Soil-Water Interactions : Mechanisms  Applications, Second Edition, Revised Expanded book cover
2nd Edition

Soil-Water Interactions
Mechanisms Applications, Second Edition, Revised Expanded

By

Iwata




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ISBN 9780824792930
Published October 10, 1994 by CRC Press
464 Pages

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Book Description

Emphasizing pioneering achievements, this work offers a clear and systematic description of various soil-water phenomena and their applications to soil problems such as water retention and the flux of water in soils and clays. This second edition contains material on the physical properties of adsorbed water, the application of fractal theory to solute and water flows in field soils, fingering research, and more.

Table of Contents

Preface to Second Edition

Preface to First Edition

ENERGY CONCEPT AND THERMODYNAMICS OF WATER IN SOIL

ENERGY CONCEPT OF WATER IN SOIL

Historical review of the Energy Concept

Capillary Potential

Establishment of the Energy Concept

Potential of Water in Soil

Total Potential and Its Components

Physical Meaning of Tensiometer Pressure

Difficulties with the Total Potential

Envelope Pressure Potential or Overburden Potential

Weakness of the Energy Concept

THRMODYNAMICS OF WATER IN SOILS

Thermodynamic Terminology Relating to the Solution Phase in Soil

Types of Work Relating to Water in Soil

General Differential Forms of Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Potential (Total Potential)

Chemical Potential Water in Soil

Factors Affecting Chemical Potential

Variables of State for Water in Soil

Dependence of Chemical Potential on Position in the Soil Solution

Chemical Potential as a Driving Force for Liquid Water Flow Under Nonisothermal Conditions

Temperature Dependence of the Tensiometer Pressure-Water Content Relationship

Driving Forces

HYSTERESIS IN SOIL WATER PHENOMENA

Hysteresis

Mechanisms for Hysteresis

Different Pore Sizes

Adsorbed Water on Clay Surfaces

Contact Angle

Theory of Hysteresis Based on the Concept of Domains

Fundamental Independent Domain Theory

Application of the Domain Theory to Hysteresis in Soil Water Phenomena

Further Developments of Domain Theories

Controversial Points in the Application of the Domain

Theory to Hysteresis in Soil Water Phenomena

Other Theories

Thermodynamics of Systems Exhibiting Hysteresis

References

INTERACTION BETWEEN SOIL PARTICLES AND SOIL SOLUTION

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES TAKING PART IN INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL SOULTION AND SOIL PARTICLES

Water

Structure of the Water Molecule

Hydrogen Bond

Structures of Ice and Water

Hydration of Ions

Physical and Chemical Properties of Clays

Structure

Specific Surface Area

Electric Charge

INTERACTION BETWEEN WATER AND AN UNCHARGED SOIL PARTICLE

DISTRIBUTION OF IONS IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF A SOIL PARTICLE

Balance of Forces on Ions, and the Ionic Distribution

Gouy Theory

Infinite Distance Between Plates

Finite Distance Between Plates

Unusual Distribution of Electrical Potential Near and Edge Surface of Montmorillonite

Problems in Application of the Gouy Theory to Clay-Water Systems

Assumption of Point Charge

Distribution of Electric Intensities in the Vicinity of a Clay Surface

Diffuse Layer Terminated by an Air-Water Interface

Other Factors Neglected in the Gouy Theory

Force Acting on Water Molecules in a Diffuse Ion Layer

Significance of the Interaction Between Soil Particles and Soil Solution on Soil Properties

SOIL FREEZING

Water-Ice Equilibria

Chemical Potentials of Water and Ice

Super-cooling

Freezing-Point Depression

Unfrozen Water in Frozen Soils

Dependence of Unfrozen Water on Original Water Content

Frost Heaving

Water Movement in Frost Heaving

Driving Forces for Water Migration in the Frozen Soil

Soil Freezing

Driving Forces at the Freezing Front

Heaving Pressure

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ADSORBED WATER

Preliminary Knowledge Related to Physicochemical Properties of Adsorbed Water

Physicochemical Properties of Adsorbed Water and Film Thickness

Distribution of Electric Intensity Near a Clay Surface

Interaction Between an Ion and Water Molecules

Interaction Between a Clay Surface and Water Molecules

Physicochemical Properties of Water Adsorbed by Clays

Degree of Dissociation of Adsorbed Water

Interactions Between a Clay Surface and a Water Molecule

Entropy

Viscosity

The Range of Influence for Surface Forces

References

INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLES THROUGH WATER

DLVO THEORY

Potential Energy Due to the Interaction of Two Double Layers

Repulsive Force Acting Between Two Plates

Potential Enerfy Due to the Repulsive Force

Differences Between VRσ and VRψ

Factor Determining the Repulsive Potential Energy

Charge-Regulation Model for Particles with Variable Charges

Potential Energy Due to van der Waals Forces Between Two Particles

Attraction Energy Due to van der Waals Forces

Hamaker Constant

Total Potential Energy

Other Forces of Interaction Between Charged Surfaces

Swelling Clays

Discrete Charges

Forces Between Mica Surfaces

Other Surfaces

TOTAL POTENTIAL ENERGY BETWEEN TWO CLAY PARTICLES

Montmorillonite

Repulsion Energy VR

Attraction Energy VA

Total Potential Energy VT

Flocculation of Montmorillonite

Allophane

Repulsion Energy VR and Attraction Energy VA

Total Potential Energy

Flocculation of Allophane

SWELLING OF CLAYS

Crystalline Swelling

Mechanism of Macroscopic Swelling

Chemical Potential of Water

Swelling Under Unsaturated Conditions

Application of the DLVO Theory to Macroscopic Swelling

Swelling Theory Based on Structural Forces

Effect of Clay Dispersion and Swelling on Permeability to Water

Effect of Electrolyte Concentration

Effect of pH

FLOW OF SOLUTIONS THROUGH CLAY LAYERS

Characteristics of Solution Flow Through Clay Layers

Salt Sieving and the Salt Sieving or Rejection Coefficient

Reflection Coefficient or Osmotic Efficiency Coefficient

Characteristics of Solution Flow Through a Clay Layer

Theoretical Analyses of Solution Flow Through Clay Layers

Rejection Coefficient (Salt Sieving Coefficient)

Streaming Potential

Relationships Between Factors Influencing Solution Flow Through Clay Layers

Streaming Potential and Hydraulic Pressure Gradient

Pressure-Induced and Electrokinetic Flows

Dependence of Rejection Coefficient on Applied Pressure Gradient and Surface Charge Density

Application of Irreversible Thermodynamics to Solution Flow Through Clay Layers

Future Research Effect

References

 

CAPILLARY

AIR WATER INTERFACES

Laplace Equation

Capillary Rise in a Tube

Lens Water Between Spheres

Meniscus Within a Pore Cell

Capillary Water in Soils

Capillary Rise

Capillary Moisture Distribution Under Suction

Suspended Capillary Water in Soil

CAPILLARY THEORY FOR NONUNIFORM CELL SYSTEMS

Neck Size Distribution Function

Connecting Systems of Pore Cells

Drainage Curves

Capillary Moisture Distribution Curve After Drainage or After Wetting

References

WATER FLOW THROUGH SOIL

GENERAL CONCEPTS OF WATER FLOW

Historical Review

Darcy’s Law

Equation of Continuity

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION DURING WATER FLOW

Steady Vertical Downward Flow in a Uniform Soil

Horizontal and Upward Flow in a Uniform Soil

Flow in a Layered Soil

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

Temperature Effect

Particle Size

Pore Properties

X-Ray Stereoradiograph Method

Other Approaches to Permeability

Hydraulic Gradient Effects

Average Hydraulic Conductivity

Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity

SOME SPECIAL PROBLEMS

Entrapped Air

Capillary Syphon Flow

Capillary Fringe and Water Flow

Unsaturated Downward Flow in Layered Soil

Infiltration

General Concepts

Downward Infiltration into a Uniform Soil

Downward Infiltration into a Layered Soil

Horizontal Water Flow

Upward Flow

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN FINGERING RESEARCH

Characteristic Features of Fingering

Criteria for Wetting Front Instability and Finger Width

Mechanism of Finger Persistence

References

UNSATURATED WATER MOVEMENT

LIMITATIONS ON THE VALIDITY OF DARCY’S LAW

Darcy’s Law and the Capillary Model

Experimental Results

Other Theories of Water Flow

Unsaturated Flow Theory Including Interfacial Phenomena

Non-Newtonian and Bingham Flow

Film Water Flow

HETEROGENEITY OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY IN SOIL

Introduction

Scale Effect and Representative Elementary Volume in Soil
Scale Effect

Estimation of REV

Determination of Range of Influence

The Semi-Variogram

Estimation of Parameters in the Semi-Variogram Function

Effect of Sample Size on Range of Influence

Spatial Dependence of Hydraulic Conductivity in the Field

Stochastic Theory for Water Flow in Heterogeneous Soil

SOLUTE MOVEMENT IN FIELD SOILS

Historical Review

Limitations on the Validity of the Convection-Dispersion Equation

Experimental Results

Theoretical Results

Investigation of Conditions in the Theoretical Derivation of the Convection-Dispersion Equation

Physical Meaning of REV in Solute Movement

Does Asymptotic Behavior Exist?

REV for Solute Transport

APPLICATION OF FRACTAL THEORY TO SOLUTE AND WATER FLOWS IN FIELD SOIL

Concepts of Fractal Geometry

Estimation of Fractal Dimension

Fractal Dimension of a Curve

Fractal Dimension of the Distribution Pattern of an Object Distributed in Space

Examples

Use of Fractal Dimension for Predicting Bypass Flow

Estimation of the Brenner Number Using the Fractal Dimension

An Explanation of Scale-Dependent Dispersivity Based on Fractal Geometry

References

FIELD WATER REGIMES

WATER IN UPLAND SOILS

Physical Properties

Water Regimes in Upland Soils in Japan

Water Movement in Upland Soils

WATER BALANCE IN RICE PADDY FIELDS

Types of Paddy Fields

Water Requirement in Paddy Fields

Percolation and Rice Growth

Soil Properties of Paddy Fields

Control of Percolation in Paddy Fields

Puddling

DRAINAGE OF CLAYEY RICE PADDY FIELDS

General Pattern of Drainage in a Clayey Paddy Field

Drainage Conditions in a Clayey Paddy Field

Effect of Subsurface Drains

INTERACTION OF CHEMICALS AND WATER IN PADDY FIELDS

Improvement of Paddy Fields Contaminated by Cadmium

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentrations in a Paddy Field

Nitrogen and Phosphorous Budgets in Paddy Fields

Nitrogen Removal in Paddy Fields

References

Index

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Reviews

". . .breaks out of the common orbit of soil physics monographs. . . . . .Its individuality will add diversity to the libraries both of institutions and of students. "
---Irrigation Science