Standard Methods of Geophysical Formation Evaluation: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Standard Methods of Geophysical Formation Evaluation

1st Edition

By James K. Hallenburg

CRC Press

464 pages

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Hardback: 9781566702614
pub: 1997-12-29
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Description

These three works cover the entire field of formation evaluation, from basic concepts and theories, through standard methods used by the petroleum industry, on to new and exciting applications in environmental science and engineering, hydrogeology, and other fields. Designed to be used individually or as a set, these volumes represent the first comprehensive assessment of all exploration methodologies. No other books offer the breadth of information and range of applications available in this set.

Reviews

"…fundamental knowledge and general rules of well logging are gathered and clearly presented and the reviewed book can play important role in the education of log analysts."

-Jadwiga Jarzyna, Environmental Protection

Table of Contents

Resistivity Methods

Introduction

Unfocused Resistivity Methods

Single Electrode Systems

Equivalent Circuit

Effect of Formation Resistivity

Volume of Investigation

Averaging within the Volume of Investigation

Position of the Return Electrode

Return Electrode Grounding Resistance

Multi-Electrode Systems

Normal Resistivity Devices

Empirical Method to Estimate Rt

Departure Curves

Lateral Resistivity Devices

General Expression for Resistivity Devices

Microresistivity Systems

Miscellaneous Resistivity Items

Surface Resistivity Methods

Focused Resistivity Methods

Focusing Electrode Devices, Omnidirectional

3-Electrode Guard Logs

7-Electrode Guard Logs

Shallow Investigating Guarded Electrode Device

Spherically Focused Systems

Radial Pseudo-Geometrical Factors

Sidewall Guarded Electrode Systems

Microlaterolog (MLL)

Proximity Log (PL)

Microspherically Focused Log (MSFL)

General Reduction Procedure

Induction Methods

Introduction

Principle

Conventional Induction Logs

Phasor Induction Systems

Array Induction Logs

Factors Affecting Induction Logs

Skin Effect

Bed Boundary Effects

Thin Bed Response

Dipping Beds

Net Bed Boundary Response

Data Reduction

Borehole Corrections

Adjacent Bed Correction

Invaded Zone Correction

Resistivity Log Interpretation

Introduction

The Archie Method

Values of the Cementation Exponent

The Ratio Method

The Rocky Mountain Method

The Migrated Hydrocarbon Method

Estimation of Permeability from Resistivity Gradient

Determination of the Diameter of Invasion

Reading "Tornado" Charts, Detail

Rt vs. ? Crossplot, The Pickett Plot

The Nonlinear (Hingle) Crossplot

The Movable Hydrocarbon Method

The FR,a vs. FR Method

The RW,a vs. RW Method

Non-Hydrocarbon Usage of Resistance and Resistivity

Spontaneous Potentials

Introduction

Principles

Physical Principles

Absorption or Shale Potential

The Electrochemical or Diffusion Potential

Effect of Ion Types

Thin Beds

Formation Water Resistivity, RW

Taking Ion Types into Consideration

The Effect of Shale

Direction of Deflection

Formation Resistivity Effects

The Static SP

Calculation of Salinity

Reduction of Data

Example

The Electrokinetic Component

Redox Component

Problems with SP Measurements

Resistance Component

Sensitivity to Motion

Electrodes Touching the Sidewall

Bimetallism

Improper Electrode Material

Methods of Determining RW and Use of RW Calculations

SP vs. RXO/Rt; the Ratio Method

Ionic Conduction

RW from Resistivity Values

The Use of RWa

The Dual Water Model

RW from RXO and Rt

Dunlap Multipliers

The SP Measurement in Fresh Water Sands

Natural Gamma Radiation

Introduction

Radiation from Formation Materials

Clays

Sands

Carbonates

Igneous and Metamorphic Materials

Fractures and Faults

Gross or Total Count Gamma Ray Systems

Ranges of Detection

Equilibrium

Volume of Investigation and Borehole Corrections

Calibrations

Uses

Volume of Clay/Shale Estimation, Vsh

Correlation

Lithology

Dead Time

Bed Boundary Effects

Thin Beds

Dipping Beds and Slant Holes

Grade Calculations

Fracture Detection

Tracers

Gamma Ray Spectroscopy

Introduction

Chemical and Geological Implications

System Types

Detectors

Single Window Systems

KUT Systems

MCA Systems

Monitoring Systems

Problems with Spectrographic Systems

Major Mineral Systems

Uraniferous Minerals Systems

Thorium Minerals

Potassium Minerals

General

Miscellaneous Effects

Spectrometric Ratios

Uses of Ratios

Crossplotting

Scattered Gamma Ray Methods

Introduction

Formation Density Logging

Source Energy Requirements

Operation

Example 1, The Mole Fraction Method

Example 2, The Molecular Mass Method

Downhole Tool Types

Omnidirectional Density Systems

Single Spacing Sidewall Systems

Mudcake Compensated Density Systems

Calibrations

Interference by Natural Gamma Radiation

Rock Type Identification

Example 3, Mineral Identification and Z/A Ratio

Porosity Calculations

Example 4, Porosity from Bulk Density

Coal Analysis

Scattered Gamma Ray Spectroscopy

Neutron Porosity Logging

Introduction

Physical Description

Operational Principles

Moderation

Reactions

Sources

Detectors

Systems Now in Use

Single Spacing Systems

Sidewall Neutron Porosity Systems

Borehole Compensated Systems

Neutron Porosity Measurements

Shale Correction

Rock Type Corrections

Borehole Corrections

Cased Hole Use

Calibration

Data Reduction

Depth of Investigation

Source-Detector Spacing

Interpretation Methods

Chlorine Logs

Neutron Activation Methods

Introduction

Types of Systems

Isotopic Sources

Neutron Generators

Detector Types

Action Within the Formation Material

Saturation Systems

Neutron Induced Gamma Ray Logs

Capture Spectra

Ratio Logs

Uranium Systems

Thermal Neutron Formation Temperature Logs

Acoustic Methods - Porosity

Introduction

Principles

Operation Principles of Downhole Acoustic Systems

Tool Configurations

Single Transmitter, Single Receiver Systems

Multiple Receiver Systems

Borehole Compensated Systems

Long Spacing Acoustic Systems

The Array Sonic System

Log Presentation

Effect of Gas and Road Noise

Full Wave Systems

Evaluation

Porosity Determinations

Mechanical Properties

Effects of Clay or Shale

Primary Porosity

Fractured Media

Porosity and Lithology Determinations

Analysis of Log, Figure 19-33

Determination of Permeability from Acoustic Logs

Cement Bond Logging

Determination of the Shear Wave Velocity using the Stoneley Mode

Formation Evaluation - Standard Methods

Introduction

Assumptions

Methods Available

Multiple Parameters

Scope

Research

New Information

Methods to be Used

Analysis Methods - Standard Measurements

Normalizing Data

Cuttings Lag

Identifying the Formation Sequence

Characteristic Signatures and Values

Target Zones

Visual Examination

Quantitative Analysis

Quantitative Porosity and Saturation

Reserve Calculation

Rock Type

Shale and Clay Content

MN Crossplot

The AK Crossplot

The MID Plot

Simultaneous Equation Method

Frequency Plots

Permeability

k Estimated from the Resistivity Gradient

k as a Function of Mineral Content

Formation Fluids

Formation Fluid Types

Formation Fluid Distribution

Formation Fluid Pressure

Structural Changes

Formation Rock Strength and Competence

Zone Extent

Redox Effects

Enhancement

Combinations

Other Methods

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
SCI031000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology