1st Edition

Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation for Engineers




ISBN 9781439800942
Published February 23, 2009 by CRC Press
232 Pages 19 B/W Illustrations

USD $99.95

Prices & shipping based on shipping country


Preview

Book Description

The First Major Book to Incorporate New International Guides and Standards

Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation for Engineers discusses conformity assessment and accreditation as defined in a new set of standards by the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC). Written by a licensed professional engineer with more than 25 years of experience, the book brings together material specific to international, regional, national, state, and company levels.

The author begins with the terms and definitions of ISO/IEC Guide 2 and ISO/IEC 17000, along with commentary from a US perspective. He reviews the development of standards, the differences between accreditation and certification, and the main international standards organizations. He also presents regional standards, such as those of the European Union; national standards and conformity assessment in the United States, Canada, Japan, and Germany; and the provincial standards and conformity assessment mechanisms of states and provinces. The book provides an engineering perspective on legal issues, such as ASME v. Hydrolevel Corp.; examines the role of government in standards, conformity assessment, and accreditation; and explores standardization at the company level.

Providing the tools to easily understand and comply with new standards, this accessible resource not only addresses the technical areas of standardization, but also the legal, economic, management, and education aspects. It covers required vocabulary and gathers references from the substantial yet scattered literature on standards.

Table of Contents

ISO/IEC Guide 2 Standardization and Related Activities—General Vocabulary

Introduction

ISO/IEC 17000 Conformity Assessment—Vocabulary and General Principles

Introduction

Bibliography

References

Standards

The Economic Benefits of Standardization

Anatomy of a Standard

Variations on a Theme

Modularity in Standards

Descriptive Provisions versus Performance Provisions in Standards

Good Standards versus Bad Standards

Other Types of and Names for Standards Not Identified in ISO/IEC Guide 2

Codes and Other Pre-Regulation Standards

Applications of Standards

Abuses of Standards

The Life Cycle of a Standard

References

Standards Development

Introduction

Classical Methods

Consortia and Similar Methods of Standard Setting

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Methods

Conclusions

Accreditation of Conformity Assessment Bodies (CABs)—ISO/IEC 17011

Introduction

Example of an Accreditation System in the United States

Outline of the Requirements of ISO/IEC 17011

Connections between Standards for Vocabulary, Conformity Assessment, Accreditation, and Other Applicable Standards and Documents

Summary

International Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation

What Is an International Standard?

Why International Standards?

International Standards Need to be Globally Relevant

Conformity Assessment in International Trade

The Principal International Standards Organizations: ISO, IEC, and ITU

Overview of Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation Bodies

Common Elements of the ISO and the IEC

ISONET and the International Classification for Standards (ICS)

The Standards Development Stage Codes

An Example of the Project Stage Codes

The ISO

The IEC

The ITU

Regional Standards and Conformity Assessment

Introduction

European Union

Regional Standards and Conformity Assessment in Other Areas

Concluding Remarks

National Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation Bodies

Introduction: Do Unique National Standards Have a Future?

Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation in the United States

Some Representative US Bodies for Non-ICT Standards and Conformity Assessment

Some Representative US Bodies for ICT Standards and Conformity Assessment

Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation in Canada

Standards and Conformity Assessment in Japan

Standards and Conformity Assessment in Germany

Provincial (State) and Local Standards and Conformity Assessment

Introduction

The National Electrical Code (NEC)

Model Building Codes Adopted by States

State Highway Standards

The MTBE Fiasco: State Standards Leading Federal Standards

State’s Departments of Agriculture

States Have Options on ICT Standards

Legal Issues in Standards and Conformity Assessment

Introduction

Products Liability of Manufacturers and Others

McDonnell and Miller, Inc. Caper

Indian Head, Inc. v. Allied Tube and Conduit Corporation and the

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

National Cooperative Research Act (NCRA) of 1984 (P.L. 98-462)

Standards Development Organization Advancement Act (SDOAA) of 2004 (P.L. 108-237)

Civil Liability of Standards Developers

Standards and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)

Patents Clauses from the ANSI Essential Requirements

Federal Roles in Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation

Background

Overview of Federal Government Activities in Conformity Assessment

Administrative Procedures Act (5 U.S.C., 1976, as Amended)

OMB Circular A-119 (First Take)

The Department of Defense (DOD)

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) and the National Voluntary Conformity Assessment System Evaluation (NVCASE) Program

Fastener Quality Act (P.L. 101-592, as Amended under P.L. 104-113, P.L. 105-234 and P.L. 106-34)

National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) of 1995 (P.L. 104-113) and the OMB Circular No. A-119 (Revised February 10, 1998) (Take 2)

Conformity Assessment under the NTTAA

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

Management Aspects of Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation

Two Cultures

Economics (Benefits and Costs) of Standardization

Microeconomics of Standardization

Variety Reduction (Simplification) Remains an Important Principle

Relationship of Standards and Conformity Assessment to Innovative and Competitive Strategies

Strategic Standardization Management (SSM)™

Quality and Environmental Management Standards: ISO 9000 and ISO 14000

Company Use of "External" Standards

Why a Company Should Participate in Standards Development

Managing Complexity in Conformity Assessment

Macroeconomics of Standards

Access to Standards and Standards Developers

Appendix 1: Alphabetical Index for Chapter 1 (Guide 2)
Appendix 2: Alphabetical Index for Chapter 2 (ISO/IEC 17000)
Appendix 3: Abbreviations and Acronyms for Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation
Appendix 4: URLs for Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Accreditation
Appendix 5: List of NIST Guides on Selected European Union Directives
Appendix 6: Lists of International Standards Organizations
Appendix 7: List of Regional Standards Organizations
Appendix 8: List of National Standards Bodies

References appear at the end of each chapter.

...
View More

Author(s)

Biography

Robert D. (Bob) Hunter, P.E., resides in Austin, Texas and has been involved in standards, conformity assessment and accreditation as a company employee and as a consultant to several technical and computer companies for over 25 years. Bob has served

on standards committees at both international and national levels and served on the Industrial Advisory Committee (IAC) of underwriters Laboratories (UL) that developed one of the first National standards (UL 1950) that was based on major International Standard (IEC 60950). Bob has written and lectured on standards related subjects in his major fields of interest including product safety, electromagnetic compatibility and regulatory compliance. Bob Hunter is a Licensed Professional Engineer in Texas.

Bob is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). Bob’s consulting firm is a member if the American National Standards institute (ANSI) and the American Society for Testing and Materials, International (ASTMI).