Social Movements : Critical Concepts in Sociology book cover
1st Edition

Social Movements
Critical Concepts in Sociology

ISBN 9780415378079
Published May 14, 2007 by Routledge
2256 Pages

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Book Description

A social movement is a collective, organized, sustained and non-institutional challenge to authorities, power holders, or cultural beliefs and practices. In the modern world, social movements are one of the main ways that people try to control their lives and articulate their moral positions. From utopian and revolutionary efforts to start society anew to reactionary attempts to resist new technologies or trends, normal people often become embroiled in titanic struggles over the world’s future. These four volumes present major statements of how scholars have understood these movements over the past century. They are essential reading for anyone interested in social change, politics and real people in action.

Each volume examines a different set of dimensions behind the complex phenomenon of social movements. Volume one offers readings on the psychological dimensions of collective action, volume two on the resources and formal organizations that make most social movements possible. Volume three addresses the strategies, choices and creativity that make many movements such exciting efforts. Finally, volume four contains key readings on the meanings and feelings that propel or constrain participants.

Table of Contents


Introduction by Jeff Goodwin and James M. Jasper

I. Classics

1. Gustave Le Bon, 'The Mind of Crowds', The Crowd, A Study of the Popular Mind (Viking Press, 1960), pp. 23–42

2. Herbert G. Blumer, ‘The Field of Collective Behavior’, in R. Park (ed.), An Outline of the Principles of Sociology (Barnes and Noble, 1936), pp. 221–32

3. William Kornhauser, The Politics of Mass Society (Free Press, 1959), pp. 76–84, 125–8, 212–22

4. Neil J. Smelser, ‘Social and Psychological Dimensions of Collective Behavior’, in Essays in Sociological Explanation (Prentice-Hall, 1968), pp. 92–121

II. Relative Deprivation, Social Breakdown, and Emergent Norms

5. James C. Davies, ‘Toward a Theory of Revolution’, American Sociological Review, 27, 1, 1962, pp. 5–19

6. Ralph H. Turner and Lewis M. Killian, 'Toward a Theory of Social Movements', Collective Behavior, 3rd edn. (Prentice-Hall, 1987), pp. 241–8

7. Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward, ‘The Structuring of Protest’, in Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail (Vintage Books, 1977), pp. 1–40

8. Steve Valocchi, ‘The Unemployed Workers Movement of the 1930s: A Reexamination of the Piven and Cloward Thesis’, Social Problems, 37, 2, 1990, pp. 191–205

9. Bert Useem, ‘Solidarity Model, Breakdown Model, and the Boston Anti-Busing Movement’, American Sociological Review, 45, 3, 1980, pp. 357–69

10. Joan M. Gurney and Kathleen J. Tierney, ‘Relative Deprivation and Social Movements’, Sociological Quarterly, 23, 1982, pp. 33–47

11. Seymour Spilerman, ‘The Causes of Racial Disturbances: A Comparison of Alternative Explanations’, American Sociological Review, 35, 4, 1970, pp. 627–49

12. B. E. Aguirre, Dennis Wenger, and Gabriela Vigo, ‘A Test of the Emergent Norm Theory of Collective Behavior’, Sociological Forum, 13, 2, 1998, pp. 301–20

III. Rethinking Crowds and Collective Behaviour

13. Richard A. Berk and Howard E. Aldrich, ‘Patterns of Vandalism during Civil Disorders as an Indicator of Selection of Targets’, American Sociological Review, 37, 5, 1972, pp. 533–47

14. Clark McPhail and Ronald T. Wohlstein, ‘Collective Locomotion as Collective Behavior’, American Sociological Review, 51, 4, 1986, pp. 447–63

15. Pamela Oliver, ‘Bringing the Crowd Back In: The Nonorganizational Elements of Social Movements’, in L. Kriesberg (ed.), Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, vol. 11 (Jai Press, Inc., 1989), pp. 1–30

16. Joseph R. Gusfield, ‘The Reflexivity of Social Movements: Collective Behavior and Mass Society Theory Revisited’, in E. Laraña, H. Johnston, and J. Gusfield (eds.), New Social Movements (Temple University Press, 1994), pp. 58–78


Introduction by Jeff Goodwin and James M. Jasper

I. Resource Mobilization

17. Michael Lipsky, ‘Protest as a Political Resource’, American Political Science Review, 62, 4, 1968, pp. 1144–58

18. John D. McCarthy and Mayer N. Zald, ‘Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory’, American Journal of Sociology, 82, 6, 1977, pp. 1212–41

19. Mancur Olson, ‘Group Size and Group Behavior’, in The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Harvard University Press, 1977), pp. 53–65

II. Organizational Forms

20. Mayer N. Zald and Roberta Ash, ‘Social Movement Organizations: Growth, Decay and Change’, Social Forces, 44, 3, 1966, pp. 327–41

21. Aldon D. Morris, ‘Black Southern Sit-In Movement: An Analysis of Internal Organization’, American Sociological Review, 46, 6, 1981, pp. 744–67

22. Elizabeth Clemens, ‘Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women’s Groups and the Transformation of U.S. Politics, 1890–1920’, American Journal of Sociology, 98, 4, 1993, pp. 755–98

23. Debra C. Minkoff, ‘Bending with the Wind: Strategic Change and Adaptation by Women’s and Racial Minority Organizations’, American Journal of Sociology, 104, 6, 1999, pp. 1666–703

24. Orlando Fals Borda, ‘Social Movements and Political Power in Latin America’, in A. Escobar and S. Alvarez (eds.), The Making of Social Movements in Latin America (Westview Press, 1992), pp. 303–16

III. Networks and Recruitment

25. David Snow, Louis A. Zurcher, Jr., and Sheldon Ekland-Olson, ‘Social Networks and Social Movements: A Microstructural Approach to Differential Recruitment’, American Sociological Review, 45, 5, 1980, pp. 787–801

26. Roger V. Gould, ‘Multiple Networks and Moblization in the Paris Commune, 1871’, American Sociological Review, 56, 6, 1991, pp. 716–29

27. Bert Klandermans and Dirk Oegema, ‘Potentials, Networks, Motivations, and Barriers: Steps Towards Participation in Social Movements’, American Sociological Review, 52, 4, 1987, pp. 519–31

28. Verta Taylor, ‘Social Movement Continuity: The Women Movement in Abeyance’, American Sociological Review, 54, 5, 1989, pp. 761–75

29. James M. Jasper and Jane D. Poulsen, ‘Recruiting Strangers and Friends: Moral Shocks and Social Networks in Animal Rights and Anti-Nuclear Protest’, Social Problems, 42, 4, 1995, pp. 493–512

IV. International Networks and Mobilization

30. Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, ‘Historical Precursors to Modern Transnational Social Movements and Networks’, in J. Guidry, M. Kennedy, and M. Zald (eds.), Globalization and Social Movements: Culture, Power, and the Transnational Public Sphere (University of Michigan Press, 2000), pp. 35–53

31. Paul Wapner, ‘Politics Beyond the State: Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics’, World Politics, 47, 3, 1995, pp. 311–40

32. Jackie Smith, ‘Globalizing Resistance: The Battle of Seattle and the Future of Social Movements’, Mobilization, 6, 1, 2001, pp. 1–19

33. Clifford Bob, ‘Political Process Theory and Transnational Movements: Dialectics of Protest among Nigeria’s Ogoni Minority’, Social Problems, 49, 3, 2002, pp. 395–415

34. Diane Singerman, ‘The Networked World of Islamist Social Movements’, in Q. Wiktorowicz (ed.), Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach (University of Indiana Press, 2004), pp. 143–63


Introduction by Jeff Goodwin and James M. Jasper

I. Structural Opportunities

35. David Snyder and Charles Tilly, ‘Hardship and Collective Violence in France, 1830 to 1960’, American Sociological Review, 37, 5, 1972, pp. 520–32

36. J. Craig Jenkins and Charles Perrow, ‘Insurgency of the Powerless: Farm Worker Movements (1946–1972)’, American Sociological Review, 42, 2, 1977, pp. 249–68

37. Herbert Kitschelt, ‘Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies’, British Journal of Political Science, 16, 1, 1986, pp. 57–85

38. Hanspeter Kriesi, Ruud Koopmans, Jan Willem Duyvendak, and Marco G. Giugni, ‘New Social Movements and Political Opportunities in Western Europe’, European Journal of Political Research, 22, 1992, pp. 219–44

39. Charles Kurzman, ‘Structural and Perceived Opportunity in Social Movement Theory: The Iranian Revolution of 1979’, American Sociological Review, 61, 1, 1996, pp. 153–70

II. Political Processes

40. Anthony Oberschall, 'Confrontation', Social Conflict and Social Movements (Prentice-Hill, Inc., 1973), pp. 284–95

41. Jeff Goodwin and Theda Skocpol, ‘Explaining Revolutions in the Contemporary Third World’, Politics & Society, 17, 4, 1989, pp. 489–509

42. Edwin Amenta and Michael Young, ‘Democratic States and Social Movements: Theoretical Arguments and Hypotheses’, Social Problems, 46, 2, 1999, pp. 153–68

43. James Ron, ‘Savage Restraint: Israel, Palestine, and the Dialectics of Legal Repression’, Social Problems, 47, 4, 2000, pp. 445–72

44. Mayer N. Zald and Michael A. Berger, ‘Social Movements in Organizations: Coup d’ Etat, Insurgency, and Mass’, American Journal of Sociology, 83, 4, 1978, pp. 823–61

III. Leaders, Decisions, Strategy

45. Mark Irving Lichbach, ‘The Problem Defined’, and ‘The Approached Adopted’, in The Rebel’s Dilemma (University of Michigan Press, 1995), pp. 3–32

46. Steve Reicher, John Drury, Nick Hopkins, and Clifford Stott, ‘A Model of Crowd Prototypes and Crowd Leadership’, in C. Barker, A. Johnson, and M. Lavalette (eds.), Leadership and Social Movements (Manchester University Press, 2001), pp. 179–95

47. Philip Smith, ‘Culture and Charisma: Outline of a Theory’, Acta Sociologica, 43, 2, 2000, pp. 101–11

48. Gay Seidman, ‘Guerrillas in their Midst: Armed Struggle in the South African Anti-Apartheid Movement’, Mobilization, 6, 2, 2001, pp. 111–27

49. Robert Pape, ‘The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism’, American Political Science Review, 97, 3, 2003, pp. 343–61

50. James M. Jasper, ‘A Strategic Approach to Collective Action: Looking for Agency in Social Movement Choices’, Mobilization, 9, 1, 2004, pp. 1–16

IV. Creativity and Outcomes

51. Marco Giugni, ‘Was It Worth the Effort? The Outcomes and Consequences of Social Movements’, Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 1998, pp. 371–93

52. Edwin Amenta and Michael P. Young, ‘Making an Impact: Conceptual and Methodological Implications of the Collective Goods Criteria’, in M. Giugni, D. McAdam, and C. Tilly (eds.), How Social Movements Matter (University of Minnesota Press, 1999), pp. 22–41

53. Hayagreeva Rao, Calvin Morrill, and Mayer N. Zald, ‘Power Plays: How Social Movements and Collective Action Create New Organizational Forms’, in B. Staw and R. Sutton (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol 22 (Jai Press, 2000), pp. 237–81

54. Mario Diani, ‘Social Movements and Social Capital: A Network Perspective on Movement Outcomes’, Mobilization, 2, 2, 1997, pp. 129–47


Introduction by Jeff Goodwin and James M. Jasper

I. Programmed Societies

55. Alain Touraine, ‘An Introduction to the Study of Social Movements’, Social Research, 52, 4, 1985, pp. 749–87

56. Alberto Melucci, ‘The New Social Movements: A Theoretical Approach’, Social Science Information, 19, 2, 1980, pp. 199–226

57. Craig Calhoun, ‘"New Social Movements" of the Early 19th Century’, in M. Trauggot (ed.), Repertoires and Cycles of Collective Action (Duke University Press, 1993), pp. 173–215

II. Grievances, Values, Meaning

58. Ronald Inglehart, ‘Values, Ideology and Cognitive Mobilization’, in R. Dalton and M. Kuechler (eds.), Challenging the Political Order (Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 44–66

59. Myra Marx Ferree and Frederick D. Miller, ‘Mobilization and Meaning: Toward an Integration of Social Psychological and Resource Perspectives on Social Movements’, Sociological Inquiry, 55, 1, 1985, pp. 36–61

60. William A. Gamson, ‘The Social Psychology of Collective Action’, in A. Morris and C. Mueller (eds.), Frontiers in Social Movement Theory (Yale University Press, 1992), pp. 53–76

III. Framing

61. David A. Snow, E. Burke Rochford, Jr., Steven K. Worden, and Robert D. Benford, ‘Frame Alignment Processes, Micromoblization, and Movement Participation’, American Sociological Review, 51, 4, 1986, pp. 464–81

62. Rhys Williams, ‘Constructing the Public Good: Social Movements and Cultural Resources’, Social Problems, 42, 1, 1995, pp. 124–44

63. Robert D. Benford, ‘An Insider’s Critique of the Social Movement Framing Perspective’, Sociological Inquiry, 67, 4, 1997, pp. 409–30

IV. Forms of Talk

64. Michael Billig, ‘Rhetorical Psychology, Ideological Thinking, and Imagining Nationhood’, in H. Johnston and B. Klandermans (eds.), Social Movements and Culture (University of Minnesota Press, 1995), pp. 64–81

65. Marc Steinberg, ‘The Talk and Back Talk of Collective Action: A Dialogic Analysis of Repertoires of Discourse among Nineteenth-Century English Cotton Spinners’, American Journal of Sociology, 105, 3, 1999, pp. 736–80

66. Francesca Polletta, ‘"It Was Like a Fever": Narrative and Identity in Social Protest’, Social Problems, 45, 2, 1998, pp. 137–59

V. Collective Solidarities

67. Eric Hirsch, 'Sacrifice for the Cause: Group Processes, Recruitment and Commitment in a Student Social Movement', American Sociological Review, 55, 2, 1990, pp. 243–55

68. Verta Taylor and Nancy E. Whittier, ‘Collective Identity in Social Movement Communities: Lesbian Feminist Mobilization’ in A. Morris and C. Mueller (eds.), Frontiers in Social Movement Theory (Yale University Press, 1992), pp. 104–29

69. Jeff Goodwin, ‘The Libidinal Constitution of a High-Risk Social Movement: Affectual Ties and Solidarity in the Huk Rebellion, 1946 to 1954’, American Sociological Review, 62, 1, 1997, pp. 53–69

70. Joshua Gamson, ‘Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma’, Social Problems, 42, 3, 1995, pp. 390–407

VI. Emotions in Action

71. Jeff Goodwin, James M. Jasper, and Francesca Polletta, ‘Return of the Repressed: The Fall and Rise of Emotions in Social Movement Theory’, Mobilization, 5, 1, 2000, pp. 65–82

72. Thomas Scheff, ‘Hitler’s Appeal to the Germans’, in Bloody Revenge: Emotions, Nationalism, and War (Westview, 1994), pp. 105–24

73. Verta Taylor, ‘Watching for Vibes: Bringing Emotions into the Study of Feminist Organizations’, in M. Ferree and P. Martin (eds.), Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement (Temple University Press, 1995), pp. 223–33

74. James M. Jasper, ‘The Emotions of Protest: Affective and Reactive Emotions in and around Social Movements’, Sociological Forum 13, 3, 1998, pp. 397–424

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Jeff Goodwin is Professor of Sociology at New York University. He is author of several books and numerous journal articles on social movements. Jeff Goodwin is author of the award-winning No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements, 1945-1991. He is co-editor of Passionate Politics: Emotions and Social Movements.

James M. Jasper is an independent scholar living in New York City. With degrees in economics from Harvard and in sociology from the University of California at Berkeley, he has taught at Berkeley, Columbia, Princeton, and New York University. His works include Nuclear Politics, The Animal Rights Crusade (coauthored with Dorothy Nelkin), The Art of Moral Protest, Restless Nation, and Getting your Way, a social theory of strategic action. With his long-time collaborator Jeff Goodwin, he is coeditor of Contexts Magazine.

The editors previously co-edited The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, and Rethinking Social Movements: Structure, Meaning, and Emotion.