Solar Energy Sciences and Engineering Applications: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Solar Energy Sciences and Engineering Applications

1st Edition

Edited by Napoleon Enteria, Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

CRC Press

692 pages | 220 B/W Illus.

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Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.

This book introduces the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advancement in the field of biological processes & chemical processes; electricity production; and mechanical operations & building operations enhanced by solar energy.

The volume covers bio-hydrogen production and other biological processes related to solar energy; chemical processes for the production of hydrogen from water and other endothermic processes using solar energy; the development of thermo-electric production through solar energy; the development of solar ponds for electric energy production; and the mechanical operation with solar energy; the building operation with solar energy optimization and urban planning.

This book is an invaluable resource for scientists who need the scientific and technological knowledge of the wide coverage of solar energy sciences and engineering applications. This will further encourage researchers, scientists, engineers and students to stimulate the use of solar energy as an alternative energy source.

Table of Contents

1 Physics of solar energy and its applications

Napoleon Enteria & Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Solar energy and energy demand

1.3 Solar energy utilizations

1.4 Perspective

2 Exergy analysis of solar radiation processes

Ryszard Petela

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Exergy

2.2.1 Definition of exergy

2.2.2 Exergy annihilation law

2.2.3 Exergy of substance

2.2.4 Exergy of photon gas

2.2.5 Exergy of radiation emission

2.2.6 Exergy of radiation flux

2.3 Thermodynamic analysis

2.3.1 Significance of thermodynamic analysis

2.3.2 Energy balance equations

2.3.3 Exergy balance equations

2.3.4 Process efficiency

2.4 Solar radiation processes

2.4.1 Conversion of solar radiation into heat

2.4.2 Solar cylindrical-parabolic cooker

2.4.3 Solar chimney power plant

2.4.4 Photosynthesis

2.4.5 Photovoltaic

3 Exergy analysis of solar energy systems

Ibrahim Dincer & Tahir Abdul Hussain Ratlamwala

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Energy and exergy aspects and analyses

3.3 Case studies

3.3.1 Case study 1: Exergy analysis of an integrated solar, ORC system for power production

3.3.2 Case study 2: Exergy analysis of solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system for power and heat production

3.3.3 Case study 3: Exergy assessment of an integrated solar PV/T and triple effect absorption cooling system for hydrogen and cooling production

3.4 Concluding remarks

4 Solar energy collection and storage

Brian Norton

4.1 Solar thermal energy collectors

4.1.1 Overview

4.1.2 Flat plate solar energy collectors

4.1.3 Evacuated tube collectors

4.1.4 Collector components

4.2 Integral collector storage systems

4.2.1 Integral passive solar water heaters

4.2.2 Salt gradient solar ponds

4.3 Concentrators

4.3.1 Introduction

4.3.2 Concentration systems

4.4 Solar water heating

4.4.1 Overview

4.4.2 Applicability of particular collector types to specific outlet temperatures and diffuse fractions

4.4.3 Freeze protection methods

4.4.4 Sensible and latent heat storage

4.4.5 Analytical representation of thermosyphon solar energy water heater

4.4.6 Solar water heater design

4.5 Solar energy collection and storage for drying crops

4.6 Solar energy collector and storage for thermal power generation

4.7 Overall system optimization

5 Basics of the photovoltaic thermal module

Krishnan Sumathy

5.1 Introduction

5.2 PV/T devices

5.2.1 Liquid PV/T collector

5.2.2 Air PV/T collector

5.2.3 Ventilated PV with heat recovery

5.2.4 PV/T concentrator

5.3 PV/T module concepts

5.3.1 Different types of PV/T modules

5.4 Techniques to inprove PV/T performance

5.5 Conclusion

6 Thermal modelling of parabolic trough collectors

Soteris Kalogirou

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The energy model

6.2.1 Convection heat transfer between the HTF and the receiver pipe

6.2.2 Conduction heat transfer through the receiver pipe wall

6.2.3 Heat transfer from the receiver pipe to the glass envelope

6.2.4 Conduction heat transfer through the glass envelope

6.2.5 Heat transfer from the glass envelope to the atmosphere

6.2.6 Solar irradiation absorption

6.3 Code testing

6.4 Conclusions

7 Salinity gradient solar ponds

Abhijit Date & Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Solar pond – design philosophy

7.2.1 Sustainable use of resources

7.2.2 Best site characteristics

7.2.3 Performance and sizing

7.2.4 Liner, salt and water

7.2.5 Transient performance prediction

7.3 Solar pond – construction and operation

7.3.1 Set-up and maintenance

7.3.2 Turbidity control

7.3.3 Heat extraction

7.3.4 Performance monitoring

7.3.5 EEE (Energy, Environmental and Economic) benefit evaluation

7.4 Solar ponds – worldwide

7.4.1 Solar ponds – Israel

7.4.2 Solar ponds – Australia

7.4.3 Solar ponds – USA

7.4.4 Solar ponds – Tibet, China

7.4.5 Solar ponds – India

7.5 Solar ponds – applications

7.5.1 Heating

7.5.2 Aquaculture

7.5.3 Desalination

7.5.4 Power production

7.6 Future directions

8 The solar thermal electrochemical production of energetic molecules: Step

Stuart Licht

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Solar thermal electrochemical production of energetic molecules: An overview

8.2.1 STEP theoretical background

8.2.2 STEP solar to chemical energy conversion efficiency

8.2.3 Identification of STEP consistent endothermic processes

8.3 Demonstrated step processes

8.3.1 STEP hydrogen

8.3.2 STEP carbon capture

8.3.3 STEP iron

8.3.4 STEP chlorine and magnesium production (chloride electrolysis)

8.4 Step constraints

8.4.1 STEP limiting equations

8.4.2 Predicted STEP efficiencies for solar splitting of CO2

8.4.3 Scaleability of STEP processes

8.5 Conclusions

9 Solar hydrogen production and CO2 recycling

Zhaolin Wang & Greg F. Naterer

9.1 Sustainable fuels with solar-based hyrogen production and carbon dioxide recycling

9.2 Solar-based hydrogen production with water splitting methods

9.2.1 Solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of water splitting processes

9.2.2 Matching the temperature requirements of solar-based hydrogen production methods

9.2.3 Thermolysis, thermal decomposition and thermochemical methods

9.2.4 Water electrolysis

9.2.5 Photoelectrolysis and photoelectrochemical water splitting

9.2.6 Photochemical, photocatalytic, photodissociation, photodecomposition, and photolysis

9.2.7 Hybrid and other hydrogen production methods

9.3 Solar-based CO2 recycling with hydrogen

9.4 Summary

10 Photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen production from solar energy

Tania Lopes, Luisa Andrade & Adelio Mendes

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Photoelectrochemical cells systems overview

10.2.1 Solar water-splitting arrangements

10.2.2 Working principles of photoelectrochemical cells for water-splitting

10.2.3 Materials overview

10.2.4 Stability issues – photocorrosion

10.2.5 PEC reactors

10.3 Electrochemical impendance spectroscopy

10.3.1 Fundamentals

10.3.2 Electrical analogues

10.3.3 EIS analysis of PEC cells for water-splitting

10.4 Fundamentals in electrochemistry applied to photoelectrochemical cells

10.4.1 Semiconductor energy

10.4.2 Continuity and kinetic equations

10.5 Pec cells bottlenecks and future prospects

11 Photobiohydrogen production and high-performance photobioreactor

Qiang Liao, Cheng-Long Guo, Rong Chen, Xun Zhu & Yong-Zhong Wang

11.1 Introduction

11.2 General description of photobiohydrogen production

11.2.1 Photoautotrophic hydrogen production

11.2.2 Photoheterotrophic hydrogen production

11.2.3 Critical issues in photobiohydrogen production

11.3 Genetic and metabolic engineering

11.4 High-performance photobioreactor

11.4.1 Modification of photobioreactor configurations

11.4.2 Optimization of the operating parameters

11.4.3 Application of cell immobilization

11.5 Challenges and future directions

12 Decontamination of water by combined solar advanced oxidation processes and biotreatment

Sixto Malato, Isabel Oller, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez & Manuel Ignacio Maldonado

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Solar photo-fenton

12.2.1 Solar photo-Fenton hardware

12.3 Strategy for combining solar advanced oxidation processes and biotreatment

12.3.1 Average oxidation state

12.3.2 Activated sludge respirometry

12.3.3 Zahn-Wellens test

12.3.4 Factors to be considered in designing a combined system

12.4 Combining solar advanced oxidation processes and biotreatment: Case studies

12.4.1 Case study A: An unsuccessful AOP/biological process

12.4.2 Case study B: A successful AOP/biological process

13 Solar driven advanced oxidation processes for water decontamination and disinfection

Erick R. Bandala & Brian W. Raichle

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Solar radiation collection for AOPs applications

13.3 Solar homogenous photocatalysis

13.3.1 Degradation of organic pollutants by solar driven photo-Fenton processes

13.3.2 Microorganisms inactivation by solar driven photo-Fenton processes

13.4 Solar heterogenous photocatalysis

13.4.1 Degradation of organic pollutants by solar driven heterogeneous photocatalysis

13.4.2 Microorganisms inactivation by solar driven heterogeneous photocatalysis

13.5 Challenges and perspectives

13.5.1 Photorreactor design

13.5.2 Suspended vs. immobilized photocatalyst

13.5.3 Visible light active photocatalyst materials

13.6 Conclusions

14 Solar energy conversion with thermal cycles

Giampaolo Manzolini & Paolo Silva

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Solar concentration concept in thermal systems

14.3 Concentrating solar technologies

14.3.1 Linear focus

14.3.2 Parabolic trough

14.3.3 Reflectors

14.3.4 Heat collection element

14.3.5 Structure

14.3.6 Parabolic trough performance

14.3.7 Linear fresnel

14.3.8 Heat collection element

14.3.9 Reflectors

14.3.10 Linear Fresnel performance

14.3.11 Cost comparison of linear focus technologies

14.3.12 Point focus

14.3.13 Central receiver systems

14.3.14 Collector field

14.3.15 Central receiver

14.3.16 Solar dish

14.3.17 Receiver

14.3.18 Power system

14.4 Heat transfer fluids and storage

14.4.1 Heat transfer fluids

14.4.2 Storage

14.5 From heat to power

14.5.1 Rankine cycle

14.5.2 Rankine cycle performance

14.5.3 Stirling cycle

14.5.4 Stirling configurations

14.5.5 Stirling working fluids

14.6 Economics and future perspectives

15 Solar hybrid air-conditioning design for buildings in hot and humid climates

Kwong-Fai Fong

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Design approaches of solar air-conditioning

15.2.1 The solar-electric approach

15.2.2 The solar-thermal approach

15.2.3 A hybrid approach to system design

15.2.4 A hybrid approach to energy sources and system design

15.3 Performance evaluation of various solar air-conditioning systems

15.3.1 Principal solar-thermal air-conditioning systems

15.3.2 SHAC with load sharing

15.3.3 SHAc with radiant cooling

15.3.4 SHAC coordinated with new indoor ventilation strategies

15.3.5 SHAC for premises with high latent load

15.4 Application potential of SHAC in various hot and humid cities in southeast asia

15.5 Conclusion and future development

16 Solar-desiccant air-conditioning systems

Napoleon Enteria

16.1 Introduction

16.1.1 Energy and environment

16.1.2 The building environment

16.2 The basic concept

16.2.1 Thermodynamic processes

16.2.2 Advantages of the open systems

16.2.3 Desiccant materials

16.3 Solid-based system

16.3.1 Basic concept

16.3.2 Typical systems

16.3.3 Modified systems

16.3.4 Hybrid systems

16.4 Liquid-based system

16.4.1 Basic concept

16.4.2 Typical systems

16.4.3 Modified systems

16.4.4 Hybrid systems

16.5 System application

16.5.1 Countries

16.5.2 Temperate regions

16.5.3 Sub-temperate regions

16.5.4 Hot and humid regions

16.6 Future and perspectives

17 Building integrated concentrating solar systems

Daniel Chemisana & Tapas K. Mallick

17.1 Introduction to building integration of solar energy systems

17.1.1 Solar thermal systems and building integration requirements

17.1.2 Solar photovoltaic systems and building integration requirements

17.2 Building integrated concentrating systems

17.2.1 Physics of concentrating solar system

17.2.2 Types of concentrators

17.2.3 Building integrated concentrating photovoltaics

17.2.4 Building integrated solar thermal (concentrating)

17.2.5 Concentrating systems and building integration requirements

17.3 Conclusions

18 Solar energy use in buildings

Ursula Eicker

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Passive solar gains in cold and moderate climatic regions

18.2.1 Passive solar gains by glazing

18.3 Total energy transmittance of glazing

18.4 New glazing systems

18.5 Transparent thermal insulation (TTI)

18.6 Operational principle of transparent thermal insulation

18.7 Materials used and construction

18.8 Heat storage by interior building elements

18.9 Component temperatures for sudden temperature increases

18.10 Solar gains, shading strategies and air conditioning of buildings

18.11 Influence of the urban form on solar energy use in buildings

18.12 Residential buildings in an urban context

18.13 Site density effect and urban shading in moderate climates

18.14 Climate effect

18.15 Solar gains and glazing

18.16 Office buildings in an urban context

19 The contribution of bioclimatic architecture in the improvement of outdoor urban spaces

Konstantina Vasilakopoulou, Dionysia Kolokotsa & Mattheos Santamouris

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Mitigation strategies

19.2.1 Planted areas

19.2.2 Cool materials

19.2.3 Shadings

19.2.4 Thermal sinks

19.2.5 Combination and interplay of mitigation strategies

19.3 Experimental analysis of outdoor spaces

19.3.1 Assessment of outdoor comfort conditions

19.3.2 Assessment of bioclimatic technologies

19.4 Conclusions and future prospects

20 Legislation to foment the use of renewable energies and solar thermal energy in building construction: The case of Spain

Javier Ordoñez

20.1 Introduction

20.2 European regulatory framework for renewable energy sources in the context of the energy performance of buildings

20.3 Application of EU regulations in member states: The case in spain

20.3.1 National action plan for renewable energies

20.3.2 Basic procedure for the certification of energy efficiency

20.3.3 The spanish technical building code

20.3.4 Spanish regulations for thermal installations in buildings

20.4 The solar thermal system

20.5 The spanish technical building code as a legal means to foment the use of renewable energies in building construction

20.6 Measures to foment the use of renewable energies: Government incentives

20.7 Economic impact of solar thermal energy

20.8 Conclusions

Subject index

About the Editors

Napoleon Enteria is the Managing Consultant of the Enteria Grün Energietechnik, Philippines. At the same time, he is a Visiting Researcher of the Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan. He was a Research Staff of the Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan, for the Industry-Academia-Government Collaboration. He was doing research in collaboration with different Japanese universities and companies with the prime support of Japanese government agencies in the area of solar energy, HVAC systems and building sciences. In addition, he provides technical and scientific advice to graduate and undergraduate students. He was a scientist with the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, a component of the National University of Singapore, performing collaborative research with the Fraunhofer Institute of Solar Energy Systems in Germany, a German company and the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the National University of Singapore in the field of solar thermal energy, HVAC systems and membrane heat exchangers; the latter was supported by the Singaporean government agency during his stay in Singapore. Before going to Singapore, he was a Global Center of Excellence Researcher in the Wind Engineering Research Center of Tokyo Polytechnic University doing research in natural ventilation and air-conditioning systems in collaboration with Japanese universities, companies and the Global Center of Excellence Program of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In addition, he was a guiding instructor to two undergraduate students for theses research. Napoleon has authored several scientific and engineering papers in books, review journals, research journals and conference proceedings. He has presented and submitted dozens of technical reports for collaborative projects with research institutes, universities and companies in different countries. He is regularly invited as reviewer for several international journals in the field of air handling systems, energy systems and building sciences. On occasion, he is invited to review research funding application and gives technical and scientific comments on international scientific and engineering activities. He is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the International Solar Energy Society (ISES) and an associate member of the International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR). He was awarded his Doctor of Philosophy (2009) in engineering, specializing in Building Thermal Engineering at the Tohoku University, Japan, as Japanese Government Scholar; and his Master of Science (2003) and Bachelor of Science (2000) in the field of mechanical engineering from Mindanao State University at Iligan Institute of Technology, Philippines, as Philippine Government Scholar.

Aliakbar Akbarzadeh was born in Iran in 1944. He received his BSc degree in Mechanical Engineering from Tehran University in 1966. In 1972, he obtained his MSc and in 1975 his PhD, also in Mechanical Engineering and both from the University of Wyoming, USA. From 1975 to 1980 he was an Associate Professor and also Head of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Shiraz University in Shiraz, Iran. Later he worked at the University of Melbourne as a Research Fellow (1980– 1986), primarily doing research on applications of solar energy as well as energy conservation opportunities in thermodynamic systems. Since June 1986, Aliakbar has been working as an academic at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. During this period, he also worked as a visiting Fellow for half-a-year at the Nuclear Engineering Department of the University of California at Berkeley, USA, where he did research on passive cooling of nuclear reactors through computer modelling as well as experimental simulations. At present, Aliakbar is a Professor in the School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering at RMIT University, and also the Leader of the Energy CARE (Conservation and Renewable Energy) Group in the same school. Aliakbar lectures in thermodynamics as well as remote Area power supply systems. He is the Principal Supervisor of ten full-time PhD postgraduate research students on energy conservation and renewable energy systems. He has also one post-doctoral research fellow working with him on geothermal energy utilization for power generation. Aliakbar is a specialist in thermodynamics of renewable energy systems. His industry oriented research projects enrich his teachings and makes them relevant. He spends about half of his time in supervising industry supported research in energy conservation and renewable energy area, which also form a vehicle for postgraduate training of his PhD students. He has been the first supervisor of about 30 PhD candidates who have completed their degrees. Aliakbar has over 100 refereed publications and two books all in his area of specialization which is solar energy applications. One of his publications on solar energy won the ASME Best Paper of the year award in 1996. Aliakbar’s industry-oriented research on energy systems has resulted in a number of Australia National Energy Awards for him, as well as a number of products, such as the Heat Pipe-based Heat Exchanger for waste heat recovery in bakeries, the Temperature Control of solar water heaters using thermo-syphons and an innovative system for simultaneous power generation and fresh water production using geothermal resources. Aliakbar has also been working on salinity gradient solar ponds as a source of industrial process heat and also for power generation. In the last 35 years he has developed several concepts related to salinity gradient maintenance, as well as efficient methods of heat extraction from solar ponds. At present, his research group is the world leader on applications of solar ponds.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCIENCE / Energy
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Alternative & Renewable