2nd Edition

Structure and Properties of Fat Crystal Networks

    518 Pages 232 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

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    Lipid science and technology has grown exponentially since the turn of the millennium. The replacement of unhealthy fats in the foods we eat, and of petroleum-based ingredients in the cosmetics we use, is a top priority for consumers, government, and industry alike. Particularly for the food industry, removing trans fats and reducing saturated fat in foods has produced a major challenge: How do we create structure with a minimum amount of structuring material?

    A comprehensive omnibus, Structure and Properties of Fat Crystal Networks, Second Edition clarifies the complex relationship between triglyceride composition of vegetable oils and fats, the physicochemical properties of triglycerides in simple and complex model systems, their crystallization, and melting behavior. Furthermore, it dives into the implications of these materials on the functional properties in food systems.

    Replacing ingredients, optimizing functionality, and improving health necessitate the ability to relate the structural organization present in a material to macroscopic properties. Revisiting concepts and approaches used in the study of fat crystal networks, the second edition includes new developments, particularly intermolecular interactions, and thoroughly updated analytical methods. Succinct, clear, and complete, this book is designed to help students and early-career researchers make the study of fats a more focused, less frustrating, and less expensive endeavor.

    Review of Crystallography
    Crystal Lattices
    Lattices and Unit Cells
    Miller Indices
    Powder X-Ray Diffraction and Bragg’s Law
    Typical Powder XRD Setup
    Indexing Reflections
    Crystallographic Structure of Fats

    Nucleation, Crystal Growth, and Structural Implications
    Introduction to Crystallization
    Crystallization Kinetics
    Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics and Microstructure
    Nonisothermal Nucleation of Fats

    Intermolecular Forces in Triacylglycerol Particles and Oils
    David A. Pink
    Van der Waals Interactions
    Mean Field Models
    Van der Waals Interactions and Rheological Characteristics
    X-Ray Scattering and Fractal Dimensions

    Rheology of Solids
    Hooke’s Law
    Stress–Strain Relationships and Elastic
    Types of Stresses and Corresponding
    Elastic Behavior
    Yield Value from Constant Force Cone
    Rheology of Liquids
    Types of Fluid Flow
    Modeling Flow Behavior

    Viscoelastic Behavior
    Creep and Recovery/Stress Relaxation

    Dynamic Methods

    Microstructure and Nanostructure
    Alejandro G. Marangoni, Suresh S. Narine, Nuria C. Acevedo, and Dongming Tang
    Mesoscale and Nanoscale in Fat Crystal Networks
    Where Lies the Fractality in Fat Crystal Networks?

    Yield Stress and Elastic Modulus of a Fat Crystal Network

    Liquid–Multiple Solid Phase Equilibria in Fats
    Leendert H. Wesdorp, J.A. van Meeteren, S. de Jong, R. van der Giessen, P. Overbosch, P.A.M. Grootscholten, M. Struik, E. Royers, A. Don, Th. de Loos, C. Peters, and I. Gandasasmita
    Introduction and Problem Definition
    Approach to the Problem
    Flash Calculations
    Pure Component Properties
    Mixing Behavior in Liquid State
    Mixing Behavior in the α-Modification
    Mixing Behavior in the β- and β-Modifications
    Predicting Interaction Parameters
    Practical Applications
    List of Symbols
    Appendix 9.A: Pure Component Data
    Appendix 9.B: Specific Retention Volumes of Several Probes in Stationary Phases of Liquid TAGs
    Appendix 9.C: Purity of the TAGs Used in Section 9.7
    Appendix 9.D: Binary Phase Diagrams of TAGs: Data

    Experimental Methodology
    Rodrigo Campos
    Thermal Properties
    Mechanical Properties
    Fractal Dimension
    Oil Migration


    Alejandro G. Marangoni, Professor and Canada Research Chair, Food and Soft Materials Science, University of Guelph, ON, Canada. His work concentrates on the physical properties of foods, particularly fat crystallization and structure.