2nd Edition

Soil and Water Contamination





ISBN 9780415893435
Published November 14, 2013 by CRC Press
428 Pages

USD $120.00

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Book Description

Soil and Water Contamination, Second Edition gives a structured overview of transport and fate processes of environmental contaminants. Dealing with all topics essential for understanding and predicting contaminant patterns in soil, groundwater and surface water, it contributes to the formation of a solid basis for adequate soil and water pollution control and integrated catchment management. A unique feature of this work is that it does not treat water and soil pollution as independent processes, but as components of an integrated whole. The core of this geoscientific approach is divided into four parts:
• Introduction to the basics of soil and water contamination, such as the fundamentals of environmental pollution and chemistry and the basic properties of soil, groundwater and surface water.
• Source, role, and behaviour of substances in soil and water, treating natural and anthropogenic sources of nutrients, heavy metals, radionuclides and organic pollutants as well as emerging substances of concern, their physico-chemical characteristics, behaviour, and toxicity.
• Transport and fate of substances in soil and water, focusing on processes of transport, exchange and transformations like advection, dispersion, adsorption kinetics and biochemical decay. Special attention is paid to the mathematical description and modelling of these processes.
• Patterns of substances in soil and water, explaining spatial and temporal patterns of pollutants in soil, groundwater, and surface water, illustrated by recent case studies from fundamental and applied research.

This comprehensive, successful textbook, now in its second edition, has been conscientiously updated and extended and includes many case studies, examples and exercises sections, providing undergraduate and graduate students in the Earth and Environmental Sciences with all the material necessary for the study of soil and water contamination. In addition, it can serve as a useful source of information for professionals.

Table of Contents

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

PART I AN INTRODUCTION TO SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION

1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Historical perspective
1.2 Environmental pollution
1.3 Environmental pollutants
1.3.1 Classification of pollutants
1.3.2 Background concentrations
1.3.3 Anthropogenic sources
1.4 Ecological impacts
1.5 Spatial and temporal variability and the concept of scale
1.6 Outline and rationale of this book
Exercises

2 BASIC ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Units of analysis
2.3 Activity
2.4 Background thermodynamics
2.5 Phases and phase transitions
2.5.1 Phases
2.5.2 Thermodynamic considerations on phase transitions
2.5.3 Partition coefficient
2.5.4 Partitioning between dissolved phase and adsorbed phase
2.5.5 Fugacity
2.6 Chemical equilibrium and kinetics
2.6.1 Equilibrium
2.6.2 Kinetics
2.7 Dissolution–precipitation reactions
2.8 Complexation
2.9 Acid–base reactions
2.9.1 Introduction
2.9.2 Acids
2.9.3 Bases
2.9.4 Buffering
2.10 Redox reactions

VI Soil and Water Contamination
2.10.1 Introduction
2.10.2 Oxidation state
2.10.3 Redox potential
2.10.4 Redox reactions and pe
2.10.5 pH–Eh diagrams
2.11 Further reading on basic chemistry
Exercises

3 ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARTMENTS
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Soil
3.2.1 Definition of soil
3.2.2 Sources of soil pollution
3.2.3 Soil water
3.2.4 Soil erosion
3.2.5 Physico-chemical conditions in soil
3.3 Groundwater
3.3.1 Definition of groundwater
3.3.2 Sources of groundwater pollution
3.3.3 Physico-chemical conditions in groundwater
3.4 Surface water
3.4.1 Definition of surface water
3.4.2 Bed sediments
3.4.3 Sources of surface water pollution
3.4.4 Physico-chemical conditions in surface water
3.5 Further reading on soils, groundwater, and surface water
Exercises


PART II SOURCES, ROLE, AND BEHAVIOUR OF SUBSTANCES IN SOIL AND WATER

4 SOLID PHASE CONSTITUENTS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Inorganic components
4.2.1 Composition and formation
4.2.2 Aluminium and iron oxides/hydroxides
4.2.3 Clay minerals
4.2.4 Asbestos
4.2.5 Nanomaterials
4.3 Organic components
4.3.1 Composition and formation
4.3.2 Interaction with the aqueous phase
4.3.3 Interaction with mineral surfaces
4.3.4 Decomposition of organic matter
4.4 Sorption by soils and sediments
Exercises

5 MAJOR DISSOLVED PHASE CONSTITUENTS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Sodium
5.3 Potassium
5.4 Calcium
5.5 Magnesium
5.6 Iron
5.7 Manganese
5.8 Aluminium
5.9 Chloride
5.10 Inorganic carbon
5.11 Sulphate and sulphide
Exercises

6 NUTRIENTS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Nitrogen
6.2.1 Environmental role and occurrence of nitrogen
6.2.2 Nitrogen cycle
6.2.3 External sources and sinks
6.3 Phosphorus
6.3.1 Environmental role and occurrence of phosphorus
6.3.2 Phosphorus cycle
6.3.3 External sources and sinks
Exercises

7 HEAVY METALS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Zinc
7.3 Copper
7.4 Lead
7.5 Cadmium
7.6 Nickel
7.7 Chromium
7.8 Mercury
7.9 Arsenic
7.10 Selenium
Exercises

8 RADIONUCLIDES
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Natural radionuclides
8.2.1 Terrestrial radionuclides
8.2.2 Cosmogenic radionuclides
8.3 Man-made radionuclides
8.3.1 Production and releases
8.3.2 Accidental releases
8.3.3 Nuclear weapons
8.3.4 Environmental behaviour and effects of selected man-made radionuclides
Exercises

9 ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Petroleum and derivatives
9.3 Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
9.4 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
9.5 Chlorinated hydrocarbons
9.5.1 Aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons
9.5.2 Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)
9.5.3 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)
9.5.4 Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT)
9.5.5 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
9.6 Dioxins
9.7 Emerging substances of concern
9.7.1 Current-use pesticides
9.7.2 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products
9.7.3 Endocrine-Modulating Chemicals
9.7.4 Microplastics
Exercises


PART III TRANSPORT PROCESSES OF SUBSTANCES IN SOIL AND WATER

10 SYSTEMS AND MODELS
10.1 A systems approach
10.2 The role of mathematical models
10.3 Classification of mathematical models
Exercises

11 SUBSTANCE TRANSPORT
11.1 Mass balance
11.2 Advection
11.2.1 Advection equation
11.2.2 Load calculation and mixing
11.3 Diffusion and dispersion
11.3.1 Molecular diffusion
11.3.2 Turbulent diffusion and mechanical dispersion
11.3.3 Longitudinal dispersion
11.3.4 Transverse dispersion
11.3.5 Numerical dispersion
11.4 Multi-fluid flow
Exercises

12 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Transport equation
12.3 Bottom shear stress
12.4 Sediment deposition
12.5 Sediment erosion
12.6 Long-term soil erosion and deposition
Exercises

13 CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Sorption equilibrium and kinetics
13.3 Biological production and degradation
Exercises

14 GAS EXCHANGE
14.1 Henry’s law
14.2 Thin film model
14.3 Reaeration
14.4 Gas exchange controlled on the water side
14.5 Gas exchange controlled on the air side
14.6 Gas exchange in the subsurface environment
Exercises

15 MODEL CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Model performance criteria
15.3 Considerations affecting model choice
Exercises


PART IV PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCES IN SOIL AND WATER

16 PATTERNS IN THE SOIL AND IN THE VADOSE ZONE
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Natural variation in background concentrations
16.3 Variation due to clay and organic matter content
16.4 Lateral variation
16.4.1 Introduction
16.4.2 Effects of fertiliser and pesticide application
16.4.3 Effects of atmospheric deposition
16.4.4 Effects of soil erosion and deposition
16.5 Vertical variation
16.5.1 Introduction
16.5.2 Effects of leaching
16.5.3 Effects of contamination history
16.6 Further reading on contaminants in soil
Exercises

17 PATTERNS IN GROUNDWATER
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Hydrological systems analysis
17.3 Hydrochemical systems analysis
17.4 Effects of lateral variation in contaminant inputs
17.5 Effects of temporal variation in contaminant inputs
17.6 Effects of dispersion
17.7 Effects of retardation
17.8 Effects of acid–base reactions
17.9 Effects of redox reactions
17.10 Further reading on contaminants in groundwater
Exercises

18 PATTERNS IN SURFACE WATER
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Spatial variation in river water composition
18.2.1 Effects of diffuse sources
18.2.2 Effects of point sources 3
18.3 Temporal variation in river water composition
18.3.1 Short-term dynamics
18.3.2 Hysteresis response of dissolved concentrations to changes in discharge
18.3.3 Release of old water
18.3.4 Sediment dynamics
18.3.5 Concentration rating curves
18.3.6 Significance of hydrological events for substance transport
18.3.7 Seasonal dynamics of nutrient concentrations
18.3.8 Long-term dynamics
18.4 Variation in lake water composition
18.4.1 Role of lakes in catchment sediment and nutrient budgets
18.4.2 Lateral variation
18.4.3 Vertical variation during summer stratification
18.4.4 Temporal variation
18.5 Further reading on contaminants in surface water
Exercises

REFERENCES
APPENDIX I THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
APPENDIX 2 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES
INDEX

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Author(s)

Biography

Marcel van der Perk is Assistant Professor of Physical Geography at Utrecht University, where he specialises in soil and water quality issues and spatio-temporal environmental modelling. He  teaches courses on soil and water pollution and geographical information systems. His research focuses on measurement, analysis, and modelling of transport and fate of dissolved and sediment-associated contaminants (nutrients, heavy metals, and radionuclides) in soil and water from field to river basin scales.

Reviews

Praise for the first edition of this title:

"…the clear structure makes searching child’s play…. I did three random searches and in no time located what I was looking for… I can think of no subject that the author has failed to address…Everywhere, the texts are compact, and you get the feeling that you are dealing with the real core of the subject."
Harry Boukes, Consultant Hydrologist, translated from Stromingen 13 (2007) number 2

"I liked the approach taken in this book...to integrate soil and water contamination and not treat them as independant processes. It makes sense form a true environmental perspective that chemistry and soil science and hydrology are considered together...I can recommend this book to advanced undergraduates and postgraduates in the earth and environmental sciences...a useful refreshener to professionals."
Prof. John G. Farmer, Executive Editor, Science of the Total Environment 373 (2007) 603