The current discourse on mine closure is informed predominantly by industry and corporate perspectives and predicated by experiences of mainly mining companies that are based in developed countries where necessary planning frameworks and regulatory requirements are well-established. Mine closure planning, well promoted and accepted as good business practice in the global minerals industry, has been primarily technical and precautionary both in approach and focus. Planning, modelling and monitoring strategies incorporate comprehensive and detailed elements such as properties inherent in landforms, climate, geology, flora and fauna, among others. However, locality-based concerns that revolve around resource access and tenure, rights and entitlements tied to locality and indigeneity, labour recruitment, and other non-bio-physical elements are hardly examined. Any mine closure program that omits these elements is deficient and therefore ineffective.
Social Terrains of Mine Closure in the Philippines, based on ethnographic research and archival materials, presents the varying experiences of three mines to demonstrate that the mine closure process is an intense locus for competition and compromises among various social actors.
This book offers key messages for understanding the complex socio-cultural, economic, political, and business realities that make up the social terrains of mine closure, and will be of great interest to students and researchers in development studies, community development, business studies, anthropology, and sociology. It will also appeal to those working in the global minerals sectors and NGOs that engage in development work and advocacy for responsible mining.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 - Mine Closure: Anticipating the End Before the Beginning
Chapter 2 - The Socio - Political Landscape of Mining in the Philippines
Chapter 3 - Pre-Closure Challenges at the Padcal Mine
Chapter4 - Company Relations with Communities Around the Padcal Mine
Chapter 5 - Antamok: Launchpad of Industrial Mining in the Philippines
Chapter 6 - Change and Continuity in Acupan-Balatoc
Chapter 7 - Drawing Lessons from Itogon and Tuba for Mine Closure Challenges
Minerva Chaloping-March, who grew up in a mining district in northern Philippines, combines consulting and research on social dimensions of mining, cultural criteria for mine closure, and transitions of mining communities. She is currently an Honorary Research Fellow at the Philippines - Australia Studies Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
Featured Author Profiles
"A timely book that sets out the human dimension for successful mine closure. The author brings a unique perspective – daughter of a miner and indigenous background, alongside her professional corporate, public and private sector experience. These different aspects provide the basis for an informed analysis with concrete examples and lessons learned. This is a book for mine managers and government officials, not just community specialists." — Carolyn McCommon, Specialist in community engagement, resettlement, consultation, and social performance in the oil, gas and mining sectors (Retired Global Community Advisor, Rio Tinto; consultant to USAID, IFC, UNDP and the World Bank)
"A wonderful book. Avoiding the sterility of theoretical abstraction and universalist environmental presumption, it looks closely at the human issues of mine closure in very real, dramatic circumstances through the eyes of an author uniquely qualified to see the local and indigenous texture." — Bruce Harvey, Director, Resolution88 (Social License Solutions) and Adjunct Professor, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, Australia
"Mining companies enter a social terrain with inordinate amounts of political power, state-support and capital, leading to a complete reworking of not only the environment, but also the social fabric. Yet, the mines have limited lifespan, and once the mineral resources are exhausted, the operations must close. What happens to the local community then? Until today, mine closure, and its impacts on not only the economic life of the region but the cultural and spiritual practices of everyday life, are poorly known. Social Terrains of Mine Closure in the Philippines makes an important contribution to one of the little debated areas in the growing literature on mining-community relationship by showing not only the widespread disruptions that occur, but also by indicating ways how these disruptions could possibly be addressed. The case studies the author presents will be highly valued for future researchers and practitioners in the field." — Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt, Senior Fellow, Resource Environment & Development Program, Crawford School of Public Policy, ANU College of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University
"This pioneering book gives authoritative and heart-felt insights into the conflicts between the exploitation of natural resources in developing countries and issues faced by indigenous communities, their future social well-being and post-mining landscapes which now underwrite mine closure policy, planning and management for both existing and potential or new mining ventures. Based on historic and ongoing case studies in the Philippines, Dr Chaloping-March offers to the metalliferous mining industry at large the much-needed understanding and sensitivity towards the interlacing concerns about mining and mine closure in developing countries." —Alan Baker, Professor and Expert in Ecological Restoration (phytoremediation, revegetation, metallophytes), Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, Australia
"An original erudite ethnographic work offering an intuitive lens into composite factors including legislation, local politics, and community claims for entitlements. A distinctively local and indigenous viewpoint on intricate human-environment and governance issues surrounding mining. A must read for minerals industry professionals, and others engaged in resource development and environmental management including academics, NGOs and policy makers." — Velma I Grover, Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Canada
"Social Terrains of Mine Closure in the Philippines is filled with nostalgia for the unique life in mining communities, presenting the intermeshing relationships of mainly mine workers and their families, the mining corporations, Government agencies, and community groups. The language is accessible to non-academics who also are part of the many actors who all must work together after mining operations to achieve results and reciprocal benefits." — Annabelle C. Ramos, a miner’s daughter and environmental advocate, Lepanto High School Alumni Association (Philippines)
"Clearly a product of thorough study and careful observation, this book presents the realities of the effects of mine closure on host communities. It is about time that mining companies end paternalism in the communities where they operate. The book is extremely valuable for expatriates (and the staff they trained) who have the attitude that any environmental standard or 'best practice' outside their home countries is 'inferior’. The author shows how community knowledge and understanding of their own environment can significantly thwart, if not improve, a mining company's closure plan. This book is not only for practitioners in the social sciences; it is also essential for engineers and scientists involved in mine planning and design. Nothing can take the place of going to the communities and listening to what people want about the future of what they refer to as their 'home' after mine closure." — Debbie Ruth Liao-Yasay, Professor in Mining Engineering, University of Southeastern Philippines; former Environment and Permitting Manager – Kingking Copper Gold Project (Philippines)