Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers : For Process and Plant Engineers book cover
1st Edition

Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers
For Process and Plant Engineers

ISBN 9781138077683
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
540 Pages 233 B/W Illustrations

FREE Standard Shipping
USD $125.00

Prices & shipping based on shipping country


Book Description

Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World Problems

Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel ideas for improving boiler efficiency and lowering gas pressure drop. It helps plant engineers understand and evaluate the performance of steam generators and waste heat boilers at any load.

Learn How to Independently Evaluate the Thermal Performance of Boilers and Their Components

This book begins with basic combustion and boiler efficiency calculations. It then moves on to estimation of furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT), furnace duty, view factors, heat flux, and boiler circulation calculations. It also describes trends in large steam generator designs such as multiple-module; elevated drum design types of boilers such as D, O, and A; and forced circulation steam generators. It illustrates various options to improve boiler efficiency and lower operating costs. The author addresses the importance of flue gas analysis, fire tube versus water tube boilers used in chemical plants, and refineries. In addition, he describes cogeneration systems; heat recovery in sulfur plants, hydrogen plants, and cement plants; and the effect of fouling factor on performance. The book also explains HRSG simulation process and illustrates calculations for complete performance evaluation of boilers and their components.

  • Helps plant engineers make independent evaluations of thermal performance of boilers before purchasing them
  • Provides numerous examples on boiler thermal performance calculations that help plant engineers develop programming codes with ease
  • Follows the metric and SI system, and British units are shown in parentheses wherever possible
  • Includes calculation procedures for the basic sizing and performance evaluation of a complete steam generator or waste heat boiler system and their components with appendices outlining simplified procedures for estimation of heat transfer coefficients

Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers serves as a source book for plant engineers, consultants, and boiler designers.

Table of Contents

Combustion Calculations


Moisture in Air

Combustion Calculations

Estimation of Heating Values

Burner Selection

Combustion Temperatures

Simplified Procedure for Estimating Combustion Temperatures

Gas Turbine Exhaust Combustion Calculations

Boiler Efficiency

Firing Fuels with Low Heating Values

Firing of Multiple Fuels

Emission Conversion Calculations: Steam Generators

Converting ppmvd of NOx to mg/Nm3

Converting Turbine Exhaust Emissions

Low-Temperature Corrosion in Boilers

Condensation of Acid Vapors in Low-Temperature Heat Sinks


Steam Generator Furnace Design

Advantages of Water-Cooled Furnaces

Heat Release Rates

Furnace Exit Gas Temperature Evaluation

Empirical Formula for Furnace Duty Estimation

Furnace Duty with Combination Firing

Distribution of Heat Flux around Tubes and Fins

Distribution of Radiation to Tube Banks

Relating Heat Flux from Furnace to inside Tubes

External Radiation to Heat Transfer Surfaces at Furnace Exit

Terms Frequently Used in Furnace Performance

Estimating Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient

Estimating Fin Tip Temperature

Boiling Process

Boiler Circulation

Thom’s Method for Estimating Losses

Circulation Calculations

Flow Stratification in Horizontal Tubes

Correlations for CHF (Critical Heat Flux) and Allowable Steam Quality

Circulation Problems

Guidelines for Good Circulation System Design


Steam Generators


Large Package Boilers

Water-Cooled Furnaces

Major Changes in Boiler Design

Absence of Air Heater

Emissions Affect Steam Generator Designs

Custom-Designed Boilers

Novel Ideas

Boiler Classification

Improving Boiler Efficiency

Steam Generators for Oil Sands Application


Steam Generators with Import and Export Steam

Flow in Parallel Paths

Steam Inlet and Exit Nozzle Location

Off-Design Performance of Superheater

Case Study of a Superheater with Tube Failure Problems

Steam Generator Design and Performance

Performance without Economizer

Tube Wall Temperature Estimation at Economizer Inlet

Methods to Minimize Low-Temperature Corrosion Problems

Precautions to Minimize Corrosion in Operation

Water Chemistry, Carryover, Steam Purity

Fire Tube Boilers


Waste Heat Boilers


Water Tube Waste Heat Boilers: Sizing and Performance

Kalina Cycle

Fluid Heaters and Film Temperature

Design of Fire Tube Boilers

Air Heaters

Heat Pipes

Design of Tubular Air Heaters

Waste Heat Boiler Data (Thermal Design)


HRSG Simulation


What Is HRSG Simulation?

Applications of HRSG Simulation

Understanding Pinch and Approach Points

Estimating Steam Generation and Gas–Steam Temperature Profiles

Why Cannot We Arbitrarily Select the Pinch and Approach Points?

Why Should Pinch and Approach Points Be Selected in Unfired Mode?

Simulation of HRSG Evaporator

Supplementary Firing

Off-Design Performance Evaluation

How Accurate Is Simulation?

Steaming in Economizer

Field Data Evaluation

Single- or Multiple-Pressure HRSG

Split Superheater Design

Fresh Air Firing

Efficiency of HRSG

Cogeneration Plant Application

Optimizing HRSG Arrangement

Application of Simulation to Understand the Effect of Ambient Conditions

Applying Margins on Exhaust Gas Flow and Temperature



Miscellaneous Boiler Calculations

Condensing Economizers

Wall Temperature of Uninsulated Duct, Stack

Insulation Calculations

Drum Coil Heater: Bath Heater Sizing

Checking Heat Transfer Equipment for Noise and Vibration Problems

Steam Drum Calculations

Estimating Flow in Blowdown Lines


Flow Instability in Two-Phase Circuits

Transient Calculations

Fan Calculations



Conversion Factors




View More



V. Ganapathy is a consultant on steam generators and waste heat boilers based in Chennai, India. He has over 42 years of experience in the engineering of steam generators and waste heat boilers with emphasis on thermal design, performance, and heat transfer aspects. He also develops custom software on boiler design and performance. He holds a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering from IIT Madras and an MSc (Engg.) from Madras University. Ganapathy has published over 250 articles on steam generators and thermal design and has authored five books on boilers, the latest being Industrial Boilers and HRSGs (Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida).


"This book will surely help consultants and manufacturers in closing the "gaps" that they may have in thermal performance of oil / gas fired boilers and heat recovery steam generators. …This is a "down to earth" book on the subject."
—S.Damodaran, Director, Thermodyne Technologies Private Limited, Chennai, India

"This book is an ideal reference for anyone involved in the heat transfer field. It is practical for use as a reference by plant personnel who need an answer "right now" but it is detailed enough to allow consulting engineers, process engineers, manufacturing engineers, designers and even students to get a comprehensive understanding of how the equipment works and how to make sure what they have designed is really in the best interest of the plant."
—Bob Stemen, Applied Heat Recovery, USA