Structural Acoustics: Deterministic and Random Phenomena, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Structural Acoustics

Deterministic and Random Phenomena, 1st Edition

By Joshua E. Greenspon

CRC Press

297 pages | 63 B/W Illus.

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From jet engine noise that generates vibrations in the structure of an aircraft, to the sound radiation from the hull of a ship or submarine that makes it identifiable, an understanding of structural acoustics is key in the design process in maritime, automotive, aerospace, and architectural engineering. Building on classic works in the field, Structural Acoustics: Deterministic and Random Phenomena presents fundamental concepts, relations, and simplified methods for calculating complex problems associated with vibrations and noise issues of automobiles, ships, submarines, and aircraft. This practical reference studies the response of structures and media that are coupled with a fluid and are under static, dynamic, and random loading.

Simplified solutions to complicated problems

Starting with a review of the fundamentals of acoustics and structural acoustics, the book discusses the response of the beams, plates, and shells that compose most built-up structures before providing methods for solving problems of built-up systems, including a procedure for computing the response of an elastic or viscoelastic media without resorting to a large computer program. Building on this analysis, the second section develops the analysis for random loading, which can also be applied to geophysical phenomena and viscoelastic media. Proceeding from the fundamental aspects of simple structures to more complicated cases with more involved loading, the book presents formulas and applications for random loading.

By providing a fundamental understanding of sound radiation in air and water, this book shows readers how to solve structural and acoustical problems. An important reference for those working in the area of acoustics and vibration analysis, it also includes computer programs for acoustical analysis available at


"…the culmination of a long-term research program in the field of structural acoustics undertaken by one of the most distinguished pioneers in this field. … a valuable addition to the meager number of books in structural acoustics. It complements Junger and Feit’s book Sound structures and their Interactions. The book is targeted equally to graduate students and acoustical researchers."

—S. I. Hayek, Penn State University, State College, USA

Table of Contents


General Overview of the Book



Overview of Random Structural Acoustics

Overview of Methods and Applications

Comparison of Methods Used in the Recent Literature



Fundamentals of Acoustics and Structural Acoustics


Physical Phenomena in Linear Acoustics

Basic Assumptions and Equations in Linear Acoustics

Intensity and Energy

Free Sound Propagation

Sound Propagation with Obstacles

Free and Confined Waves

Sound Radiation and Vibration

Coupling of Structure/Medium (Interactions)



Approximations for Added Mass and Radiation Damping



Fundamentals of Structures and Analysis of Beams

Fundamentals of Structures




Three-Dimensional Variable Bodies

Analysis of Beams

Computer Programs


Unstiffened, Stiffened, Sandwich, and Composite Plates


Unstiffened Plates

Rectangular Plates

Addition of Water Loading

Proposed Design Procedure for Simply Supported or Clamped Rectangular Plates under Uniform Impulsive Pressure

Cross-Stiffened and Sandwich Plates

Calculation of the Characteristics of Stiffened and Sandwich Plates

Composite Plates

Plate Applications


A Simplified Procedure for Built-up Structures

General Considerations

Potential Energy and Stiffness Coefficients

Equations of Motion and Basic Matrix

Effect of Fluid

Modal Impedances

Calculation of the Green’s Function

Potential Energy of Stretching and Shearing

Potential Energy of Bending and Twisting

Stiffness Coefficients

Example Calculations


Sound Patterns from Cylindrical Shells


Basic Equations

General Equations for Shell Vibrating in Fluid and Containing Fluid

Frequencies and Mode Shapes

Effect of External or Internal Pressure on Natural Frequency

Relation to Buckling

Forced Vibration

Description of the Computer Program

Far Field Patterns for a Representative Case


Analysis of Three-Dimensional Media with Variable Properties


Physical Characteristics of the Mathematical Model

Differential Equations of the Complex Medium

Approximate Solution

Solution for Nonhomogeneous Systems



Linear Systems Equations

Impulse Response

Frequency Response Function

Statistics of the Response

Important Quantities Derivable from the Cross Spectrum

The Cross Spectrum in Terms of Fourier Transforms

The Conceptual Meaning of Cross Correlation, Cross Spectrum, and Coherence


Statistical Acoustics

Physical Concept of Transfer Function

Response in Terms of Green’s Functions

Statistical Differential Equations Governing the Sound Field


Statistics of Structures

Integral Relation for the Response

Computation of the Response in Terms of Modes

Coupled Structural Acoustic Systems


Random Radiation from Cylindrical Structures

Directivity Patterns

Multipole Expansion

Random Loading and Response

Computer Programs


Applications of Statistical Acoustics to Near Field–Far Field Problems

The Near Field–Far Field Problem

Parrent’s Solution for the Plane

Other Applications of the Parrent Equation

Solution Using a Single Integration with Known Coherence

Determination of Far Field from Near Field Autospectrum Alone and the Inverse Far Field–Near Field Problem

Simplification of Equations for Plane Waves

Methods for Computing Far Field from Near Field Acceleration

Application to Prediction of Radiation

Inverse Method Calculation: Development of the Field in

Terms of Point Sources

Point Force Calculations


Scale Models of Random Loading and Response

Approximate Formulation of the Modeling Laws


More General Formulation of Modeling Laws

Some General Considerations in Modeling



About the Author

Dr. Greenspon received his Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Doctoral degrees from The Johns Hopkins University. While studying for his doctoral degree, he also taught Applied Mechanics for several years at the University. Upon completion of his course work, he was employed by the David Taylor Model Basin to do studies on ship vibrations. He completed the original research for his doctoral thesis in vibrations of thick cylindrical shells.

He subsequently worked for the Martin Marietta Corporation doing research in panel flutter. He established a consultancy firm—JG Engineering Research Associates—and continued doing research under contract to the United States Army and Navy, in the areas of vibrations, sound radiation, and structures subject to blast and fragmentation.

Dr. Greenspon was awarded the Silver Medal in Engineering Acoustics by The Acoustical Society of America for the solution of underwater radiation and scattering problems. He also served as an Associate Editor of the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America for 20 years. He was a member of the Acoustical Society of America, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Dr. Greenspon passed away in February 2011, a few months before the publication of this book.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Mechanics / General