It would not be an exaggeration to say that during the last century, most especially during and since the 1960s, the language of spirituality has become one of the most significant ways in which the sacred has come to be understood and judged in the West, and, increasingly, elsewhere. Whether it is true that ‘spirituality’ has eclipsed ‘religion’ in Western settings remains debatable. What is incontestable is that the language of spirituality, together with practices (most noticeably spiritual, complementary, and alternative medicine), has become a major feature of the sacred dimensions of contemporary modernity. Equally incontestably, spirituality is a growing force in all those developing countries where its presence is increasingly felt among the cosmopolitan elite, and where spiritual forms of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine are thriving.
This new four-volume Major Work collection from Routledge provides a coherent compilation of landmark texts which cannot be ignored by those intent on making sense of what is happening to the sacred as spirituality—more exactly what is taken to be spirituality—develops as an increasingly important lingua franca, series of practices, and as a humanistic ethicality.
Spirituality in the Modern World
Within Religious Tradition and Beyond
Volume One - Overview: Spirituality, the Perennial and the Zoned
1. Paul Heelas 2011: ‘On Making Some Sense of Spirituality’
2. Paul Heelas 2011: ‘On Some Major Issues’
3. Paul Heelas 2011: ‘On the Volumes’
2. On formulating the perennial and the zoned
(a) Perennial spirituality within and beyond religious - tradition -
4. Aldous Huxley 2004 : The Perennial Philosophy. An Interpretation of the Great Mystics, East and West. New York: Perennial, pp. vii-xi.
5. Harold Bloom 1993: extracts from ‘Enthusiasm, Gnosticism, American Orphism’ and ‘The New Age: California Orphism’, in The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation, New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 45-58; 181-188.
6. M. H. Abrams 1973: extract from Natural Supernaturalism. Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. London: W. W. Norton, pp. 429-437
7. Mark C. Taylor 1992: Disfiguring. Art, Architecture, Religion. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 18-23.
8. Georg Simmel 1997: ‘On the Salvation of the Soul’ (orig. 1903), in Georg Simmel Essays on Religion, London: Yale University Press, pp. 29-35.
(b) On differentiating spirituality within and beyond religious tradition
9. David M. Wulff 1997: ‘Spirituality: A Contemporary Alternative’, in Psychology of Religion. Classic and Contemporary. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5-7
10. Peter C. Hill, Kenneth I. Pargament, Ralph W. Hood et al. 2000: ‘Conceptualizing Religion and Spirituality: Points of Commonality, Points of Departure’, Journal of the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30 (1), pp. 51-77.
11. Charles Taylor 2007: extract from ‘Religion Today’, in A Secular Age, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, pp. 506 – 513.
12. Joseph B. Tamney 2002: extracts from ‘Truth Church’, in The Resilience of Conservative Religion. The Case of Popular, Conservative Protestant Congregations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 119-136; 152-156.
13. Robert C. Fuller 2001: ‘Unchurched Spirituality. An Introduction’, pp. 1-12, in Spiritual but not Religious. Understanding Unchurched America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
14. Rodney Stark, Eva Hamberg and Alan Miller 2005: ‘Exploring Spirituality and Unchurched Religions in America, Sweden, and Japan’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 20 (1), pp. 3-23.
15. Catherine L. Albanese 1999: ‘The Subtle Energies of Spirit: Explorations in Metaphysical and New Age Spirituality’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 67 (2), pp. 305-325.
3. Illustrating diversity: some cultural and practical zones
16. Peter H. Van Ness 1996: ‘Introduction: Spirituality and the Secular Quest’, in Peter H. Van Ness (ed.) Spirituality and the Secular Quest, London: SCM Press, pp. 1-17.
17. Agnieszka Dyczewska 2008: ‘Vegetarianism as an Example of Dispersed Religiosity’, Implicit Religion, 11 (2), pp. 111-125.
18. Kate Khatib 2006: ‘Automatic Theologies. Surrealism and the Politics of Equality’, in Hent de Vries and Lawrence E. Sullivan (eds) Political Theologies, Religion in a Post-Secular World, Fordham: Fordham University Press, pp. 617-632.
19. Mark C. Taylor 1998: ‘Terminal Faith’, in Paul Heelas, with the assistance of David Martin and Paul Morris (eds) Religion, Modernity and Postmodernity, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 36-54.
20. (18) Stef Aupers 2010: ‘"Where the Zeroes Meet the Ones". Exploring the Affinity between Magic and Computer Technology’, in Stef Aupers and Dick Houtman (eds) Religions of Modernity. Relocating the Sacred to the Self and the Digital. Leiden: Brill, pp. 219-238.
4. On counting zones
21. David Hay 2002: ‘The Spirituality of Adults in Britain – Recent Research’, Scottish Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy, 5 (1), pp. 4-9
22. Paul Heelas and Dick Houtman 2009: ‘Research Note: RAMP Findings and Making Sense of the "God Within Each Person, Rather than Out There"’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 24 (1), pp. 83-98.
23. Dick Houtman and Stef Aupers 2007: ‘The Spiritual Turn and the Decline of Tradition. The Spread of Post-Christian Spirituality in 14 Western Countries, 1981-2000’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 46 (3), pp. 305-320;
24i. Sergey Flere and Andrey Kirbis 2009: ‘New Age, Religiosity, and Traditionalism: A Cross-Cultural Comparison’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48 (1), pp. 161-169.
24ii. Dick Houtman, Paul Heelas and Stef Aupers 2009: ‘Christian Religiosity and New Age Spirituality: A Cross-Cultural Comparison’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48 (1), pp. 169-179.
24iii. Sergey Flere and Andrey Kirbis 2009: ‘New Age is Not Inimical to Religion and Traditionalism’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2009: 48 (1), pp. 179-184.
5. Changing zones
25. Mark C. Taylor 1992: extract from Disfiguring. Art, Architecture, Religion. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 64-66
26. Inger Furseth 2005: ‘From "Everything Has a Meaning" to "I want to Believe in Something": Religious Change Between Two Generations of Women in Norway’, Social Compass, 52, pp. 157-168.
27. Tony Glendinning and Steve Bruce 2006: ‘New Ways of Believing or Belonging: Is Religion Giving Way to Spirituality?’, The British Journal of Sociology, 57 (3), pp. 399-414.
Volume Two - Spirituality From Within Religious Tradition
28. Walter Principe 1983: ‘Toward Defining Spirituality’, Studies in Religion, 12 (2), pp. 127-141.
29. Pontifical Council for Culture and Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialogue 2003: extract from ‘Jesus Christ The Bearer of the Water of Life. A Christian Reflection on the "New Age"’, Manchester: CTS Manchester, pp. 38-41.
30. Stefania Palmisano 2010: ‘Spirituality and Catholicism: The Italian Experience’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 25 (2), pp. 221-241.
31. Johan Roeland and Peter Versteeg, ‘Transformations of Dutch Protestantism: The Turn to Experiential Belief’.
32. Phillip C. Lucas 1992: ‘The New Age Movement and the Pentecostal/Charismatic Revival: Distinct Yet Parallel Phases of a Fourth Great Awakening?’, in James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton (eds) Perspectives on the New Age. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 189-211.
33. James Davison Hunter 1987: ‘The Self Examined’, in Evangelicalism. The Coming Generation, London: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 64-71
34. Elizabeth Sirriyeh 2004: ‘Sufi Thought and its Reconstruction’, in Suha Taji-Farouki and Basheer M. Nafi (eds) Islamic Thought in the Twentieth Century. London: I.B. Tauris, pp. 104-127.
6. Contexts of participant-affirmed value
(a) World Peace
35. Ralph Pettman 2010: ‘In Pursuit of World Peace: Modernism, Sacralism and Cosmopiety’, Global Change, Peace and Security, 22 (2), pp. 197-212.
36. Ian Harris 1995: Buddhist Environmental Ethics and Detraditionalization: The Case of EcoBuddhism’, Religion, 25 (3), pp. 199-211.
37. Michael S. Northcott 2005: ‘Wilderness, Religion and Ecological Restoration in the Scottish Highlands’, Ecotheology, 10 (3), pp. 382-399.
38. Mark I Wallace 2002: ‘God is Underfoot: Pneumatology after Derrida’, in John D Caputo (ed.) The Religious. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 197-211.
(c) Growing up
39. Barbara Wintersgill 2009: ‘Andrew Wright’s Critical Realism, Clive Erricker’s Radical Postmodernism and Teenage Perceptions of Spirituality’, in Tore Ahlback and Bjorn Dahla (eds), Postmodern Spirituality, Abo: Donner Institute for Research in Religious and Cultural History, pp. 259-276.
40. Richard W. Flory and Donald E. Miller ‘The Embodied Spirituality of the Post-Boomer Generations’, in Kieran Flangan and Peter C. Jupp (eds) A Sociology of Spirituality. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 201-218.
(d) Feminism and gender
41. Linda Woodhead 1997: ‘Spiritualizing the Sacred: A Critique of Feminist Theology’, Modern Theology, 13 (2), pp. 191-212.
42. Melissa Raphael 1996: ‘Truth in Flux: Goddess Feminism as a Late Modern Religion’, Religion 26 (3), pp. 199-213.
43. Donna Maeda 1997: ‘The Other Woman: Irreducible Alterity in Feminist Thealogies’, Religion 27 (2), pp. 123-8.
44. Graham Howes 2007: ‘From Religion to Spirituality’, in The Art of the Sacred. London: IB Tauris, pp. 130-145.
45. Mario Fernando and Brad Jackson 2006: ‘The Influence of Religion-based Workplace Spirituality on Business Leaders’ Decision-making: An Inter-faith Study’, Journal of Management & Organization, 12 (1), pp. 23-39.
(g) Challenges to Religious Tradition from Beyond
46. Jeanne Openshaw 1997: ‘The Web of Deceit: Challenges to Hindu and Muslim "Orthodoxies" by "Bauls" of Bengal’, Religion, 27 (4), pp. 297-309.
Volume Three: -Autonomous- Spiritualities beyond Religious Tradition
7. Illustrating the most distinctively autonomous: ‘New Age’
47. Stef Aupers and Dick Houtman 2006: ‘Beyond the Spiritual Supermarket. The Social and Public Significance of New Age Spirituality’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 21 (2), pp. 201-222.
48. Stef Aupers 2005: ‘"We are all Gods". New Age in the Netherlands 1960-2000’, in Erik Sengers (ed.) The Dutch and Their Gods, Hilversum: Verlaren, pp. 180-201.
49. Liselotte Frisk 2007: ‘Quantitative Studies of New Age: A Summary and Discussion’, in Daren Kemp and James R. Lewis (eds) Handbook of New Age, Leiden: Brill, pp. 103-122.
8. Illustrating the somewhat less autonomous
50. Boas Huss 2007: ‘The New Age of Kabbalah. Contemporary Kabbalah, the New Age and Postmodern Spirituality’, Journal of Modern Jewish Studies, 6 (2), pp. 107-125.
51. Patrick Haenni and Raphael Voix 2007: ‘God by all Means… Eclectic Faith and Sufi Resurgence among the Moroccan Bourgeoisie’, in Martin van Bruinessen and Julia Day Howell (eds) Sufism and the ‘Modern’ in Islam. London: I.B. Tauris, pp. 240-256
52. Suha Taji-Farouki 2007: extract from Chapter 5, ‘The Beshara Perspective and the Teaching of Ibn ‘Arabi’, in Beshara and Ibn ‘Arabi. A Movement of Sufi Spirituality in the Modern World. Oxford: Anqa Publishing, pp. 97-106.
53. Masayuki Ito 2002: ‘New Spirituality in Contemporary Societies: A Comparative View on Japanese "Spiritual World"’, in Inken Prohl and Hartmut Zinswer (eds) Zen, Reiki, Karate. Hamburg: Lit Verlag Munster, pp. 91-108
9. ‘Internal’ dynamics, including ethicality
54. Steven M. Tipton 1982: ‘Antinomian Rules. The Ethical Outlook of American Zen Students’, in Getting Saved from the Sixties. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 95-175.
55. Benjamin Richard Smith 2007: ‘Body, Mind and Spirit? Towards an Analysis of the Practice of Yoga’, Body & Society, 13 (25), pp. 25-46
56. Jennifer Lea 2009: ‘Liberation or Limitation? Understanding Iyengar Yoga as a Practice of the Self’, Body & Society, 15, pp. 71-92.
57. Luce Irigaray 2003: ‘Eastern Teachings’ -, Between East and West. From Singularity to Community. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 49-71
10. Contexts of perceived value
58. Maya Warrier 2011: ‘Revisiting the "Easternisation" Thesis: The Spiritualisation of Ayurveda in Britain’.
59. Chikako Ozawa-De Silva and Brendan Ozawa-De Silva 2010: ‘Secularizing Religious Practices: 2010: A Study of Subjectivity and Existential Transformation in Naikan Therapy’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 49 (1), pp. 147-161
60. Ellie Hedges and James A. Beckford 2000: ‘Holism, Healing and the New Age’, pp. 169-187, in Steven Sutcliffe and Marion Bowman (eds), Beyond New Age. Exploring Alternative Spirituality, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
(b) The workplace
61. Don Grant, Kathleen O’Neil and Laura Stephens 2004: ‘Spirituality in the Workplace: New Empirical Directions in the Study of the Sacred’, Sociology of Religion, 65 (3), pp. 265-283.
62. Martin Ramstedt 2007: ‘New Age and Business’, in Daren Kemp and James R. Lewis (eds) Handbook of New Age, Leiden: Brill, pp. 103-122.
63. Paul Heelas 1992: ‘God's Company: New Age Ethics and the Bank of Credit and Commerce International’, Religion Today 8 (1), pp. 1-4
64. Mary Farrell Bedenarowski 1992: ‘The New Age Movement and Feminist Spirituality: Overlapping Conversations at the End of the Century’, in James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton (eds) Perspectives on the New Age, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 167-178.
65. Michael F. Brown 1997: ‘Towards Sacred Androgyny’, in The Channeling Zone, London: Harvard University Press, pp. 93-114.
66. Leslie Goode 2010: ‘Spiritualities of Life: The Neglected Role of the Artistic Paradigm’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 25 (1), pp. 107-123.
Volume Four - Explorations of Explanations
11. The matter of efficacy
67. Bernice Martin 1998: ‘From Pre- to Postmodernity in Latin America: The Case of Pentacostalism’, in Paul Heelas, with the assistance of David Martin and Paul Morris (eds) Religion, Modernity and Postmodernity, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 102-146.
68. Friday M. Mbon 1986: ‘The Social Impact of Nigeria’s New Religious Movements’, in James A. Beckford (ed.) New Religious Movements and Rapid Social Change. London: Sage, pp. 177-196.
69. Steve Bruce 2002: ‘The Failure of the New Age’, in God is Dead. Secularization in the West, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 75-105.
70. Teemu Taira 2009: ‘The Problem of Capitalism in the Scholarship on Contemporary Spirituality’, in Tore Ahlback and Bjorn Dahla (eds), Postmodern Spirituality, Abo: Donner Institute for Research in Religious and Cultural History, pp. 230-244.
71. Steven M. Tipton 1983: ‘Making the World Work: Ideas of Social Responsibility in the Human Potential Movement’, in Eileen Barker (ed.) Of Gods and Men. New Religious Movements in the West, Macon: Mercer Press, pp. 265-282.
72. Siobhan Chandler 2008: ‘The Social Ethic of Religiously Unaffiliated Spirituality’, Religion Compass, 2 (2) pp. 240-256
73. Witt, Annick Hedlund-de Witt 2011: ‘The Rising Culture and Worldview of Contemporary Spirituality: A Sociological Study of Potentials and Pitfalls for Sustainable Development’, Ecological Economics, 70, pp. 1057-1065.
74. Samira van Bohemen, Peter Achterberg, Dick Houtman and Katerina Manevska 2011: ‘Spirituality and Environmental Consciousness in the Netherlands. A Comparison of Holistic Spirituality and Christian Dualism’.
75. Siv Ellen Kraft 2009: ‘Sami Indigenous Spirituality: Religion and Nation-building in Norwegian Sapmi’, Temenos 45 (2), pp. 179-206.
76. Miguel Farias and Pehr Granqvist 2007: ‘The Psychology of the New Age’, in Daren Kemp and James R. Lewis (eds) Handbook of New Age, Leiden: Brill, pp. 123-150.
77. Klas Nevrin 2008: ‘Empowerment and Using the Body in Modern Postural Yoga’, in Mark Singleton and Jean Bryne (eds) Yoga in the Modern World. Contemporary Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 121-139.
78. Robert H. Sharf 2002: ‘The Uses and Abuses of Zen in the Twentieth Century’, in Inken Prohl and Hartmut Zinswer (eds) Zen, Reiki, Karate. Hamburg: Lit Verlag Munster, pp. 143-154.
79. Taeyon Kim 2003: ‘Neo-Confucian Body Techniques: Women’s Bodies in Korea’s Consumer Society’, Body & Society, 9, pp. 97-113.
12. The matter of change
80. Georg Simmel 1997: extracts from ‘The Conflict of Modern Culture’ (orig. 1918) and ‘The Problem of Religion Today’ (orig. 1911), - in Georg Simmel, Essays on Religion, London: Yale University Press, [-] pp. 20-25; pp. 7-19.
81. Charles Taylor 2007: extracts from A Secular Age, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, pp. 301-303; pp. 594 – 602.
82. Dick Houtman and Peter Mascini 2002: ‘Why do Churches become Empty, while New Age Grows? Secularization and Religious Change in the Netherlands’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41 (3), pp. 455-73.
83. Paul Heelas 2006: - ‘Explaining Growth’, in ‘Challenging Secularization Theory: The Growth of "New Age" Spiritualities of Life’, The Hedgehog Review, ‘After Secularization’, 8 (1&2), pp. 51-58.
84. John A. Astin 1998: ‘Why Patients Use Alternative Medicine. Results of a National Study’, Journal of the American Medical Association, 279 (19), pp. 1548-1553.
85. Ioan M. Lewis 1966: ‘Spirit Possession and Deprivation Cults’, Man, 1 (3), pp. 307-329.
86. Scott Taylor 2010: ‘Gendering in the Holistic Milieu: A Critical Realist Analysis of Homeopathic Work’, Gender, Work and Organization, 17 (4), pp. 454-474.
87. Maya Warrier 2006: ‘Modernity and its Imbalances: Constructing Modern Selfhood in the Mata Amritanandamayi Mission’, Religion 36, pp. 179-195.
88. Mark R. Mullins 1992: ‘Japan’s New Age and Neo-New Religions: Sociological Interpretations’, in James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton (eds) Perspectives on the New Age. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 232-246.
89. Inken Prohl 2007: ‘The Spiritual World: Aspects of New Age in Japan’, in Daren Kemp and James R. Lewis (eds) Handbook of New Age, Leiden: Brill, pp. 359-374.
The Critical Concepts in Religious Studies series has continued to publish titles on the key subject area. Titles span across the religions and consider some of the most engaging areas of interest, including fundamentalism and ethics.
New in the series, Comparative Religious Ethics is a first of its kind collection. An area where a mass of scholars have now emerged, comparative ethics is an appealing field of study throughout religious studies departments.