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Software Metrics
A Guide to Planning, Analysis, and Application




ISBN 9780849316616
Published September 26, 2003 by Auerbach Publications
312 Pages - 124 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The modern field of software metrics emerged from the computer modeling and "statistical thinking" services of the 1980s. As the field evolved, metrics programs were integrated with project management, and metrics grew to be a major tool in the managerial decision-making process of software companies. Now practitioners in the software industry have a reference that validates software metrics as a crucial tool for efficient and successful project management and execution.

Software Metrics: A Guide to Planning, Analysis, and Application simplifies software measurement and explains its value as a pragmatic tool for management. Ideas and techniques presented in this book are derived from best practices. The ideas are field-proven, down to earth, and straightforward, making this volume an invaluable resource for those striving for process improvement.

This overview helps readers enrich their knowledge of measurements and analysis, best practices, and how ordinary analysis techniques can be applied to achieve extraordinary results. Easy-to-understand tools and methods are applied to demonstrate how metrics create models that are indispensable to decision-making in the software industry.

Table of Contents

SOFTWARE MEASUREMENT
A New Order
Measurement in Quality Thinking
Precision in Expression
Representation of Reality
Knowledge Creation
Measurement Technology
Measuring With The Mind: Cognitive Phase
Measuring With Words: Semantic Phase
Measuring With Numbers: Quantitative Phase
The Three Phases Coexist
Measurement Scales
Levels of Measurements
Intrinsic Nature of Measurement
Software Measuring Instruments
Measurement Continuum
The Corner Stone

SOFTWARE METRICS
Metrics Mapping
Simple Metrics
Complex Metrics
Metrics Are Organization Specific
Importance of Estimation and Planning in the Context of Metrics
Metrics Vocabulary
Guidelines from Quality Standards
Applying Software Metrics: A Management Perspective
Benefits of Metrics

DESIGNING A METRICS SYSTEM
Metrics System
Information Based Metrics Architecture
Goals: The Drivers
Decision Centers: The New Organization
Models: Knowledge Capsules
Metrics: Indicators-Signals
Measurement: Sensor System
Data Collection
Implementing the Metrics System Architecture
Metrics Planning Approaches
Metrics Planning Document Checklist

METRICS DATA VISUALIZATION
Data Analysis
Visual Analysis
Rigorous Analysis
Graphical Analysis
Visualizing Data
Graphical Techniques
PIE Charts: Distribution Analysis
Mapping
Life Cycle Profiles
Effort Profile
Process Compliance Profile
Responsibility Matrix
Resource Balancing
Contours
Radar Charts: A Balanced View
Dynamic Views
Clustering
Data Exploration and Visualization Tools
Data Visualization: Emerging Technology

METRICS DATA ANALYSIS IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN
Frequency Distribution: An Analysis Tool
The Normal Distribution
Bias: A Process Reality
Deriving Frequency Distribution from Data
Looking at Histograms
Process Capability from Frequency Distribution
Probability
Process Diagnosis

METRICS DATA ANALYSIS IN TIME DOMAIN
Viewing in Time
Temporal Patterns in Metrics
Process Characterization
Control Charts
Special Forms
Control Chart for Effective Application
Modernism in Process Control: Decision Support Charts


METRICS DATA ANALYSIS IN RELATIONSHIP DOMAIN
A Fertile Domain
Search for Relationships
Perceiving Relationships
Strength of Relationship: Correlation Coefficient
Causal Relationship and Statistical Correlation
Linear Regression
Linear Regression: Example
Non-Linear Regression Models
Non-Linear Regression Analysis of Productivity
Multiple Linear Regression
Surface Plot
Regression Model Application
Application 1: Process Optimization
Application 2: Forecasting Product Quality
Application 3: Defect Correlation
Application 4: Causal Analysis
Application 5: Demonstrating How Review Makes Customers Happy (Indirectly)
Application 6: A Myth Breaks
Application 7: The Crossover
Application 8: Optimum Team Size?
Application 9: Detecting Hidden Problems
Application 10: Analysis of Defect Discovery Economics
Application 11: Building an Effort Estimation Model
Application 12: Calibration of Intuitive Models
More Applications

PROCESS MODELS
From Analysis to Systems Thinking
Model Building: Knowledge Consolidation
Models Using Single Metric (Analytical Models)
Models Using Two Metrics (Regression Models)
Higher Level Empirical Models
Descriptive Statistics on Multiple Metrics
Multiple Analysis of Single Metrics
Three Analytical Dimensions
Process Diagnostic Panel
Analytical Summary of Single Metric
Global Summary
Process Correlations
Multiple Scatter Plots
DOE


ESTIMATION MODELS
Estimation Process
Software Estimation Risks
Estimation Methodologies
Thumb Rules
Delphi Estimate
Golden Rule
Prediction Capability
Prediction Equations
Estimation Algorithms
Estimation Science; the Early Models
Advent of Parametric Models
Calibration
COCOMO
Lookup Table
Equations
COCOMO II.2000 Applications
Tailoring COCOMO
Estimation System
SLIM (Software Lifecycle Management)
SLIM-Estimate
Software Sizing Tools
Estimation Tools

METRICS FOR DEFECT MANAGEMENT
Defect Measurement
Defect Classification
Defect Database
Analysis of Defect Data
Defect Correlation
Defect Driver Matrix
Looking for Consistency
Defect Filter Matrix
Defect Detection Probability
Rayleigh Defect Discovery Model
Three Phases of Reliability Measurement
Reliability Enhancement
Home Grown Model
Quantitative Defect Management

ON-LINE USE OF METRICS
The Challenge
Metric Intelligence
Metrics Synchronization
Milestone Diary
Earned Value Model
Extended Milestone Diary
Responding to Metrics
Discovering "The Factory within the Factory"
Few Data: Sharp Focus
Choice of Online Metrics
Benefits of Online Metrics

METRICS BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM
Two Systems
The Humble Beginning
Advent of Software Management Tools
Birth of Process Databases
Enterprise Integration
Process Intelligence
A Symbiotic Dependence
An Economic Alternative: Metrics Based DSS

METRICS FOR STRATEGIC VISION
Beyond the Obvious
Metrics in Project Management
Tailoring Metrics for the Project
Setting Quantitative Goals: GMC
GMC Analysis
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Risk Estimation
Simulating Schedule Risk
Mapping Risk Using Risk Exposure Number
Analysis of REN
Six Sigma Renaissance
Consummate Vision

METRICS SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
Towards Truth
No Universal Method
Effective Use of Metrics
Looking at Metrics Data
Applying Metrics
Creating Decision Centers
Equip People with Knowledge at Less Cost
The Marvelous Spreadsheet
Things to Remember During Implementation
Lead with Numbers
Integrated Management
Mirror, Microscope and Telescope
Unlimited Scope

Bibliography

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Reviews

"…would be a good supplement to a software product manager's bookshelf."
IEEE Software, vol 22, no. 2, 2005