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Soil Invertebrates
Kaleidoscope of Adaptations



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ISBN 9781482231236
December 15, 2021 Forthcoming by CRC Press
400 Pages 350 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

This book places the biodiversity of soil invertebrates in an evolutionary framework, showing the various adaptations to the soil environment. Species radiations are discussed for each of the terrestrializations leading to a lineage of soil invertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses, now becoming available for most of these groups thanks to DNA sequencing, show monophyly of complete soil-living groups in some cases and multiple independent soil adaptations in others. The book includes many classical methods of soil animal enumeration and community surveys developed in the 1970s, which can now be supplemented by physiological and molecular study techniques.

Table of Contents

The selective environment of the soil
The origin of soils
Soil structure, heterogeneity and organic matter
Temperature and humidity gradients
The rhizosphere
Microbial communities

Biodiversity and phylogeny of terrestrialized invertebrate lineages
Fauna of porewater and groundwater
Flatworms and earthworms
Snails and slugs
Spiders, mites and other arachnids
Terrestrial isopods and amphipods
Myriapods
Collembola and other apterygote hexapods h. Beetles
Nest-building insects
Insect larvae

Soil invertebrate populations in space and time
Population dynamics: seasonal and long-term
Aggregation and dispersal mechanisms
Genetic structure
Spatial distribution and isolation by distance

Reproductive and life-history patterns
Body size
Feeding habits
The balance between reproduction and mortality d. Sexual behaviour
Parthenogenesis

Physiological adaptations
Patterns of metabolic rate
Drought tolerance
Cold hardiness
Defence against microbial attack

Adaptation to toxicants and habitat disturbance
Molecular mechanisms of defense
Pesticides
Heavy metals
Indices of disturbance
Soil invertebrates as pests

Conclusion: a kaleidoscope of adaptations in soil

Appendix: Methods of study
Sampling and extraction
Physiological methods
Genomics and transcriptomics

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Author(s)

Biography

Nico M. Van Straalen