1st Edition

Soil Liquefaction during Recent Large-Scale Earthquakes

Edited By Rolando P. Orense, Ikuo Towhata, Nawawi Chouw Copyright 2014

    Soil Liquefaction during Recent Large-Scale Earthquakes contains selected papers presented at the New Zealand – Japan Workshop on Soil Liquefaction during Recent Large-Scale Earthquakes (Auckland, New Zealand, 2-3 December 2013).

    The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes in New Zealand and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake in Japan have caused significant damage to many residential houses due to varying degrees of soil liquefaction over a very wide extent of urban areas unseen in past destructive earthquakes. While soil liquefaction occurred in naturally-sedimented soil formations in Christchurch, most of the areas which liquefied in Tokyo Bay area were reclaimed soil and artificial fill deposits, thus providing researchers with a wide range of soil deposits to characterize soil and site response to large-scale earthquake shaking.

    Although these earthquakes in New Zealand and Japan caused extensive damage to life and property, they also serve as an opportunity to understand better the response of soil and building foundations to such large-scale earthquake shaking. With the wealth of information obtained in the aftermath of both earthquakes, information-sharing and knowledge-exchange are vital in arriving at liquefaction-proof urban areas in both countries. Data regarding the observed damage to residential houses as well as the lessons learnt are essential for the rebuilding efforts in the coming years and in mitigating buildings located in regions with high liquefaction potential.

    As part of the MBIE-JSPS collaborative research programme, the Geomechanics Group of the University of Auckland and the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory of the University of Tokyo co-hosted the workshop to bring together researchers to review the findings and observations from recent large-scale earthquakes related to soil liquefaction and discuss possible measures to mitigate future damage.

    Soil Liquefaction during Recent Large-Scale Earthquakes will be of great interest to researchers, academics, industry practitioners and other professionals involved in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Foundation Engineering, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics.

    Soil & site characterisation

    A summary of strong ground motions observed in the Canterbury earthquake sequence, B. Bradley

    Geotechnical site characterisation using Screw Driving Sounding method, R.P. Orense, Y. Mirjafari & N. Suemasa

    Repeatability of SPT testing in Christchurch soils with reference to the liquefaction potential, P. Clayton

    Analysis of liquefaction characteristics at Christchurch strong motion stations, L. Wotherspoon, R. Orense, R. Green, B. Bradley, B. Cox & C. Wood

    Geophysical survey of two piers affected by liquefaction-induced lateral spreading for the 2010 Maule earthquake, E. Sáez, C. Ledezma, G. de la Maza, M. Cortés & S. Brunet


    Liquefaction triggering

    The influence of near-fault motions on liquefaction triggering during the Canterbury earthquake sequence, L. Carter, R. Green, B. Bradley & M. Cubrinovski

    Rate of dissipation of excess pore water pressure in a liquefiable sand deposit, S. Iai & K. Nagaura

    Laboratory tests on cyclic undrained behavior of loose sand with cohesionless silt and its application to assessment of seismic performance of subsoil, I. Towhata, K. Gunji, Y. A. Hernandez & S. Yamada

    Slope failures in residential land on volcanic fills during the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, M. Hyodo, R. Orense & T. Noda


    Liquefaction effects on structures

    Liquefaction effects in the Central Business District of Christchurch, J. Bray, M. Cubrinovski, J. Zupan & M. Taylor

    Effects of lateral spreading on bridges in the 2010-2011 Christchurch earthquakes, M. Cubrinovski, A. Winkley, J. Haskell, K. Robinson & L. Wotherspoon

    Influence of foundation pinning and deck resistance on the response of a Chilean bridge abutment to lateral spreading, C.R. McGann & P. Arduino

    Piles in liquefiable soil: kinematic and inertial interaction, M. Pender, M. Willis & P. Algie


    Liquefaction countermeasures

    Mitigation of liquefaction-induced damage to residential houses by shallow ground improvement, T. Kiyota, K. Tani, K. Matsushita, T. Hashimoto, A. Yamamoto, H. Takeuchi, T. Noda, H. Kiku & J. Ohbayashi

    New liquefaction countermeasures for wooden houses, S. Yasuda

    Verification of effectiveness of liquefaction countermeasures during past large scale earthquakes in Japan, K. Harada, J. Ohbayashi, J. Matsumoto, H. Yoshitomi, S. Yasuda & R. Orense

    Effectiveness of inhibiting liquefaction triggering by shallow ground improvement methods: initial field shaking trials with T-Rex at one site in Christchurch, New Zealand, K. H. Stokoe, II, J. N. Roberts, S. Hwang, B. R. Cox, F. Y. Menq & S. van Ballegoy

    The design of open grid deep soil mixing (DSM) foundation on earthquake related projects, A. O’Sullivan, S. Terzaghi & R. Orense

    Liquefaction mitigation using secant piles wall under a large water tank, E. Sáez & C. Ledezma


    Soil-structure interaction in non-liquefied ground

    Effect of SFSI on the response of soil, X. Qin & N. Chouw

    Effects of subsoil on seismic wall stresses in liquid storage tanks: experimental findings, M. Ormeño-Godoy, T. Larkin, & N. Chouw

    Summary of Discussion Session 1

    Summary of Discussion Session 2


    List of Participants

    Author index


    Rolando P. Orense, Ikuo Towhata, Nawawi Chouw