Stone Matrix Asphalt: Theory and Practice, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Stone Matrix Asphalt

Theory and Practice, 1st Edition

By Krzysztof Blazejowski

CRC Press

343 pages | 144 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781439819715
pub: 2010-11-03
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429103995
pub: 2016-04-19
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In the years since the development and subsequent success of Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA), a plethora of articles have emerged, scattered throughout various publications. The time is right for a comprehensive resource that collects, examines, and organizes this information and makes it easily accessible. A compilation and distillation of the latest knowledge available, Stone Matrix Asphalt: Theory and Practice describes SMA, from its origin through implementation, and explores various methods and design approaches.

Detailing the requirements and materials for the mix, including asphalt binder, aggregates, and stabilizers, the book covers standard and alternative design methods and their execution, as well as best practices and production processes. It addresses issues such as permanent deformation and fatigue resistance, as well as special applications, such as bridge deck surfacing and airfields. The book uses practical examples to illustrate theory, presents practical tips useful in everyday work, and includes a review of problems that can occur during laydown, and their potential solutions.

Drawn from the author’s extensive experience during the introduction of SMA in the early 1990s and discussions with many process engineers, the book provides the practical information needed to customize methods for individual applications of SMA. Blazejowski puts together a picture, drawn from a broad range of literature. The result: a reference that is handy, practical, and easy to use.

Table of Contents

The Concept of Stone Matrix Asphalt

A Brief History

From Germany to…or SMA All Over the World

Strengths and Weaknesses of SMA

Differences in SMAs around the World

Content of SMA

Skeleton of Coarse Aggregates

A Definition of an SMA Aggregate Skeleton

Formation of a Coarse Aggregate Skeleton

Gap Gradation

A Definition of the SMA Skeleton According to the Original German Method

A Definition of the SMA Skeleton with Other Methods

Comments on the Presented Methods

Among the Skeleton Grains



Fine Aggregate




Stabilizers (Drainage Inhibitors)

The Draindown Effect

Stabilizers (Drainage Inhibitors)

Proper Selection of the Amount of a Stabilizer in a Mix

Testing Methods for Stabilizers

Binder Draindown Testing


Requirements for SMA Materials

Requirements for Aggregates

Requirements for Binders

Requirements for Stabilizers

Reclaimed Asphalt

Other Materials

Designing SMA Composition

Selecting SMA Gradation and Size

General Rules

Designing an Aggregate Mix by Applying Gradation Limits

Designing a Binder Content

Requirements for an SMA Mixture Design


Overview of SMA Design Methods

The German Method

The U.S. Method

The Czech Method

The Dutch Method

Other Methods of Design

Analyses and Laboratory Tests

Preparing Samples in a Laboratory

Draindown Testing

Filler Tests

The Production of SMA

Requirements for the Organization of an Asphalt Mixing Plant

Practical Considerations of the SMA Production Process

The Production Process

Storing the Ready-Made SMA Mixture in a Silo

SMA Mixture Production Control

Transport and Laydown of the SMA Mixture

Transport of the Mixture to a Laydown Site

Laydown Conditions

Placement of a Mixture


Placement of SMA in Kompaktasphalt Technique

Finishing the Layer

Opening to Traffic


Longitudinal Fat Spots of Binder

Longitudinal Fat Spots of Mastic

Small Circular Fat Spots

Stabilizer Lumps

Too Closed an SMA Structure

Too Porous an SMA Structure

SMA Seepage and Permeability to Water

Problems Related to Temperature and Laying Techniques

Squeezed-Out Mastic in Wheel Paths

SMA Susceptibility to Polishing

Overdosage of an Antistrip Additive

Characteristics of the SMA Course

Rutting Resistance

Crack Resistance

Fatigue Life



Antinoise Properties

Antiskid Properties

Durability: Water and Frost Resistance

Antispray and Light Reflection Properties


Fuel Consumption

Economical Effectiveness

Special Applications of SMA

Airfield Pavements

SMA on Bridge Deck Structures

Thin SMA Courses

Atypical SMAs

European Standards Concerning SMA

The European Standard EN 13108-5


Identification of an SMA Mixture

Requirements for Constituent Materials

Requirements for an SMA Mix

Temperatures of Asphalt Mixtures

Evaluation of Conformity

Factory Production Control EN 13108-21

Examples of Requirements




Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings: