Sprayed concrete lined (SCL) tunnels are growing rapidly in popularity due to their versatility. The design and construction of both hard rock and soft ground tunnels has been revolutionised by the advent of the SCL method and now the use of permanent sprayed concrete linings has unlocked the true potential of the method to minimise construction costs and times. Yet the complex early age behaviour of the sprayed concrete makes the design difficult and requires a robust management system during construction. Consequently the great advantages of the method must be balanced against the risks, as a few high-profile tunnel collapses have illustrated.
Practising engineers on site, in the design office or in client organizations will find this book an excellent introduction. It covers all aspects of SCL tunnelling – from the constituents of sprayed concrete to detailed design and management during construction. Although there is a close interdependence between all the facets of sprayed concrete, few engineers have the right breadth of experience and expertise to cover all of them. This urgently needs to be transferred to the wider engineering community as SCL tunnels play an increasingly important role in the delivery of the underground infrastructure which modern urban life demands.
In this second edition, beyond a general updating to reflect new developments, the sections on permanent sprayed concrete, the innovative technology of spray applied waterproofing membranes, fibre reinforcement (both steel and macrosynthetic) and composite lining design have been expanded. Sustainability and environmental impact are addressed in a new section.
Table of Contents
1. What is an SCL Tunnel? 2. Sprayed Concrete 3. Construction Methods 4. Design Approaches 5. Modelling Sprayed Concrete 6. Detailed Design 7. Construction Management
Alun Thomas is an independent tunnel designer and the founder of All2plan Consulting ApS. Having graduated from Cambridge University in 1994, he went on to work for several major design companies with a short stint working on site for contractor. Alun has a broad experience of many types of tunnelling methods from immersed tubes to segmental linings, from closed face TBMs to hand excavation under compressed air. He is a recognised expert in sprayed concrete lined (SCL/NATM) tunnels and numerical modelling, having completed his PhD at Southampton University in those fields. Alun has been involved in promoting the use of innovative technologies such as permanent sprayed concrete, fibre reinforcement, GFRP rock bolts and spray-applied waterproof membranes. He has been involved in many of the recent major UK tunnelling projects such as the Jubilee Line Extension, Heathrow Express, Thameswater Ring Main, Terminal 5, Victoria Station Upgrade and the Elizabeth Line (Crossrail), as well as working on design and construction of tunnels internationally. Alun has been an active member of several industry bodies, notably participating in writing guidelines for BTS, ITA and ITAtech technical committees.
"This is an easy book to read...with a punchy delivery of the key facts -- ideal for a busy engineer."
- Mike King, Director, MK Tunnelling in Tunnels and Tunnelling
"..covers all aspects of SCL tunnelling from the constituents of sprayed concrete to detailed design and management during construction."
- Tunnels and Tunnelling
"[an] in-depth treatment of the subject of sprayed concrete lined tunnels, which is not a straightforward topic by any measure"
- Dr Alan Bloodworth, University of Warwick
"The strength of this book is the comprehensive treatment in particular of the design issues"
- Dr Harry Asche, Design Director – Tunnels Aurecon