1st Edition

Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers For Process and Plant Engineers

By V. Ganapathy Copyright 2015
    540 Pages 233 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    540 Pages 233 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World Problems

    Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel ideas for improving boiler efficiency and lowering gas pressure drop. It helps plant engineers understand and evaluate the performance of steam generators and waste heat boilers at any load.

    Learn How to Independently Evaluate the Thermal Performance of Boilers and Their Components

    This book begins with basic combustion and boiler efficiency calculations. It then moves on to estimation of furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT), furnace duty, view factors, heat flux, and boiler circulation calculations. It also describes trends in large steam generator designs such as multiple-module; elevated drum design types of boilers such as D, O, and A; and forced circulation steam generators. It illustrates various options to improve boiler efficiency and lower operating costs. The author addresses the importance of flue gas analysis, fire tube versus water tube boilers used in chemical plants, and refineries. In addition, he describes cogeneration systems; heat recovery in sulfur plants, hydrogen plants, and cement plants; and the effect of fouling factor on performance. The book also explains HRSG simulation process and illustrates calculations for complete performance evaluation of boilers and their components.

    • Helps plant engineers make independent evaluations of thermal performance of boilers before purchasing them
    • Provides numerous examples on boiler thermal performance calculations that help plant engineers develop programming codes with ease
    • Follows the metric and SI system, and British units are shown in parentheses wherever possible
    • Includes calculation procedures for the basic sizing and performance evaluation of a complete steam generator or waste heat boiler system and their components with appendices outlining simplified procedures for estimation of heat transfer coefficients

    Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers serves as a source book for plant engineers, consultants, and boiler designers.

    Combustion Calculations


    Moisture in Air

    Combustion Calculations

    Estimation of Heating Values

    Burner Selection

    Combustion Temperatures

    Simplified Procedure for Estimating Combustion Temperatures

    Gas Turbine Exhaust Combustion Calculations

    Boiler Efficiency

    Firing Fuels with Low Heating Values

    Firing of Multiple Fuels

    Emission Conversion Calculations: Steam Generators

    Converting ppmvd of NOx to mg/Nm3

    Converting Turbine Exhaust Emissions

    Low-Temperature Corrosion in Boilers

    Condensation of Acid Vapors in Low-Temperature Heat Sinks


    Steam Generator Furnace Design

    Advantages of Water-Cooled Furnaces

    Heat Release Rates

    Furnace Exit Gas Temperature Evaluation

    Empirical Formula for Furnace Duty Estimation

    Furnace Duty with Combination Firing

    Distribution of Heat Flux around Tubes and Fins

    Distribution of Radiation to Tube Banks

    Relating Heat Flux from Furnace to inside Tubes

    External Radiation to Heat Transfer Surfaces at Furnace Exit

    Terms Frequently Used in Furnace Performance

    Estimating Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient

    Estimating Fin Tip Temperature

    Boiling Process

    Boiler Circulation

    Thom’s Method for Estimating Losses

    Circulation Calculations

    Flow Stratification in Horizontal Tubes

    Correlations for CHF (Critical Heat Flux) and Allowable Steam Quality

    Circulation Problems

    Guidelines for Good Circulation System Design


    Steam Generators


    Large Package Boilers

    Water-Cooled Furnaces

    Major Changes in Boiler Design

    Absence of Air Heater

    Emissions Affect Steam Generator Designs

    Custom-Designed Boilers

    Novel Ideas

    Boiler Classification

    Improving Boiler Efficiency

    Steam Generators for Oil Sands Application


    Steam Generators with Import and Export Steam

    Flow in Parallel Paths

    Steam Inlet and Exit Nozzle Location

    Off-Design Performance of Superheater

    Case Study of a Superheater with Tube Failure Problems

    Steam Generator Design and Performance

    Performance without Economizer

    Tube Wall Temperature Estimation at Economizer Inlet

    Methods to Minimize Low-Temperature Corrosion Problems

    Precautions to Minimize Corrosion in Operation

    Water Chemistry, Carryover, Steam Purity

    Fire Tube Boilers


    Waste Heat Boilers


    Water Tube Waste Heat Boilers: Sizing and Performance

    Kalina Cycle

    Fluid Heaters and Film Temperature

    Design of Fire Tube Boilers

    Air Heaters

    Heat Pipes

    Design of Tubular Air Heaters

    Waste Heat Boiler Data (Thermal Design)


    HRSG Simulation


    What Is HRSG Simulation?

    Applications of HRSG Simulation

    Understanding Pinch and Approach Points

    Estimating Steam Generation and Gas–Steam Temperature Profiles

    Why Cannot We Arbitrarily Select the Pinch and Approach Points?

    Why Should Pinch and Approach Points Be Selected in Unfired Mode?

    Simulation of HRSG Evaporator

    Supplementary Firing

    Off-Design Performance Evaluation

    How Accurate Is Simulation?

    Steaming in Economizer

    Field Data Evaluation

    Single- or Multiple-Pressure HRSG

    Split Superheater Design

    Fresh Air Firing

    Efficiency of HRSG

    Cogeneration Plant Application

    Optimizing HRSG Arrangement

    Application of Simulation to Understand the Effect of Ambient Conditions

    Applying Margins on Exhaust Gas Flow and Temperature



    Miscellaneous Boiler Calculations

    Condensing Economizers

    Wall Temperature of Uninsulated Duct, Stack

    Insulation Calculations

    Drum Coil Heater: Bath Heater Sizing

    Checking Heat Transfer Equipment for Noise and Vibration Problems

    Steam Drum Calculations

    Estimating Flow in Blowdown Lines


    Flow Instability in Two-Phase Circuits

    Transient Calculations

    Fan Calculations



    Conversion Factors





    V. Ganapathy is a consultant on steam generators and waste heat boilers based in Chennai, India. He has over 42 years of experience in the engineering of steam generators and waste heat boilers with emphasis on thermal design, performance, and heat transfer aspects. He also develops custom software on boiler design and performance. He holds a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering from IIT Madras and an MSc (Engg.) from Madras University. Ganapathy has published over 250 articles on steam generators and thermal design and has authored five books on boilers, the latest being Industrial Boilers and HRSGs (Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida).

    "This book will surely help consultants and manufacturers in closing the "gaps" that they may have in thermal performance of oil / gas fired boilers and heat recovery steam generators. …This is a "down to earth" book on the subject."
    —S.Damodaran, Director, Thermodyne Technologies Private Limited, Chennai, India

    "This book is an ideal reference for anyone involved in the heat transfer field. It is practical for use as a reference by plant personnel who need an answer "right now" but it is detailed enough to allow consulting engineers, process engineers, manufacturing engineers, designers and even students to get a comprehensive understanding of how the equipment works and how to make sure what they have designed is really in the best interest of the plant."
    —Bob Stemen, Applied Heat Recovery, USA