Statistical Methods in Psychiatry Research and SPSS  book cover
1st Edition

Statistical Methods in Psychiatry Research and SPSS

ISBN 9781774633519
Published March 31, 2021 by Apple Academic Press
350 Pages 83 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

This book has been prepared to help psychiatrists expand their knowledge of statistical methods and fills the gaps in their applications as well as introduces data analysis software. The book emphasizes the classification of fundamental statistical methods in psychiatry research that are precise and simple. Professionals in the field of mental health and allied subjects without any mathematical background can easily understand all the relevant statistical methods and carry out the analysis and interpret the results in their respective fields without consulting a statistician.

The sequence of the chapters, the sections within the chapters, the subsections within the sections, and the points within the subsections have all been arranged to help professionals in classification refine their knowledge in statistical methods and fill the gaps, if any.

Emphasizing simplicity, the fundamental statistical methods are demonstrated by means of arithmetical examples that may be reworked with pencil and paper in a matter of minutes. The results of the rework have to be checked by using SPSS, and in this way professionals are introduced to this psychiatrist-friendly data analysis software.

Topics covered include:

• An overview of psychiatry research

• The organization and collection of data

• Descriptive statistics

• The basis of statistical inference

• Tests of significance

• Correlational data analysis

• Multivariate data analysis

• Meta-analysis

• Reporting the results

• Statistical software

The language of the book is very simple and covers all aspects of statistical methods starting from organization and collection of data to descriptive statistics, statistical inference, multivariate analysis, and meta-analysis. Two chapters on computer applications deal with the most popular data analysis software: SPSS.

The book will be very valuable to professionals and post-graduate students in psychiatry and allied fields, such as psychiatric social work, clinical psychology, psychiatric nursing, and mental health education and administration.

Table of Contents


Psychiatry Research

Research Questions in Psychiatry

Research Approaches

Protocol Writing for Quantitative Studies

Variables in Psychiatry

Statistical Methods in Psychiatry Research

Observational Studies

Case-Series Analysis

Cross-Sectional Studies

Longitudinal Studies

Experimental Studies

Basic Elements of Experiments

Parallel Control Clinical Trials

Further Control Clinical Trials

Informal Designs of Experiments

Formal Designs of Experiments

One-Variable Descriptive Statistics

Classification and Tabulation of Data

Graphical Representation of Classified Data

Summarizing Data: Averages

Summarizing Data: Dispersion

Summarizing Data: Skewness and Kurtosis

Descriptive Statistics for Spatial Data

Descriptive Statistics for Time-Related Data

Mental Health Statistics

Demographic Indicators

Demographic Indicators of India

Measures of Mental Morbidity

Mental Morbidity in India

Mental Health Delivery Systems in India

Mental Health Service Indicators

Service Indicators of Government Mental Hospitals

Service Indicators of General Hospital Psychiatry Units

Probability and Probability Distributions

Probability Scale

Probability Distributions

Sampling Theory and Methods

Theory of Sampling

Random Sampling Methods

Random Sampling Methods in Mental Morbidity Surveys

Basic Elements of Statistical Inference

Basic Elements of Estimation of Parameters

Basic Elements of Tests of Significance

Parametric Tests of Significance

One-Sample Parametric Tests

Two-Independent Sample Parametric Tests

Two-Related Sample Parametric Tests

Experimental Data Analysis: ANOVA


Post-Hoc Multiple Comparison Tests: Scheffe Method


22-Factorial ANOVA

Repeated Measures ANOVA

Non-Parametric Tests of Significance

One-Sample Non-Parametric Tests

Two-Independent Sample Non-Parametric Tests

Two-Related Sample Non-Parametric Tests

K-Independent Sample Non-Parametric Tests

K-Related Sample Non-Parametric Tests

Correlation Analysis and Regression Analysis

Two-Quantitative Variables Correlation Coefficients

Rank Correlation Coefficients

Two-Qualitative Variables Correlation Coefficients

Measures of Relative Risk

Regression Analysis

Reliability Analysis and Validity Analysis

Scaling Techniques

Reliability Analysis

Validity Analysis

Survival Analysis and Time Series Analysis

Survival Analysis

Time-Series Analysis

Multivariate Statistical Methods

Profile Techniques

Multivariate Correlation Coefficients

Multiple Regression Analysis

Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)

Analysis of Multi-Dimensional Contingency Tables

Cluster Analysis

Functions of Cluster Analysis

Hierarchical Cluster Analysis

Measures of Similarity and Dissimilarity Between Persons

Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering Methods

Determination of Number of Clusters

Partitioning Cluster Analysis

Validation of Resultant Clusters Numerical Demonstration

Discriminant Analysis

Two-Groups Discriminant Analysis

K-Groups Discriminant Analysis Numerical Demonstration

Factor Analysis

Basic Elements of Factor Analysis

Principal Components Analysis Numerical Demonstration


Location and Selection of Studies for Meta-Analysis

End-Points of Primary Studies

Quality Assessment of Selected Studies

Meta-Analysis Master Sheet

Meta-Analysis Plots

Methods for Pooling End-Points: Fixed Effects Model

Methods for Pooling End-Points: Random Effects Model

Additional Meta-Analysis Techniques

Implications of The Results of Meta-Analysis Numerical Demonstration

Reporting The Results

Evaluation of The Study

Interpreting The Results

Writing The Report

Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS)

SPSS Data Editor

Procedures for Entering Data in SPSS

Procedures To Run Data Analysis Using SPSS

Data Handling Using Data Menu

Data Handling Using Transform Menu

Running Data Analysis Using SPSS

Running ‘Parametric Tests of Significance’

Running ‘ANOVA Tests of Significance’

Running ‘Non-Parametric Tests of Significance’

Running ‘Correlation Analysis and Regression Analysis’

Running ‘Reliability Analysis and Validity Analysis’

Running ‘Survival Analysis and Time Series Analysis’

Running ‘Multivariate Statistical Methods’

Running ‘Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis’

Running ‘Factor Analysis’

Appendix 1: Basic Data of 40 Registered Patients at Nimhans

Appendix 2: A Classification of Statistical Methods

Appendix 3: Probability Distribution Tables


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M. Venkataswamy Reddy is a permanent faculty member at National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India, and has over 30 years of teaching experience. He has published more than 20 scientific papers. His popular textbook, titled Statistics for Mental Health Care Research, is widely referred to by students and academicians alike. His main contributions include the development of suitable models for mental health delivery systems in India, meta-analysis for psychiatry research and STATA, and cluster analysis for psychiatry research and SPSS. He received an MSc in statistics from the Department of Statistics at Bangalore University; a DBS (PG diploma in biostatistics) from ICMR’s Institute for Research in Medical Statistics, New Delhi; and a PhD in biostatistics (topic: cluster formation in psychiatry with special reference to child psychiatry) from Bangalore University.


"Practicing physicians and psychiatrists, even those with academic pretensions, are often overwhelmed by study designs and statistical analysis. . . . The author [of this book] has recognized statistical needs of physicians and has attempted to present a simplified approach to statistics. The book provides an overview of psychiatric research, classifies statistical methods, describes types of data and variables, introduces quantitative and qualitative variables, elaborates study designs, discusses descriptive statistics, illuminates the basis of statistical inference, explains statistical tests of significance, and introduces correlational, multivariate, and meta-analysis. Each chapter focuses on a single aspect, introduces the issues, describes statistical theory, and provides examples. It also provides details of how to use the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics) computer program for such analysis. The book is an attempt to fill the long felt need for a simple statistical text, useful for physicians and psychiatrists. . . . It will certainly help those who have a basic familiarity with statistical methods and analysis . . . . The book steps in the right direction for those who want to independently analyze and interpret data."

—Indian Journal of Psychiatry, by K. S. Jacob, Department of Psychiatry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India