Soil Liquefaction: A Critical State Approach, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Soil Liquefaction

A Critical State Approach, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Mike Jefferies, Ken Been

CRC Press

690 pages | 386 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781482213683
pub: 2015-09-21
SAVE ~$42.00
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429153914
pub: 2015-09-18
from $105.00

FREE Standard Shipping!


A Rigorous and Definitive Guide to Soil Liquefaction

Soil liquefaction occurs when soil loses much of its strength or stiffness for a time—usually a few minutes or less—and which may then cause structural failure, financial loss, and even death. It can occur during earthquakes, from static loading, or even from traffic-induced vibration. It occurs worldwide and affects soils ranging from gravels to silts.

From Basic Physical Principles to Engineering Practice

Soil Liquefaction has become widely cited. It is built on the principle that liquefaction can, and must, be understood from mechanics. This second edition is developed from this premise in three respects: with the inclusion of silts and sandy silts commonly encountered as mine tailings, by an extensive treatment of cyclic mobility and the cyclic simple shear test, and through coverage from the "element" scale seen in laboratory testing to the evaluation of "boundary value problems" of civil and mining engineering. As a mechanics-based approach is necessarily numerical, detailed derivations are provided for downloadable open-code software (in both Excel/VBA and C++) including code verifications and validations. The "how-to-use" aspects have been expanded as a result of many conversations with other engineers, and these now cover the derivation of soil properties from laboratory testing through to assessing the in situ state by processing the results of cone penetration testing. Downloadable software is supplied on

  • Includes derivations in detail so that the origin of the equations is apparent
  • Provides samples of source code so that the reader can see how complex-looking differentials actually have pretty simple form
  • Offers a computable constitutive model in accordance with established plasticity theory
  • Contains case histories of liquefaction
  • Makes available downloads and source data on the CRC Press website

Soil Liquefaction: A Critical State Approach, Second Edition continues to cater to a wide range of readers, from graduate students through to engineering practice.

Table of Contents


What is this book about?

Why a critical-state view?

Experience of liquefaction

Outline of the development of ideas

Dilatancy and the state parameter

Framework for soil behaviour

State parameter approach

Evaluating soil behaviour with the state parameter

Determining the critical state

Uniqueness of the CSL

Soil properties

Plane strain tests for soil behaviour

General soil behaviour from triaxial properties

Constitutive modelling for liquefaction


Historical background

Representing the critical state

Cambridge view

State parameter view

NorSand constitutive model

Comparison of NorSand to experimental data

Commentary on aspects of NorSand

Determining state parameter in situ


SPT versus CPT

Inverse problem: A simple framework

Calibration chambers

Stress normalization

Determining ψ from CPT

Moving from calibration chambers to real sands

Elasticity in situ

Horizontal geostatic stress

Alternative in situ tests to the CPT

Commentary on state determination using the CPT

Soil variability and characteristic states


Effect of loose pockets on performance

Effect of variability of in situ state on cyclic performance

Nerlerk case history

Assessing the characteristic state of sands


Static liquefaction and post-liquefaction strength


Data from laboratory experiments

Trends in laboratory data for su and sr

Nature of static liquefaction

Undrained NorSand

Understanding from NorSand

Plane strain versus triaxial conditions

Steady-state approach to liquefaction

Trends from full-scale experience

Lower San Fernando Dam revisited

How dense is dense enough?

Post-liquefaction residual strength

Liquefaction assessment for silts


Cyclic stress-induced liquefaction (cyclic mobility and softening)


Experimental data

Trends in cyclic simple shear behaviour

Berkeley school approach

State parameter view of the Berkeley approach

Theoretical framework for cyclic loading

Dealing with soil fabric in situ


Finite element modelling of soil liquefaction


Open-source finite element software

Software verification

Slope liquefaction


Practical implementation of critical state approach


Scope of field investigations and laboratory testing

Deriving soil properties from laboratory tests

Laboratory measurement of cyclic strength

Determining soil state by CPT soundings

Application to typical problems in sands and silts

Concluding remarks

Model uncertainty and soil variability

State as a geological principle

In situ state determination

Laboratory strength tests on undisturbed samples

Soil plasticity and fabric

Relationship to current practice

What next?

Do download !

A: Stress and strain measures

B: Laboratory testing to determine the critical state of sands

C: NorSand derivations

D: Numerical implementation of NorSand

E: Calibration chamber test data

F: Some case histories involving liquefaction flow failure

G: Seismic liquefaction case histories

H: CamClay as a special case of NorSand


About the Authors

Mike Jefferies is a registered professional engineer (AB, BC: Canada). Graduating in civil engineering from King’s College in London, his interest in theoretical soil mechanics led to a MSc from Imperial College. Shortly thereafter Mike immigrated to Canada, joining Golder Associates in 1978 and with whom he has worked worldwide. In 2009 independence beckoned and Mike now splits his work between pursuing advances in geomechanics and the more usual diet of a review consultant across a range of dam, mining, and offshore projects.

Ken Been obtained his engineering education at the University of Cape Town in South Africa before going on to do his D.Phil in soil mechanics at the University of Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar. Since 1981 he has worked for Golder Associates in Canada, the U.K., Germany, and the USA, providing geotechnical engineering consulting to the oil and gas, mining, and civil infrastructure industry worldwide from the equator to the Arctic. He is a chartered engineer in the UK and a registered professional engineer in several Canadian provinces.

About the Series

Applied Geotechnics

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
SCIENCE / Geophysics
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / Agronomy / Soil Science