribution of Cultural Projects to Social Inclusion?’, Policy and Politics, 34, 1, 2006, 133–51.
Volume IV: Including the excluded: Policies from the mainstream and the radical alternatives
Part 11: Community Development
11.1 The Early Examples
58. P. Marris and M. Rein, ‘The Origins of Community Action’, Dilemmas of Social Reform, 2nd edn. (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972), pp. 7–32.
59. Community Development Projects (CDP), ‘Introduction’, Gilding the Ghetto (Benwell CDP, 1978), pp. 1–18.
11.2 Urban Programmes in the UK and US—The 1970s and 1980s—Comprehensive Community Programmes, UDCs—The Community Dimension, Single Regeneration Budgets
60. Kimberley Johnson, ‘Community Development Corporations, Participation, and Accountability: The Harlem Urban Development Corporation and the Bedford-Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 594, 2004, 109–24.
11.3 Social Capital: Putnam and the Subsequent Debate
61. R. D. Putnam, ‘Thinking about Social Change in America’, Bowling Alone (Simon and Schuster, 2000), pp. 15–28.
62. Frances Cleaver, ‘The Inequality of Social Capital and the Reproduction of Chronic Poverty’, World Development, 33, 6, 2005, 893–906.
63. Karen Hibbitt, Peris Jones, and Richard Meegan, ‘Tackling Social Exclusion: The Role of Social Capital in Urban Regeneration on Merseyside—From Mistrust to Trust?’, European Planning Studies, 9, 2, 2001, 141–61.
11.4 Community Programmes as Part of State Interventions
64. Social Exclusion Unit, ‘A New Commitment to Neighbourhood Renewal: National Strategy Action Plan’ (London, 2001).
65. Paul Lawless, ‘Area-Based Urban Interventions: Rationale and Outcomes—The New Deal for Communities Programme in England’, Urban Studies, 43, 11, 2006, 1991–2011.
Part 12: Social Inclusion as a European Union Issue
66. Combat Poverty Agency Ireland, ‘Social Inclusion as a European Issue’, Better Policies, Better Outcomes: Promoting the Mainstreaming of Social Inclusion (2006), pp. 85–111.
67. Irena Wóycicka, The Fight Against Poverty and Social Exclusion: Non Governmental Expert— 2004 Poland First Report (The Gdansk Institute for Market Economics), pp. 1–27.
Part 13: Capacity Building – UK and South African Policy Examples
68. John James Williams, ‘Urban transformation’, Cities, 17, 3, 2000, 167–83.
69. Nazir Carrim, ‘Race and Inclusion in South African Education’, IDS Bulletin, 34, 1, 2003, 20–9.
Part 14: The Radical Alternatives
14.1 The Idea of Empowerment
70. P. Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Penguin, 1972), pp. 3–28.
71. P. Freire, Pedagogy of Hope (Continuum, 1999), pp. 3–33.
72. Michael Matthews, ‘Knowledge, Action and Power’, in R. Mackie (ed.), Literacy and Revolution: The Pedagogy of Paulo Freire (Pluto, 1980).
14.2 The Radical Past
73. Hilary Rose, Up Against the Welfare State: The Claimant Unions (socialistregister.com), pp.1–25.
74. Massimo De Angelis, ‘An Interview with Harry Cleaver’ (1993) (www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/3843/cleaver).
14.3 Radical Religion
75. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Liberation Theology (1984) (www.christendom-awake.org), pp. 1–9.
76. Tom Cornell, A Brief Introduction to the Catholic Worker Movement (www.catholicworker.org), pp. 1–3.
14.4 Social Forums: The Twenty-First Century Alternative
77. Donatella della Porta, ‘Making the Polis: Social Forums and Democracy in the Global Justice Movement’, Mobilization, 10, 1, 2005, 73–94.
78. Patrick Bond, ‘Gramsci, Polanyi and Impressions from Africa on the Social Forum Phenomenon’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29, 2, 2005, 433–41.
Part 15: Radical Programmes in Practice
15.1 Montreal: A City Governed by Social Movements
79. Henri Lustiger-Thaler and Eric Shragge, ‘The New Urban Left: Parties Without Actors’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 22, 2, 1998, 233–45.
15.2 Puerto Alegro: Participatory Budgeting—Devolving Power to the People
80. Andreas Novy and Bernhard Leubolt, ‘Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre: Social Innovation and the Dialectical Relationship of State and Civil Society’, Urban Studies, 42, 11, 2005, 2023–36.
15.3 Radical Regionalism in Europe
81. D. McNeill, ‘Progressive Futures?’, Urban Change and the European Left: Tales from the New Barcelona (Routledge, 1999), pp. 168–78.
15.4 The Limits to Radical Localism
82. Giles Mohan and Kristian Stokke, ‘Participatory Development and Empowerment: The Dangers of Localism’, Third World Quarterly, 21, 2. 2000, 247–68.
83. Ash Amin, ‘Local Community on Trial’, Economy and Society, 34, 4, 2005, 612–33.
84. Peris S. Jones, ‘Urban Regeneration’s Poisoned Chalice: Is There an Impasse in (Community) Participation-Based Policy?’, Urban Studies, 40, 3, 2003, 581–601.