Spectral, Photon Counting Computed Tomography : Technology and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Spectral, Photon Counting Computed Tomography
Technology and Applications

ISBN 9781138598126
Published July 15, 2020 by CRC Press
440 Pages 10 Color & 238 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Spectral, Photon Counting Computed Tomography is a comprehensive cover of the latest developments in the most prevalent imaging modality (x-ray computed tomography (CT)) in its latest incarnation: Spectral, Dual-Energy, and Photon Counting CT. Disadvantages of the conventional single-energy technique used by CT technology are that different materials cannot be distinguished and that the noise is larger. To address these problems, a novel spectral CT concept has been proposed. Spectral Dual-Energy CT (DE-CT) acquires two sets of spectral data, and Spectral Photon Counting CT (PC-CT) detects energy of x-ray photons to reveal additional material information of objects by using novel energy-sensitive, photon-counting detectors. The K-edge imaging may be a gateway for functional or molecular CT. The book covers detectors and electronics, image reconstruction methods, image quality assessments, a simulation tool, nanoparticle contrast agents, and clinical applications for spectral CT.

Table of Contents

Part I Spectral, Dual-Energy CT: Clinical Perspective and Applications

Chapter 1 Spectral Imaging Technologies and Apps and Dual-Layer Detector Solution

Nadav Shapira, Yoad Yagil, Naor Wainer, and Ami Altman

Chapter 2 Clinical Applications of Dual Energy CT in Neuroradiology

Rajiv Gupta, Maarten Poirot, and Rick Bergmans

Chapter 3 Clinical Perspective on Dual Energy Computed Tomography

Charis McNabney, Shamir Rai, and Darra T. Murphy

Part II Spectral, Photon-Counting CT: Clinical Perspective and Applications

Chapter 4 Imaging of the Breast with Photon-Counting Detectors

Stephen J. Glick and Bahaa Ghammraoui

Chapter 5 Clinical Applications of Photon-Counting Detector Computed Tomography

Shuai Leng, Shengzhen Tao, Kishore Rajendran, and Cynthia H. McCollough

Chapter 6 Clinical Perspectives of Spectral Photon-Counting CT

Salim Si-Mohamed, Loic Boussel, and Philippe Douek

Chapter 7 Spectral CT Imaging Using MARS Scanners

Aamir Raja et al

Chapter 8 Advances in and Uses of Contrast Agents for Spectral Photon Counting Computed Tomography

Johoon Kim, Pratap C. Naha, Peter B. Noël, and David P. Cormode

Chapter 9 Clinical Applications of Spectral Computed Tomography: Enabling Technique for Novel Contrast Development and Targeting Imaging?

Thorsten Fleiter

Part III Photon-Counting Detectors for Spectral CT

Chapter 10 X-Ray Detectors for Spectral Photon Counting CT

Ira Blevis

Chapter 11 Spectral Performance of Photon-Counting X-Ray Detectors: How Well Can We Capture the Rainbow?

Peter Trueb, Pietro Zambon, and Christian Broennimann

Chapter 12 Photon Counting Detectors Viewed as Nonlinear, Shift-Variant Systems

Thomas Koenig

Chapter 13 Signal Generation in Semiconductor Detectors for Photon-Counting CT

Xiaochun Lai, Liang Cai, Kevin Zimmerman, and Richard Thompson

Chapter 14 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for Spectral Photon Counting

Chris Siu, Conny Hansson, and Krzysztof Iniewski

Chapter 15 ChromAIX: Energy-Resolving Photon Counting Electronics for High-Flux Spectral CT

Roger Steadman, Christoph Herrmann, and Amir Livne

Chapter 16 Modeling the Imaging Performance of Photon Counting X-Ray Detectors

Jesse Tanguay and Ian Cunningham

Chapter 17 Design Considerations for Photon-Counting Detectors: Connecting Detector Characteristics to System Performance

Scott S. Hsieh

Chapter 18 Photon Counting Detector Simulator: Photon Counting Toolkit (PcTK)

Katsuyuki Taguchi

Part IV Image Reconstruction for Spectral CT

Chapter 19 Image Formation in Spectral Computed Tomography

Simon Rit, Cyril Mory, and Peter B. Noël

Chapter 20 Spectral Distortion Compensation for Spectral CT

Okkyun Lee and Katsuyuki Taguchi

Chapter 21 Novel Regularization Method with Knowledge of Region Types and Boundaries

Kenji Amaya and Katsuyuki Taguchi

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Katsuyuki “Ken” Taguchi, Ph.D. is Professor in The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He has pioneered and implemented algorithms for prototypes and commercial scanners such as multi-slice CT in 1998, cardiac CT in 2000, and 256-slice CT in 2002. Due to those seminal works and his significant contribution, Dr. Taguchi has received IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society 2008 Young Investigator Medical Imaging Science Award. 

Ira Blevis is Principal Scientist in Philips Healthcare developing semiconductor radiation detectors and Photon Counting CT based on them. Recent progress with the detectors led to a prototype PC scanner based on CZT which served as a basis for an EU H2020 grant awarded to develop a full size prototype for clinical use; Ira served a term as Director of the Philips Project and serves as Philips PI on the Grant.

Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski is managing R&D development activities at Redlen Technologies Inc., a compound semiconductor detector company based in British Columbia, Canada. During his 12 years at Redlen he managed development of highly integrated CZT detector products in medical imaging and security applications.