1st Edition

Sport, Gender, and Sexuality

Edited By Michael Messner
    1710 Pages
    by Routledge

    Sport, gender, and sexuality emerged as a field of serious academic interest in the 1970s and 1980s, and has now developed into a subject widely studied across the world. Now, this new four-volume collection from Routledge explores how sport was shaped historically as a gendered institution, and closely examines the gender and sexuality of mediated sport, specifically sport’s role in the creation and contestation of embodied gender and sexual categories.


    1. Critical Feminist Theoretical Foundations

    1. Nancy Theberge, ‘A Critique of Critiques: Radical and Feminist Writings on Sport’, Social Forces, 1981, 60, 341–53.

    2. M. Ann Hall, ‘How Should We Theorize Sport in a Capitalist Patriarchy?’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 1985, 1, 109–13.

    3. Paul Willis, ‘Women in Sport in Ideology’, in Jennifer Hargreaves (ed.), Sport, Culture, and Ideology (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982), pp. 117–35.

    4. Michael A. Messner, ‘Sports and Male Domination: The Female Athlete as Contested Ideological Terrain’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 1988, 5, 197–211.

    5. Eric Dunning, ‘Sport as a Male Preserve: Notes on the Social Sources of Masculine Identity and its Transformations’, Theory, Culture and Society, 1986, 3, 79–90.

    6. Todd Crosset, ‘Masculinity, Sexuality, and the Development of Early Modern Sport’, in Michael A. Messner and Donald F. Sabo (eds.), Sport, Men and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives (Human Kinetics Press, 1990), pp. 45–54.

    7. Lois Bryson, ‘Sport and the Maintenance of Masculine Hegemony’, Women’s Studies International Forum, 1987, 10, 349–60.

    2. Beyond Gender and Sexual Binaries

    8. Mary Jo Kane, ‘Resistance/Transformation of the Oppositional Binary: Exposing Sport as a Continuum’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 1995, 19, 191–218.

    9. Susan Birrell, ‘Women of Color, Critical Autobiography and Sport’, in Michael A. Messner and Donald F. Sabo (eds.), Sport, Men and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives (Human Kinetics Press, 1990), pp. 185–200.

    10. Ben Carrington, ‘Sport, Masculinity, and Black Cultural Resistance’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 1998, 22, 275–98.

    11. Brian Pronger, ‘Outta my Endzone: Sport and the Territorial Anus’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 1999, 23, 373–89.

    12. Jeffrey Montez de Oca, ‘As Our Muscles Get Softer, Our Missile Race Becomes Harder: Cultural Citizenship and the "Muscle Gap"’, Journal of Historical Sociology, 2005, 18, 145–71.

    13. D. Stevenson, ‘Women, Sport, and Globalization: Competing Discourses of Sexuality and Nation’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2002, 26, 209–25.

    14. Kendall L. Broad, ‘The Gendered Unapologetic: Queer Resistance in Women’s Sport’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 2001, 18, 2, 181–204

    3. Theorizing Multiplicity and Social Change

    15. Pirrko Markula, ‘The Technologies of the Self: Sport, Feminism, and Foucault’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 2003, 20, 87–107.

    16. Heather Sykes, ‘Turning the Closets Inside/Out: Towards a Queer-Feminist Theory in Women’s Physical Education’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 1998, 15, 2, 154–73.

    17. Ann Travers, ‘The Sport Nexus and Gender Injustice’, Studies in Social Justice, 2008, 2, 79–101.

    18. Gertrud Pfister, ‘Women in Sport: Gender Relations and Future Perspectives’, Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics, 2010, 13, 234–48.

    19. Michael A. Messner, ‘Gender Ideologies, Youth Sports, and the Production of Soft Essentialism’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 2011, 28, 151–70.


    4. Girls and Women

    20. Jennifer Ring, ‘America’s Baseball Underground’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2009, 33, 4, 373–89.

    21. Nancy Theberge, ‘"It’s Part of the Game": Physicality and the Production of Gender in Women’s Hockey’, Gender and Society, 1997, 11, 69–87.

    22. Symeon Dagkas, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi, and Margaret Talbot, ‘Reaffirming the Values of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport in the Lives Young Muslim Women’, in Tansin Benn, Gertrud Pfister, and Haifaa Jawad (eds.), Muslim Women and Sport (Routledge, 2010), pp. 13–24.

    23. Robin Kietlinski, ‘Female Athletes in Contemporary Japan’, in Robin Kietlinski, Japanese Women and Sport: Beyond Baseball and Sumo (Bloomsbury Academic, 2011), pp. 102–20.

    24. Cheryl Cooky, ‘Girls Just Aren’t Interested: The Social Construction of Interest in Girls’ Sport’, Sociological Perspectives, 2009, 52, 259–83.

    25. Jennifer Hargreaves, Heroines of Sport: The Politics of Difference and Identity (Routledge, 2000), pp. 18–36.

    26. Marcio Antonio Tralci Filho and Katia Rubio, ‘Between Confrontation and the Concession: The Identities of Brazilian Olympic Female Athletes’, International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2012, 2, 44–51.

    5. Boys and Men

    27. Alan Klein, ‘Dueling Machos: Masculinity and Sport in Mexican Baseball’, in Jim McKay, Michael A. Messner, and Don Sabo (eds.), Masculinities, Gender Relations and Sport (Sage Publications, 2000), pp. 67-85

    28. Timothy Curry, ‘Fraternal Bonding in the Locker Room: Pro-Feminist Analysis of Talk About Competition and Women’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 1991, 8, 119–35.

    29. Michael Messner, ‘Masculinities and Athletic Careers’, Gender and Society, 1989, 3, 71–88.

    30. Douglas Hartmann, ‘Notes on Midnight Basketball and the Cultural Politics of Recreation, Race and At-Risk Urban Youth’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2001, 25, 339–72.

    31. Eric Anderson, ‘Openly Gay Athletes: Contesting Hegemonic Masculinity in a Homophobic Environment’, Gender and Society, 2002, 16, 860–77.

    32. Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen, ‘Male Athletic and Managerial Masculinities: Congruencies in Discursive Practices?’, Journal of Gender Studies, 2005, 14, 123–35.

    6. Gender Relations in and Through Sport

    33. Maree Boyle and Jim McKay, ‘"You Leave Your Troubles at the Gate": A Case Study of the Exploitation of Older Women’s Labor and "Leisure" in Sport’, Gender and Society, 1995, 9, 556–76.

    34. Michael A. Messner and Suzel Bozada-Deas, ‘Separating the Men from the Moms: The Making of Adult Sex Segregation in Youth Sports’, Gender and Society, 2009, 23, 49–71.

    35. Mariann Vaczi, ‘Dangers Liaisons, Fatal Women: The Fear and Fantasy of Soccer Wives and Girlfriends in Spain’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport Online, 2014.

    36. Faye Linda Wachs, ‘Leveling the Playing Field: Negotiating Gendered Rules in Coed Softball’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2002, 26, 300–16.

    37. Michael A. Messner, ‘Barbie Girls vs. Sea Monsters: Children Constructing Gender’, Gender and Society, 2000, 14, 765–84.

    38. Michela Musto, ‘Athletes in the Pool, Girls and Boys on Deck: The Contextual Construction of Gender in Coed Youth Swimming’, Gender and Society, 2014, 13, 359–80.

    39. Ann Travers, ‘Queering Sport: Lesbian Softball Leagues and the Transgender Challenge’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 2006, 41, 3–4, 431–46.


    7. Producing Sports Media

    40. Nancy Theberge and A. Cronk, ‘Work Routines in Newspaper Sports Departments and the Coverage of Women’s Sports’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 1984, 3, 195–203.

    41. Mary Jo Kane and Lisa J. Disch, ‘Sexual Violence and the Reproduction of Male Power in the Locker Room: The "Lisa Olsen Incident"’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 1993, 10, 331–52.

    42. Susan Tyler Eastman and Andrew C. Billings, ‘Sportscasting and Sports Reporting: The Power of Gender Bias’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2001, 24, 192–213.

    43. Erin Whiteside and Marie Hardin, ‘On Being a "Good Sport" in the Workplace: Women, the Glass Ceiling, and Negotiated Resignation in Sports Information’, International Journal of Sport Communication, 2012, 5, 51–68.

    44. Bridget L. Gee and Sarah I. Leberman, ‘Sports Media Decision Making in France: How They Choose What We Get to See and Read’, International Journal of Sport Communication, 2011, 4, 321–43.

    8. Content and Textual Analyses

    45. Cheryl Cooky, Michael A. Messner, and Robin Hextrum, ‘Women Play Sports, But Not on TV: A Longitudinal Study of Televised News Media’, Communication and Sport, 2013, 1, 203–30.

    46. Nick Trujillo, ‘Machines, Missiles, and Men: Images of the Male Body on ABC’s Monday Night Football’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 1995, 12, 403–23.

    47. Jim McKay and H. Johnson, ‘Pornographic Eroticism and Sexual Grotesquerie in Representations of African-American Sportswomen’, Social Identities, 2008, 14, 491–504.

    48. Mary McDonald, ‘Unnecessary Roughness: Gender and Racial Politics in Domestic Violence Media Events’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 1999, 16, 111–33.

    49. Cheryl Cooky, Ranissa Dycus and Shari L. Dworkin, ‘"What Makes a Woman a Woman?" vs. "Our First Lady of Sport": A Comparative Analysis of United States and South African Media Coverage of Caster Semenya’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2013, 37, 31–56.

    50. Delia D. Douglas, ‘Forget Me … Not: Marion Jones and the Politics of Punishment’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2014, 38, 3–22.

    51. Kyle Green and Madison Van Oort, ‘"We Wear No Pants": Selling the Crisis of Masculinity in the 2010 Super Bowl Commercials’, Signs, 2013, 38, 695–719.

    52. Amy Godoy-Pressland and Gerald Griggs, ‘The Photographic Representation of Female Athletes in the British Print Media During the London 2012 Olympic Games’, Sport in Society, 2014, 17, 808–23.

    53. Helen Caple, Kate Greenwood, and Catherine Lumby, ‘"What League?" The Representation of Female Athletes in Australian Television Sports Coverage’, Media International Australia, 2011, 140, 137–46.

    9. Consumption of Sports Media

    54. David Nylund, ‘When in Rome: Homophobia, Heterosexism, and Sports Talk Radio’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2004, 28, 136–68.

    55. Carl Stempel, ‘Televised Sports, Masculinist Moral Capital, and Support for the U.S. Invasion of Iraq’, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 2006, 30, 79–106.

    56. Brad Millington and Brian Wilson, ‘Context Masculinities: Media Consumption, Physical Education, and Youth Identities’, American Behavioral Scientist, 2010, 53, 1669–88.

    57. E. A. Daniels, ‘Sex Objects, Athletes and Sexy Athletes: How Media Representations of Women Athletes Can Impact Adolescent Girls and College Women’, Journal of Adolescent Research, 2009, 24, 399–423.

    58. Mary Jo Kane, Nicole M. LaVoi, and J. S. Fink, ‘Exploring Elite Female Athletes’ Interpretations of Sport Media Images: A Window Into the Construction of Social Identity and "Selling Sex" in Women’s Sports’, Communication and Sport, 2013, 1–30.

    59. Ilan Tamir and Yair Galily, ‘Women’s Sports Coverage in Israel: Perception Versus Reality’, Journal of Sport Communication, 2010, 3, 92–112.


    10. Embodiments of Gender and Sexualities

    60. Raewyn Connell, ‘An Iron Man: The Body and Some Contradictions of Hegemonic Masculinity’, in Michael A. Messner and Donald F. Sabo (eds.), Sport, Men and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives (Human Kinetics Press, 1990), pp. 83–96.

    61. Shari L. Dworkin, ‘"Holding Back": Negotiating a Glass Ceiling on Women’s Muscular Strength’, Sociological Perspectives, 2001, 44, 433–50.

    62. Susan Birrell and C. L. Cole, ‘Double Fault: Renee Richards and the Construction and Naturalization of Difference’, in S. Birrell and C. L. Cole (eds.), Women, Sports and Culture (Human Kinetics Press, 1994), pp. 373–97.

    63. Jennifer Hargreaves, ‘Sport, Exercise and the Female Muslim Body: Negotiating Islam, Politics, and Male Power’, in Jennifer Hargreaves and Patricia Vertinsky (eds.), Physical Culture, Power and the Body (Routledge, 2007), pp. 74–100.

    64. Jorge Knijnik and Peter Horton, ‘Only Beautiful Women Need Apply: Human Rights and Gender in Brazilian Football’, Creative Approaches to Research, 2013, 6, 60–70.

    65. S. Cavanagh, ‘Transsexual Bodies at the Olympics: The International Olympic Committee’s Policy on Transsexual Athletes at the 2004 Athens Summer Games’, Body and Society, 2006, 12, 75–102.

    66. Ann Travers and J. Deri, ‘Transgender Inclusion and the Changing Face of Lesbian Softball Leagues’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 2011, 46, 488–507.

    67. Leslie Heywood, ‘Producing Girls: Empire, Sport and the Neoliberal Body’, in Jennifer Hargreaves and Patricia Vertinsky (eds.), Physical Culture, Power, and the Body (Routledge, 2007), pp. 101–20.

    68. Jorge Dorfman Knijnik, Peter Horton, and Livia Oliveira Cruz, ‘Rhizomatic Bodies, Gendered Waves: Transitional Femininities in Brazilian Surf’, Sport in Society, 2010, 13, 1170–85.

    11. Sport, Injuries, and Health

    69. Philip White and Kevin Young, ‘Gender, Sport and the Injury Process’, in Kevin Young and Phil White (eds.), Sport and Gender in Canada (Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 259–78.

    70. H. Charlesworth and Kevin Young, ‘Injured Female Athletes: Experiential Accounts from England and Canada’, in S. Loland, B. Skirstad and I. Waddington (eds.), Pain and Injury in Sport: Social and Ethical Analysis (Routledge, 2006), pp. 89–106.

    71. Kathleen Miller, Merrill Melnick, Michael Farrell, and Don Sabo, ‘Jocks, Gender, Binge Drinking, and Adolescent Violence’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2006, 21, 105–20.

    72. Michael Atkinson and Michael Kehler, ‘Boys, Gyms, Locker Rooms and Heterotopia’, in Michael Kehler and Michael Atkinson (eds.), Boys’ Bodies: Speaking the Unspoken (Peter Lang, 2010), pp. 73–90.

    73. Shari L. Dworkin and Faye Linda Wachs, ‘Disciplining the Body: HIV Positive Athletes, Media Surveillance, and the Policing of Sexuality’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 1998, 15, 1–20.

    12. Violence and Sport

    74. Michael A. Messner, ‘When Bodies Are Weapons: Masculinity and Violence in Sport’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 1990, 25, 203–20.

    75. Todd Crosset, J. Ptacek, M. McDonald, and Jeffrey Benedict, ‘Male Student Athletes and Violence Against Women: A Survey of Campus Judicial Affairs Offices’, Violence Against Women, 1996, 2, 163–79.

    76. Celia Brackenridge, ‘"He Owned Me Basically …": Women’s Experience of Sexual Abuse in Sport’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 1997, 32, 115–30.

    77. Kari Fasting, S. Chroni, S. E. Hervik, and N. Knorre, ‘Sexual Harassment in Sport Toward Females in Three European Countries’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 2011, 46, 76–89.

    78. Don Sabo, Philip M. Gray, and Linda M. Moore, ‘Domestic Violence and Televised Athletic Events: "It’s a Man Thing"’, in Jim McKay, Michael A. Messner, and Don Sabo (eds.), Masculinities, Gender Relations and Sport (Sage, 2000), pp. 127–46.

    79. Alan Bairner, ‘After the War? Soccer, Masculinity, and Violence in Northern Ireland’, in Jim McKay, Michael A. Messner, and Don Sabo (eds.), Masculinities, Gender Relations and Sport (Sage, 2000), pp. 176–94.