1st Edition

Spectral, Photon Counting Computed Tomography Technology and Applications

Edited By Katsuyuki Taguchi, Ira Blevis, Krzysztof Iniewski Copyright 2020
    440 Pages 10 Color & 238 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    440 Pages 10 Color & 238 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    440 Pages 10 Color & 238 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Spectral, Photon Counting Computed Tomography is a comprehensive cover of the latest developments in the most prevalent imaging modality (x-ray computed tomography (CT)) in its latest incarnation: Spectral, Dual-Energy, and Photon Counting CT. Disadvantages of the conventional single-energy technique used by CT technology are that different materials cannot be distinguished and that the noise is larger. To address these problems, a novel spectral CT concept has been proposed. Spectral Dual-Energy CT (DE-CT) acquires two sets of spectral data, and Spectral Photon Counting CT (PC-CT) detects energy of x-ray photons to reveal additional material information of objects by using novel energy-sensitive, photon-counting detectors. The K-edge imaging may be a gateway for functional or molecular CT. The book covers detectors and electronics, image reconstruction methods, image quality assessments, a simulation tool, nanoparticle contrast agents, and clinical applications for spectral CT.

    Part I Spectral, Dual-Energy CT: Clinical Perspective and Applications

    Chapter 1 Spectral Imaging Technologies and Apps and Dual-Layer Detector Solution

    Nadav Shapira, Yoad Yagil, Naor Wainer, and Ami Altman

    Chapter 2 Clinical Applications of Dual Energy CT in Neuroradiology

    Rajiv Gupta, Maarten Poirot, and Rick Bergmans

    Chapter 3 Clinical Perspective on Dual Energy Computed Tomography

    Charis McNabney, Shamir Rai, and Darra T. Murphy

    Part II Spectral, Photon-Counting CT: Clinical Perspective and Applications

    Chapter 4 Imaging of the Breast with Photon-Counting Detectors

    Stephen J. Glick and Bahaa Ghammraoui

    Chapter 5 Clinical Applications of Photon-Counting Detector Computed Tomography

    Shuai Leng, Shengzhen Tao, Kishore Rajendran, and Cynthia H. McCollough

    Chapter 6 Clinical Perspectives of Spectral Photon-Counting CT

    Salim Si-Mohamed, Loic Boussel, and Philippe Douek

    Chapter 7 Spectral CT Imaging Using MARS Scanners

    Aamir Raja et al

    Chapter 8 Advances in and Uses of Contrast Agents for Spectral Photon Counting Computed Tomography

    Johoon Kim, Pratap C. Naha, Peter B. Noël, and David P. Cormode

    Chapter 9 Clinical Applications of Spectral Computed Tomography: Enabling Technique for Novel Contrast Development and Targeting Imaging?

    Thorsten Fleiter

    Part III Photon-Counting Detectors for Spectral CT

    Chapter 10 X-Ray Detectors for Spectral Photon Counting CT

    Ira Blevis

    Chapter 11 Spectral Performance of Photon-Counting X-Ray Detectors: How Well Can We Capture the Rainbow?

    Peter Trueb, Pietro Zambon, and Christian Broennimann

    Chapter 12 Photon Counting Detectors Viewed as Nonlinear, Shift-Variant Systems

    Thomas Koenig

    Chapter 13 Signal Generation in Semiconductor Detectors for Photon-Counting CT

    Xiaochun Lai, Liang Cai, Kevin Zimmerman, and Richard Thompson

    Chapter 14 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for Spectral Photon Counting

    Chris Siu, Conny Hansson, and Krzysztof Iniewski

    Chapter 15 ChromAIX: Energy-Resolving Photon Counting Electronics for High-Flux Spectral CT

    Roger Steadman, Christoph Herrmann, and Amir Livne

    Chapter 16 Modeling the Imaging Performance of Photon Counting X-Ray Detectors

    Jesse Tanguay and Ian Cunningham

    Chapter 17 Design Considerations for Photon-Counting Detectors: Connecting Detector Characteristics to System Performance

    Scott S. Hsieh

    Chapter 18 Photon Counting Detector Simulator: Photon Counting Toolkit (PcTK)

    Katsuyuki Taguchi

    Part IV Image Reconstruction for Spectral CT

    Chapter 19 Image Formation in Spectral Computed Tomography

    Simon Rit, Cyril Mory, and Peter B. Noël

    Chapter 20 Spectral Distortion Compensation for Spectral CT

    Okkyun Lee and Katsuyuki Taguchi

    Chapter 21 Novel Regularization Method with Knowledge of Region Types and Boundaries

    Kenji Amaya and Katsuyuki Taguchi


    Katsuyuki “Ken” Taguchi, Ph.D. is Professor in The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He has pioneered and implemented algorithms for prototypes and commercial scanners such as multi-slice CT in 1998, cardiac CT in 2000, and 256-slice CT in 2002. Due to those seminal works and his significant contribution, Dr. Taguchi has received IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society 2008 Young Investigator Medical Imaging Science Award. 

    Ira Blevis is Principal Scientist in Philips Healthcare developing semiconductor radiation detectors and Photon Counting CT based on them. Recent progress with the detectors led to a prototype PC scanner based on CZT which served as a basis for an EU H2020 grant awarded to develop a full size prototype for clinical use; Ira served a term as Director of the Philips Project and serves as Philips PI on the Grant.

    Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski is managing R&D development activities at Redlen Technologies Inc., a compound semiconductor detector company based in British Columbia, Canada. During his 12 years at Redlen he managed development of highly integrated CZT detector products in medical imaging and security applications.