Soft errors are a multifaceted issue at the crossroads of applied physics and engineering sciences. Soft errors are by nature multiscale and multiphysics problems that combine not only nuclear and semiconductor physics, material sciences, circuit design, and chip architecture and operation, but also cosmic-ray physics, natural radioactivity issues, particle detection, and related instrumentation.
Soft Errors: From Particles to Circuits addresses the problem of soft errors in digital integrated circuits subjected to the terrestrial natural radiation environment—one of the most important primary limits for modern digital electronic reliability. Covering the fundamentals of soft errors as well as engineering considerations and technological aspects, this robust text:
- Discusses the basics of the natural radiation environment, particle interactions with matter, and soft-error mechanisms
- Details instrumentation developments in the fields of environment characterization, particle detection, and real-time and accelerated tests
- Describes the latest computational developments, modeling, and simulation strategies for the soft error-rate estimation in digital circuits
- Explores trends for future technological nodes and emerging devices
Soft Errors: From Particles to Circuits presents the state of the art of this complex subject, providing comprehensive knowledge of the complete chain of the physics of soft errors. The book makes an ideal text for introductory graduate-level courses, offers academic researchers a specialized overview, and serves as a practical guide for semiconductor industry engineers or application engineers.
Terrestrial Cosmic Rays and Atmospheric Radiation Background. Detection and Characterization of Atmospheric Neutrons at Terrestrial Level: Neutron Monitors. Natural Radioactivity of Electronic Materials. Alpha-Radiation Metrology in Electronic Materials. Particle Interactions with Matter and Mechanisms of Soft Errors in Semiconductor Circuits. Accelerated Tests. Real-Time (Life) Testing. Modeling and Simulation of Single-Event Effects in Devices and Circuits. Soft-Error Rate (SER) Monte Carlo Simulation Codes. Scaling Effects and Their Implications for Soft Errors. Natural Radiation in Nonvolatile Memories: A Case Study. SOI, FinFET, and Emerging Devices.
"Soft Errors: From Particles to Circuits covers all aspects of the design, use, application, performance, and testing of parts, devices, and systems and addresses every perspective from an engineering, scientific, or physical point of view. … Many good texts have been written on similar subjects, but none as thorough, as clear, and as complete as this volume. … [The authors] have mastered the past, absorbed the present, and captured the trends of the future in one of the most important technologies of our time. … An extremely useful text that has succeeded in presenting with clarity a complex reality in accessible, understandable, and helpful terms."
—Epaminondas G. Stassinopoulos, Emeritus, NASA/GSFC, USA
"The few radiation effects books out there are focused on space environments or simply on MOSFET degradation. This book…is focused on the terrestrial environment and goes from basic physics and devices to final product applications, and thus should appeal to a much broader audience than other texts. … This book goes a long way in educating future and existing engineers on how to determine the causes and magnitude of the problems in such systems. … [This book’s strengths are its] focus on the terrestrial environment and the breadth of coverage from particle to device including characterization and modeling techniques."
—Robert Baumann, Texas Instruments, Dallas, USA