4th Edition

Special Tests for Orthopedic Examination

    First published more than 20 years ago, Special Tests for Orthopedic Examination, now in its Fourth Edition, continues to follow the authors’ initial goals of providing a simple, pocket-sized manual for practical learning purposes.
    The Fourth Edition provides critical and invaluable information on the most current and practical special tests used during an orthopedic examination. The efficient user-friendly, spiral-bound format allows for easy access to individualized special tests.
    Special Tests for Orthopedic Examination, Fourth Edition includes 160 special tests, 6 of which are new:

    • Ballottement Test
    • Gerber’s Test (Lift-Off Test)
    • Painful Arc Sign
    • Thessaly Test
    • Quad Active Test
    • Lelli Test for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Inside Special Tests for Orthopedic Examination Fourth Edition, Jeff G. Konin, Denise Lebsack, Alison R. Snyder Valier, and Jerome A. Isear, Jr. have included a new section on evidence, where the authors have highlighted systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or single articles to address reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the special tests, where available.
    What is new and updated in the Fourth Edition:

    • Includes a video website that provides visually enhanced dimensional and motion analysis of each special test performed
    • Includes 160 special tests, 6 of which are new to this edition
    • Includes information on reliability, sensitivity, and specificity presented in a table format
    • New evidence section highlight systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or single articles for special tests, where available
    • New color images for each test
    • Updated references for all tests

    Bonus Material!
    Special Tests for Orthopedic Examination, Fourth Edition includes a video website with each new book purchase. This video website offers a unique approach that provides a visually enhanced dimensional and motion analysis of each special test performed. The video segments will help students and clinicians better understand the test motion in order to perform the test accurately during an orthopedic examination.
    The simple yet succinct information provided throughout the manual and on the video website will help clinicians make informed decisions during an orthopedic examination, from understanding to performing and evaluating the special tests.
    Special Tests for Orthopedic Examination, Fourth Edition will carry on the tradition of past editions as being the premier resource for thousands of students, clinicians, and rehabilitation professionals.

    About the Authors


    Foreword by Edward G. McFarland, MD

    Section 1: Temporomandibular. Chvostek’s Sign. Loading Test. Palpation Test.

    Section 2: Cervical Spine. Vertebral Artery Test. Foraminal Compression Test (Spurling) Foraminal Distraction Test. Valsalva’s Maneuver Swallowing Test Tinel’s Sign.

    Section 3: Shoulder Empty Can (Supraspinatus) Test. Yergason Test. Speed’s Test. Ludington’s Sign. Drop Arm Test. Lateral Scapular Slide Test (LSST). Apley’s Scratch Test. Cross-Over Impingement Test. Posterior Impingement Test. Neer Impingement Test. Hawkins-Kennedy Impingement Test. Sternoclavicular (SC) Joint Stress Test. Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Distraction Test. Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Compression Test (Shear). Piano Key Sign. Apprehension Test (Anterior). Apprehension Test (Posterior). Sulcus Sign Anterior Drawer Test Posterior Drawer Test Jobe Relocation Test Surprise Test (Active Release Test). Feagin Test. Load and Shift Test. Grind Test. Clunk Test. Crank Test . O’Brien Test (Active Compression). Brachial Plexus Stretch Test. Adson’s Maneuver. Allen’s Test. Roos Test (Elevated Arm Stress Test). Military Brace Position. Gerber’s Test (Lift-Off Test). Jerk Test (Posterior Stress). Painful Arc Sign

    Section 4: Elbow. Resistive Tennis Elbow Test (Cozen’s Test). Resistive Tennis Elbow Test. Passive Tennis Elbow Test Golfer’s Elbow Test Hyperextension Test. Elbow Flexion Test. Varus Stress Test. Valgus Stress Test. Tinel’s Sign. Pinch Grip Test.

    Section 5: Wrist and Hand. Tap or Percussion Test. Compression Test. Long Finger Flexion Test. Finkelstein Test. Phalen Test. Reverse Phalen Test Tinel’s Sign. Froment’s Sign. Wrinkle Test. Digital Allen’s Test. Bunnel Littler Test. Murphy’s Sign Watson Test. Valgus Stress Test. Varus Stress Test. Ballottement Test.

    Section 6: Thoracic Spine. Kernig/Brudzinski Signs. Lateral and Anterior/Posterior Rib Compression Tests. Inspiration/Expiration Breathing Test.

    Section 7: Lumbar Spine. Valsalva’s Maneuver. Stoop Test. Hoover Test. Kernig/Brudzinski Signs. 90-90 Straight Leg Raise Test. Bowstring Test (Cram Test). Sitting Root Test. Unilateral Straight Leg Raise Test (Lasègue Test). Bilateral Straight Leg Raise Test. Well Straight Leg Raise Test (Crossed Straight Leg Raise). Slump Test. Thomas Test. Spring Test. Trendelenburg’s Test. Stork Standing Test

    Section 8: Sacral Spine. Sacroiliac (SI) Joint Fixation Test Gillet Test. Sacroiliac (SI) Joint Stress Test. Squish Test. Yeoman’s Test Gaenslen’s Test. Patrick or FABER Test. Long-Sitting Test.

    Section 9: Hip. Hip Scouring/Quadrant Test. Craig’s Test. 90-90 Straight Leg Raise Test. Patrick or FABER Test. Trendelenburg’s Test. Ober’s Test. Piriformis Test Thomas Test. Ely’s Test. Femoral Nerve Traction Test.

    Section 10: Knee. Patella Tendon/Patella Ligament Length Test. Patellar Apprehension Test. Ballotable Patella or Patella Tap Test. Sweep Test (Wipe, Brush, Bulge, or Stroke Test).Q-Angle Test. Medial-Lateral Grind Test. Bounce Home Test. Patellar Grind Test (Clarke’s Sign). Renne Test. Noble Test. Hughston’s Plica Test. Godfrey 90/90 Test Posterior Sag Test (Gravity Drawer Test). Reverse Pivot Shift (Jakob Test). Anterior Lachman’s Test. Anterior Drawer Test. Slocum Test With Internal Tibial Rotation. Slocum Test With External Tibial Rotation. Pivot Shift Test. Jerk Test. Posterior Drawer Test Hughston Posteromedial Drawer Test Hughston Posterolateral Drawer Test. Posterior Lachman’s Test. External Rotation Recurvatum Test. Dial Test (Tibial External Rotation Test). Valgus Stress Test. Varus Stress Test. McMurray Test. Apley Compression Test. Steinman’s Tenderness Displacement Test. Thessaly Test. Ober’s Test. Quad Active Test. Lelli Test for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries.

    Section 11: Ankle and Foot. Sign. Anterior Drawer Test. Talar Tilt Test (Inversion). Talar Tilt Test (Eversion).Thompson Test. Tap or Percussion Test. Feiss Line. Interdigital Neuroma Test. Compression (Squeeze) Test. Long Bone Compression Test Swing Test. Kleiger’s Test. Tinel’s Sign.

    Section 12: Contemporary Special Tests.

    Financial Disclosures



    Jeff G. Konin, PhD, ATC, PT, FACSM, FNATA is a Professor and the Chair of the Physical Therapy Department at the University of Rhode Island in Kingston, Rhode Island. One of the original authors of this textbook, Dr. Konin is recognized as a Fellow by both the American College of Sports Medicine and the National Athletic Trainers’ Association for his contributions.

    Denise Lebsack, PhD, ATC has been an Associate Professor of Athletic Training in the School of Exercise & Nutritional Sciences at San Diego State University (SDSU) since 1994. During much of that time she has served as the Athletic Training Program Director, and has coordinated 3 separate Self Study Reports for the Athletic Training Education Program’s accreditation.

    Alison R. Snyder Valier, PhD, ATC, FNATA is a Professor for the PostProfessional Athletic Training Program and Doctor of Athletic Training Program at A. T. Still University (ATSU) in Mesa, Arizona. She also serves as the Assistant Director of Research Support through Research, Grants, and Information Technology Systems, as well as a research faculty in the School of Osteopathic Medicine–Arizona, at ATSU.