Spatial Variation of Seismic Ground Motions : Modeling and Engineering Applications book cover
1st Edition

Spatial Variation of Seismic Ground Motions
Modeling and Engineering Applications

ISBN 9780849399299
Published April 28, 2009 by CRC Press
486 Pages 174 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The spatial variation of seismic ground motions denotes the differences in the seismic time histories at various locations on the ground surface. This text focuses on the spatial variability of the motions that is caused by the propagation of the waveforms from the earthquake source through the earth strata to the ground surface, and it brings together the various aspects underlying this complicated phenomenon.

Topics covered include:

  • Evaluation of the spatial variability from seismic data recorded at dense instrument arrays by means of signal processing techniques
  • Presentation of the most widely used parametric coherency models, along with brief descriptions of their derivation
  • Illustration of the causes underlying the spatial variation of the motions and its physical interpretation
  • Estimation of seismic ground-surface strains from single station data, spatial array records, and analytical methods
  • Introduction of the concept of random vibrations as applied to discrete-parameter and continuous structural systems on multiple supports
  • Generation of simulations and conditional simulations of spatially variable seismic ground motions
  • Overview of the effects of the spatial variability of seismic motions on the response of long structures, such as pipelines, bridges and dams, with brief descriptions of select seismic codes that incorporate spatial variability issues in their design recommendations

This book may serve as a tutorial and/or reference for graduate students, researchers and practicing engineers interested in advancing the current state of knowledge in the analysis and modeling of the spatial variation of the seismic ground motions, or utilizing spatially variable excitations in the seismic response evaluation of long structures.

Table of Contents


Stochastic estimation of spatial variability

Basic definitions

Stochastic processes

Bi-variate stochastic processes


Multi-variate stochastic processes and stochastic fields

Parametric modeling of spatial variability

Parametric power spectral densities

Early studies on spatial variability

Dependence of coherency on physical parameters

Parametric coherencymodeling

Parametric cross spectrum modeling

Physical characterization of spatial variability

Frequency-wavenumber (F-K) spectra

Amplitude and phase variability

Seismic ground-surface strains

Semi-empirical estimation of the propagation velocity

Estimation of the surface strain field

Accuracy of single-station strain estimation

Incoherence vs propagation effects in surface strains

Displacement gradient estimation from array data

Considerations in the estimation of seismic ground strains

Random vibrations for multi-support excitations

Introduction to random vibrations

Discrete-parameter systems

Distributed-parameter systems

Analysis of rms lifeline response

Additional random vibration considerations

Simulations of spatially variable ground motions

Simulation of random processes

Simulation of random fields

Simulation ofmulti-variate stochastic vector processes

Conditionally simulated ground motions

Conditional simulation of random processes

Processing of simulated acceleration time series

Example applications

Engineering Applications

Large, mat, rigid foundations


Suspension and cable-stayed bridges

Highway bridges

Some concluding remarks


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