Spacecraft Modeling, Attitude Determination, and Control: Quaternion-Based Approach, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Spacecraft Modeling, Attitude Determination, and Control

Quaternion-Based Approach, 1st Edition

By Yaguang Yang

CRC Press

328 pages | 11 Color Illus. | 47 B/W Illus.

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This book discusses all spacecraft attitude control-related topics: spacecraft (including attitude measurements, actuator, and disturbance torques), modeling, spacecraft attitude determination and estimation, and spacecraft attitude controls. Unlike other books addressing these topics, this book focuses on quaternion-based methods because of its many merits. The book lays a brief, but necessary background on rotation sequence representations and frequently used reference frames that form the foundation of spacecraft attitude description. It then discusses the fundamentals of attitude determination using vector measurements, various efficient (including very recently developed) attitude determination algorithms, and the instruments and methods of popular vector measurements. With available attitude measurements, attitude control designs for inertial point and nadir pointing are presented in terms of required torques which are independent of actuators in use. Given the required control torques, some actuators are not able to generate the accurate control torques, therefore, spacecraft attitude control design methods with achievable torques for these actuators (for example, magnetic torque bars and control moment gyros) are provided. Some rigorous controllability results are provided.

The book also includes attitude control in some special maneuvers, such as orbital-raising, docking and rendezvous, that are normally not discussed in similar books. Almost all design methods are based on state-spaced modern control approaches, such as linear quadratic optimal control, robust pole assignment control, model predictive control, and gain scheduling control. Applications of these methods to spacecraft attitude control problems are provided. Appendices are provided for readers who are not familiar with these topics.

Table of Contents



Organization of the book

Some basic notations and identities

Orbit Dynamics and Properties

Orbit dynamics

Conic section and different orbits

Property of Keplerian orbits

Keplerian orbits in three dimensional space

Rotational Sequences and Quaternion

Some frequently used frames

Rotation sequences and mathematical representations

Transformation between coordinate systems

Quaternion and its properties

Spacecraft Dynamics and Modeling

The general spacecraft system equations

The inertial pointing spacecraft model

Nadir pointing momentum biased spacecraft model

Space Environment and Disturbance Torques

Gravitational torques

Atmosphere induced torques

Magnetic field induced torques

Solar radiation torques

Internal torques

Spacecraft Attitude Determination

Davenport’s formula

Attitude determination using QUEST and FOMA

Analytic solution of two vector measurements

Analytic formula for general case

Riemann-Newton method

Rotation rate determination using vector measurements

Astronomical Vector Measurements

Star vectors

Earth magnet field vectors

Sun vectors

Spacecraft Attitude Estimation

Extended Kalman filter using reduced quaternion model

Kalman filter using reduced quaternion model

A short comment

Spacecraft Attitude Control

LQR design for nadir pointing spacecraft

The LQR design for inertial pointing spacecraft

The LQR design is a robust pole assignment


Spacecraft Actuators

Reaction wheel and momentum wheel

Control moment gyros

Magnetic torque rods


Spacecraft Control Using Magnetic Torques

The linear time-varying model

Spacecraft controllability using magnetic torques

LQR design based on periodic Riccati equation

Attitude and desaturation combined control

LQR design based on a novel lifting method

Attitude Maneuver and Orbit-Raising

Attitude maneuver


Comparing quaternion and Euler angle designs

Attitude MPC Control

Some technical lemmas

Constrained MPC and convex QP with box constraints

Central path of convex QP with box constraints

An algorithm for convex QP with box constraints

Convergence analysis

Implementation issues

A design example

Proofs of technical lemmas

Spacecraft Control Using CMG

Spacecraft model using variable-speed CMG

Spacecraft attitude control using VSCMG

Simulation test

Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking


Spacecraft model for rendezvous

Model predictive control system design

Simulation test

Appendix A First Order Optimality Conditions

A.1 Problem introduction

A.2 Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions

Appendix B Optimal Control

B.1 General discrete-time optimal control problem

B.2 Solution of discrete-time LQR control problem

B.3 LQR control for discrete-time LTI system

Appendix C Robust Pole Assignment

C.1 Eigenvalue sensitivity to the perturbation

C.2 Robust pole assignment algorithms

C.3 Misrikhanov and Ryabchenko Algorithm




About the Author

Yaguang Yang received his B.S. (1982) and M.S. (1985) degrees from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. From 1985 to 1990, he was a lecturer at Zhejiang University in China. In 1996 he received a PhD degree from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Maryland, College Park. He designed and implemented control systems at UKIRT, CIENA, ITT, and Orbital Sciences Corporation. He is currently with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Design / General