2nd Edition

Soil Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications

By Isao Ishibashi, Hemanta Hazarika Copyright 2015
    432 Pages 365 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    How Does Soil Behave and Why Does It Behave That Way?

    Soil Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition effectively explores the nature of soil, explains the principles of soil mechanics, and examines soil as an engineering material. This latest edition includes all the fundamental concepts of soil mechanics, as well as an introduction to foundation engineering, including coverage of site exploration, shallow and deep foundation design, and slope stability. It presents the material in a systematic, step-by-step manner, and contains numerous problems, examples, and solutions.

    New to the Second Edition:

    The revised text expands the contents to include an introductory foundation engineering section to make the book cover the full range of geotechnical engineering. The book includes three new chapters: Site Exploration, Deep Foundations, and Slope Stability.

    This text:

    • Provides an introductory chapter on soil mechanics
    • Explores the origin and description of soils and discusses soil shapes and gradations
    • Presents the unique characteristics of clays
    • Details soil classifications by the Unified Soil Classification System (also ASTM) and by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
    • Highlights laboratory and field compaction techniques, including field specification and density testing,, and the CBR (California Bearing Ratio) method
    • Discusses the flow of water through soils, defining hydraulic heads, as well as the two-dimensional flow net technique and a systematic approach to compute boundary water pressures
    • Examines the concept of effective stress and its applications to various soil mechanics problems
    • Explores stress increments in a soil mass due to various types of footing load on the ground
    • Presents Terzaghi’s one-dimensional consolidation theory and its applications
    • Covers Mohr’s circle from geotechnical perspectives with use of the pole, which is utilized in chapters relating to shear strength and lateral earth pressure
    • Addresses the shear strength of soils, failure criteria, and laboratory as well as field shear strength determination techniques
    • Evaluates at-rest earth pressure and the classic Rankine and Coulomb active and passive pressure theories and present critical review of those methods
    • Reviews introductory foundation engineering and site exploration
    • Describes the bearing capacity theory and, as an application, the shallow foundation design procedure
    • Covers deep and shallow foundation design procedures
    • Explains slope stability problems and remediation procedures, and more

    Soil Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition is a concise and thorough text that explains soil’s fundamental behavior and its applications to foundation designs and slope stability problems and incorporates basic engineering science knowledge with engineering practices and practical applications.

    Soil Mechanics and Related Fields
    Biography of Dr. Karl von Terzaghi
    Uniqueness of Soils
    Approaches to Soil Mechanics Problems
    Examples of Soil Mechanics Problems
    Physical Properties of Soils
    Origin of Soils
    Soil Particle Shapes
    Definitions of Terms with Three-Phase Diagram
    Particle Size and Gradation
    Clays and Their Behavior
    Clay Minerals
    Clay Shapes and Surface Areas
    Surface Charge of Clay Particles
    Clay-Water Systems
    Interaction of Clay Particles
    Clay Structures
    Atterberg Limits and Indices
    Swelling and Shrinkage of Clays
    Sensitivity and Quick Clay
    Clay Versus Sand

    Soil Classification
    Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)
    AASHTO Classification System
    Relative Density
    Laboratory Compaction Test
    Specification of Compaction in the Field
    Field Compaction Methods
    Field Density Determinations
    California Bearing Ratio Test
    Flow of Water through Soils
    Hydraulic Heads and Water Flow
    Darcy’s Equation
    Coefficient of Permeability
    Laboratory Determination of Coefficient of Permeability
    Field Determination of Coefficient of Permeability
    Flow Net
    Boundary Water Pressures
    Effective Stress
    Total Stress Versus Effective Stress
    Effective Stress Computations in Soil Mass
    Effective Stress Change due to Water Table Change
    Capillary Rise and Effective Stress
    Effective Stress with Water Flow
    Quicksand (Sand Boiling)
    Heave of Clay due to Excavation
    Stress Increments in Soil Mass
    Approximate Slope Method
    Vertical Stress Increment due to a Point Load
    Vertical Stress Increment due to a Line Load
    Vertical Stress Increment due to a Strip Load
    Vertical Stress Increment under a Circular Footing
    Vertical Stress Increment under an Embankment Load
    Vertical Stress Increment under Corner of Rectangular Footing
    Vertical Stress Increment under Irregularly Shaped Footing
    Elastic Settlements
    Primary Consolidation Settlement
    One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation Model
    Terzaghi’s Consolidation Theory
    Laboratory Consolidation Test
    Determination of Cv
    e-log σ Curve
    Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Soils
    Final Consolidation Settlement for Thin Clay Layer
    Consolidation Settlement for Multilayers or a Thick Clay Layer
    Summary of Primary Consolidation Computations
    Secondary Compression
    Allowable Settlement
    Ground-Improving Techniques against Consolidation Settlement
    Mohr’s Circle in Soil Mechanics
    Concept of Mohr’s Circle
    Stress Transformation
    Mohr’s Circle Construction
    Sign Convention of Shear Stress
    Pole (Origin of Planes) of Mohr’s Circle
    Summary of Usage of Mohr’s Circle and Pole
    Examples of Usage of Mohr’s Circle and Pole in Soil Mechanics
    Shear Strength of Soils
    Failure Criteria
    Direct Shear Test
    Unconfined Compression Test
    Triaxial Compression Test
    Other Shear Test Devices
    Summary of Strength Parameters for Saturated Clays
    Applications of Strength Parameters from CD, CU, and UU Tests to In Situ Cases
    Strength Parameters for Granular Soils
    Direction of Failure Planes on Sheared Specimen
    Lateral Earth Pressure
    At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures
    At-Rest Earth Pressure
    Rankine’s Lateral Earth Pressure Theory
    Coulomb’s Earth Pressure
    Lateral Earth Pressure due to Surcharge Load
    Coulomb, Rankine, or Other Pressures?
    Site Exploration
    Site Exploration Program
    Geophysical Methods
    Borehole Drilling
    Standard Penetration Test
    Undisturbed Soil Samplers
    Groundwater Monitoring
    Cone Penetration Test
    Other In Situ Tests
    Bearing Capacity and Shallow Foundations
    Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory
    Generalized Bearing Capacity Equation
    Correction due to Water Table Elevation
    Gross Versus Net Bearing Capacity
    Factor of Safety on Bearing Capacity
    Shallow Foundation Design
    Deep Foundations
    Types of Piles
    Load Carrying Capacity by Static Analytical Methods
    Static Pile Capacity on Sandy Soils
    Static Pile Capacity in Cohesive Soils
    Other Methods of Pile Capacity Estimation
    Negative Skin Friction
    Group Pile
    Consolidation Settlement of Group Piles
    Pullout Resistance
    Slope Stability
    Slope Failure
    Slope Stability Analytical Methods
    Slope Stability of a Semi-infinitely Long Slope
    Stability Analysis for Circular Slip Surface
    Analysis for Multiple Liner Sliding Surfaces
    Stabilization for Unstable Slopes
    Numerical Answers to Selected Problems


    Dr. Isao Ishibashi, P.E., is a professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. He obtained bachelors and master’s degrees from Nagoya University, Japan. After earning his PhD from the University of Washington, Seattle, he taught and was on the research faculty at the University of Washington and Cornell University before moving to Old Dominion University in 1986. His research includes soil liquefaction, dynamic soil properties, static and dynamic earth pressures, seismic water pressure, granular mechanics, slope stability, and used-tire application to embankment. He has authored or co-authored more than 100 published technical papers.

    Dr. Hemanta Hazarika is a professor in the Department of Civil Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. He obtained his bachelor of technology degree in civil engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras, India, and his PhD in geotechnical engineering from Nagoya University, Japan. He also worked as a practicing engineer in industry as well as a researcher in the public sector research institute of Japan. Professor Hazarika has more than 130 technical publications in reputed international journals, proceedings of international conferences, and symposia, including contributed chapters in several books. He is also the editor of two books in his research fields.

    "Overall, this book is written in an easy-to-read style suitable for undergraduate engineering students. Chapter 1 is an excellent example of that style. In just a few pages, Chapter 1 provides the reader with an appreciation for geotechnical engineering and its evolution. It succinctly makes the point that soils are different from other civil engineering materials, and thus gives students a reason and purpose for studying the behavior of soils in a stand-alone course. In particular, the case histories in Section 1.5 stand out; students are immediately confronted with some of the unique challenges in geotechnical practice. ... For me, the material in Chapter 2 that stands out is related to phase diagrams; the presentation of phase diagrams is ideal for students. How one can use the phase diagram to determine fundamental physical properties is illustrated well. It emphasizes the process of 'filling in' the phase diagram to find phase weights and volumes, rather than having students sort through a plethora of pre-derived expressions to find one that works for a specific problem. This process is important because it helps reinforce the fundamental weight-volume relationships for soils, which can be used again and again throughout the course as students learn more advanced concepts."
    —Charles E. Pierce, Ph.D, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA

    "In summary, the level of explanation is much richer than most undergrad level books in use and … Many soil mechanics text book authors do not know where to draw the line between mechanics and engineering and they load up the texts with too many foundation related information"
    —Hirroshan Hettiarahchi, United Nations University

    "This is a good soil mechanics book. It is written very concisely and straightforwardly, in a way students can teach themselves. It covers most of the common topics in the areas of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering practice. It is a good textbook for a Civil Engineering Program where students only take one course in geotechnical engineering."
    —Jay X. Wang, Louisiana Tech University