1st Edition

# Structure of Space and the Submicroscopic Deterministic Concept of Physics

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This book, **Structure of Space and the Submicroscopic Deterministic Concept of Physics**, completely formalizes fundamental physics by showing that all space, which consists of objects and distances, arises from the same origin: manifold of sets. A continuously organized mathematical lattice of topological balls represents the primary substrate named the tessellattice. All fundamental particles arise as local fractal deformations of the tessellattice. The motion of such particulate balls through the tessellattice causes it to deform neighboring cells, which generates a cloud of a new kind of spatial excitations named ‘inertons’. Thus, so-called "hidden variables" introduced in the past by de Broglie, Bohm and Vigier have acquired a sense of real quasiparticles of space.This theory of space unambiguously answers such challenging issues as: what is mass, what is charge, what is a photon, what is the wave psi-function, what is a neutrino, what are the nuclear forces, and so on. The submicroscopic concept uncovers new peculiar properties of quantum systems, especially the dynamics of particles within a section equal to the particle’s de Broglie wavelength, which are fundamentally impossible for quantum mechanics. This concept, thoroughly discussed in the book, allows one to study complex problems in quantum optics and quantum electrodynamics in detail, to disclose an inner world of particle physics by exposing the structure of quarks and nucleons in real space, and to derive gravity as the transfer of local deformations of space by inertons which in turn completely solves the problems of dark matter and dark energy. Inertons have revealed themselves in a number of experiments carried out in condensed media, plasma, nuclear physics and astrophysics, which are described in this book together with prospects for future studies in both fundamental and applied physics.

**Space: Founding Principles**

The Notion of Space in General Physics

The Concepts of Measure and Distances

The Founding Element and the Founding Lattice

Defining a Probationary Space

Foundations of Space-Time

Hierarchy of Scales in the Tessellate

Quanta Fractality and Fractal Decomposition

Mathematical Peculiarities of Balls in the Tessellattice

**Submicroscopic Mechanics**

Conceptual Difficulties of Conventional Quantum Mechanics

A Relativistic Particle in the Tessellattice

Wave Non-Relativistic Mechanics

Wave Relativistic Mechanics

Inertons Unveiled

The Phenomenon of Tunneling

The Uncertainty Principle

The Phase Transition from the Schrödinger’s to Dirac’s

Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

The Motion of Inertons

The Physical Interpretation of the Wave y -Function

Statistics of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein

Electromagnetic Phenomena in the Tesellattice

Photon: From Quantum Field Theory to a Discrete Lattice

The Electric Charge

The Maxwell Equations and the Manifestation of Hidden Dynamics of Surface Fractals

**Inertons in Condensed Media**

Inertons in the Crystal Lattice

Cluster Formation in Condensed Matter

Bose-Einstein Condensation: Subtle Nuances

Inertons Violate the Stability of Homogeneous Media

Inertons in Some Practical Applications

An Electron Droplet

The Phenomenon of Diffractionless Light

Double-Slit Experiment: Solving the Problem

Anomalous Multiphoton Photoelectric Effect

Sonoluminescence and an Inerton-Photon Phenomenon

Pyramid Power

Crop Circles: An Elimination of Mysticism

**Quarks and Hadrons in the Tessellattice**

The Discovery of Quarks

Deeper Principles: Integer Colorless Charges

The Behavior of Quarks in the Tessellattice

On the Structure of a Nucleon

Neutrino - What Is It?

Proton Spin

**Nucleons and the Nuclear Forces**

Deformation Coat of the Nucleon

Nucleons in the Deuteron

Nucleus and a Cluster of Protons and Neutrons

Nuclear Coupling of Proton and Electron: Subatoms

Inertons and Radioactive Isotopes

Gravitation

A Brief Review of Studies on the Notion of Mass in Gravitational Physics

Overview of Main Roads of Quantum Gravity

Submicroscopic Approach to Gravity and the Gravitational Potential ~ 1/*r*

The Casimir Effect and Actual Manifestation of Quantum Gravity

Manifestation of the Wave Effects in the Gravitational Interaction

An Important Correction to the Newton’s Gravitation Law

Motion of Mercury’s Perihelion

The Deflection of Light

Red Shift of Spectral Lines

The Gravitational Time Delay Effect (The Shapiro Effect)

Summary on Classical Gravity

Cosmology

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Dark Matter

Dark Energy

Inerton Astronomy

Prospects for Further Studies and Applications

### Biography

**Dr. V. Krasnoholovets** was born in Kyiv, Ukraine. He graduated from a mathematical school, and then became a student of the Kyiv’s Taras Shevchenko National University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Theoretical Physics; he received a master’s degree in 1979. For next several years he worked as an experimentalist in the area of superconductivity at the Institute for Metal Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv. Since the end of 1981 and to now, he has been working at the Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Natl. Acad. Sci., Kyiv. A PhD thesis was defended in 1987; it was devoted to the study of a proton polaron model in compounds with hydrogen bonds including biological systems. At the Department, he focuses on condensed matter physics. Since 1993 he is a Senior Research Scientist. In the mid-1980s he also began to take an interest in the foundations of physics. The first paper in this field was published in 1993. In 1998-2003 Dr. Krasnoholovets actively worked with one of the classical French mathematicians, Prof. Michel Bounias (who passed away in 2003). Together with Prof. Bounias a theory of real physical space was developed, which started from pure mathematical principles, namely, set theory, topology and fractal geometry. Another professional interest is applied physics. In 2006 he co-founded a company in Belgium devoted to the development of technologies proposed by Ukrainian scientists. The company was named Indra Scientific and it has been gradually developing embracing new areas of applications (the production of biodiesel, recycling of industrial waste, organic waste to energy by using a new design of a gasifier, cleaning of waste water, infrared heating thin films, measuring devices, ecological chemistry, etc.). He is an editor of several books and collections of works dealing with quantum physics and gravity. Dr. Krasnoholovets has published over 80 research papers.

"An unorthodox but critical update as to physics, and I highly recommend it. In spirit, this is very similar to another ‘deep think’ book by Paul Wesson titled ‘Five-Dimensional Physics: Classical and Quantum Consequences of Kaluza-Klein Cosmology,’ and the two books complement each other well, and in addition the very good section on the fine structure constant written by Krasnoholovets has a perspective that is important and which is not elucidated anywhere else in physics. The author's efforts in understanding the deterministic foundations of physics is also important and should be seriously reviewed by any theoretical physicist who wishes to understand the limitations of the standard model, and quark-lepton physics. The sections on inertons are unique as well and is getting my continual review and study."

—Andrew Beckwith, PhD, Visiting Professor, Physics Department, Chongqing University, People's Republic of China

“A GENUINE ‘TOUR DE FORCE’ . . . a serious worthwhile experience for anyone interested in a wide variety of areas of physics, provided they are willing to approach the task in a truly open-minded manner. After the mathematical preliminaries, which take a while to read and understand, the author launches into their applications in physics and that is why it may be described correctly as a ‘tour de force,’ due to the breadth of applications considered. . . . [It] offers a discussion of a truly wide range of such physical phenomena, ranging from electromagnetic phenomena to quarks and hadrons to nucleons and nuclear forces to gravitation and to cosmology. The breadth of topics discussed—and discussed with an obviously good background knowledge of each—should make anyone who reads this book admire the tremendous knowledge and effort put into its production by the author. He is to be congratulated. . . . [T]his is a book that should be read and studied by all serious physics researchers. Even if you initially disagree with some of the statements made, the contents will make you think and possibly try to view some areas from a different point of view. This can only be good for physics and for any researcher who should view any topic in a totally open-minded way—studying this book will certainly help anybody with the will to do that.”

— Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Dept. of Maths. and Physics (retired), Hull University, England