1st Edition

Structures and Architecture Beyond their Limits

Edited By Paulo J. da Sousa Cruz Copyright 2016
    458 Pages
    by CRC Press

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    Although the disciplines of architecture and structural engineering have both experienced their own historical development, their interaction has resulted in many fascinating and delightful structures. To take this interaction to a higher level, there is a need to stimulate the inventive and creative design of architectural structures and to persuade architects and structural engineers to further collaborate in this process, exploiting together new concepts, applications and challenges.

    This set of book of abstracts and full paper searchable CD-ROM presents selected papers presented at the 3rd International Conference on Structures and Architecture Conference (ICSA2016), organized by the School of Architecture of the University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal (July 2016), to promote the synergy in the collaboration between the disciplines of architecture and structural engineering.



    Innovation in architectural steel
    T. Boake
    Bridges and viaducts between engineering and architecture
    E. Siviero
    Glass challenges – past, present, and future
    J. O’Callaghan
    Materials science, bridging the gap between architecture, architectural engineering and structural engineering
    F. Veer


    Mini-Symposium & Special Session

    New wood and bio-based construction
    Overview on the structural performance of timber structures under the effects of blast loading – research and design considerations
    D. Lacroix, C. Viau, D. Côté, M. Poulin, A. Lopez & G. Doudak
    Wall elements made of timber andWood-Cement Compounds – building-physical properties and structural performance
    D. Zwicky & N. Macchi
    Slab elements made of timber andWood-Cement Compounds – structural and other performances
    M. Eymard & D. Zwicky
    Function and design of innovative bio-based products for the building sector
    A. Falk & M. Wålinder
    Beech LVL – high strength material for engineered timber structures
    H. Blass, M. Frese & M. Enders-Comberg
    Experimental campaign of mechanical CLT connections subjected to a combination of shear and tension forces
    L. Pozza, M. Massari, M. Savoia & B. Ferracuti
    Experimental analysis of a new connection system for CLT structures
    A. Polastri, R. Brandner & D. Casagrande
    Numerical analyses of high- and medium-rise CLT buildings braced with cores and additional shear walls
    A. Polastri, L. Pozza, C. Loss & I. Smith
    Bio-based structural building components grown into near net shape
    F. Moser, M. Trautz, A. Beger, M. Löwer, J. Feldhusen, J. Prell, J. Reimer, A.Wormit, B. Usadel, C. Kämpfer, T. Seiler & H. Hollert
    Pourable wood-cement compounds – properties, potential and challenges of a new structural material
    N. Macchi & D. Zwicky
    Can CLT construction help Copenhagen become world’s first carbon neutral city?
    D. Horswill & T. Nielsen
    Energy and seismic performance of timber buildings in Mediterranean region
    A. Polastri, G. Poh’siè, I. Paradisi & J. Ratajczak
    A new dissipative connection for CLT buildings
    L. Marchi, D. Trutalli, R. Scotta, L. Pozza &A. Ceccotti

    Everyday tectonics
    Everyday tectonics? – clarification of concepts
    A. Beim & M. Hvejsel
    A didactic of tectonics
    N. Cowee
    Constructing and construing environmental sensations
    I. Foged
    Auxiliary architectures – the everyday potential of supplementary textile architectures
    M. Hensel & D. Hensel
    Tectonic transformations. Reclaiming everyday architecture
    C. Bundgaard
    The tectonics of recycling
    U. Madsen
    Investigations on cultural ecology of industrial timber construction – through tectonic understanding of new wood materials
    K. Sundahl
    Tensegrity systems – transferring tectonics from the extraordinary to the everyday
    M. Hensel, G. Bover, J. Hoen, S. da Cunha & S. Sørensen
    The ecology of urban tectonics – studied in everyday building culture of Hans Christian Hansen
    A. Beim & M. Hvejsel

    Performance aided assisted design
    Building timber gridshells with air: Numerical simulations and technique challenges
    A. Liuti, A. Pugnale & B. d’Amico
    Specialised algorithms for different project stages in a post-formed timber gridshell design
    S. Pone, G. Mirra, E. Pignatelli, D. Lancia & S. Colabella
    Computation tools for the design of a deployable dome structure
    D. Lee, O. Larsen & S. Kim
    Transformable bending-active structures: Manipulating elastic deformation in kinetic and rapidly assembled structures S. Brancart, L. De Laet & N. de Temmerman
    Generative material simulation: Contemporary trends in parametric structural design
    J. Ripple
    Advances in design and fabrication of free-form reciprocal structures
    D. Parigi

    The authority of the structure
    The art of structure
    J. Schwartz
    National technical library Prague – building as a technical textbook
    O. Hofmeister
    How to re-open the black box in the structural design of complex geometries
    K. Verbeeck, L. Loos, L. De Laet & L. Muller
    Trended structures – on the authority of the load-bearing structure
    N. Graber & C. Steiger
    Homage – source of inspiration
    M. Schlaich

    Reinforced ice structures: in the footsteps of Da Vinci and Candela
    Historical development of structural ice
    A. Pronk, N. Vasiliev & J. Belis
    Compressive strength of ice and cellulose-ice composite
    P.J.S. Cruz & J. Belis
    Technical installations to enable the construction of the “Juuka in ice” project 2016
    J. van den Elzen
    Design of Da Vinci’s bridge in ice
    A. Pronk, R. Blok, M. van Brunschot, A. van Lier, F. van de Mortel, K.Williams, M. Arntz, L. Hermens, R. Koekkoek &T. van den Nieuwenhof
    Reinforced ice structures: In the footsteps of Candela
    J. Belis, B. Ronsse, K. Martens, B. van Lancker, P.J.S. Cruz & G. Deruyter
    On-site geometrical measurements of an experimental ice composite shell through TLS and photogrammetry
    G. Deruyter, K. Fransen, H. Glas & J. Belis

    Teaching architecture in full scale – wood
    Models in 1:1 – a powerful education and research tool for bridging the gap between architects and engineers
    O. Popovic-Larsen
    From best practices to tactical design
    P. Tidwell
    Phases of intensive design and build workshops in architectural education
    P. Aalto & S. Rintala
    Learn-by-making and its role in architectural education – examples from Sweden and Australia
    D. Bylund
    Full scale in four months – objectives, methods and results
    J. Siem, B. Braaten & A. Gilberg

    Teaching architecture in full scale – regional materials
    Material, structure, tectonics: The power of full scale in the education of architects
    U. Meister & C. Rist-Stadelmann
    Constructing things for constructing other things
    T. Berlemont
    An inclusive aesthetic approach to full scale building
    N. Haarsaker & G. Brenk
    Learning at the scale of “real life”. New pedagogical ideas for teaching architecture
    M. Spaan
    Building culture written into the landscape – how to read spatial tradition
    J. Borucka
    Listening to the material. An intuitive approach to the knowledge ofconstruction materials
    R. Farré
    Didactic concepts within teaching architecture in one to one scale – two cases
    F. Hakonsen, M.Waagaard, A. Gilberg & J. Siem

    Beyond disciplines
    Shared parameters: Interfaces of collaborative exchange
    J. Ripple
    AECO:Web based collaborative digital design
    M. Naugle
    Interdisciplinary synergy
    R. Roesling & B. Nuttall
    Blurring boundaries through interdisciplinary engagement
    M. Mistur

    On the tectonics in architecture
    Heinz Hossdorf: The innovation of “mixed rims” in the thin concrete shells of modern architecture
    P. Cassinello
    The “question of the technique”: From the designing idea to the realized form
    R. Panei, P. Trovalusci & A. Tinelli
    Structural design and aesthetics of infrastructures in natural and artificial environments
    M. Pasca
    Foldable geometries for architectural applications: Tectonics and material expression
    K. Liapi, A. Ioannidi & E. Spyridonos
    Revisiting the form finding techniques of Sergio Musmeci: The bridge over the Basento river
    P. Magrone, G. Tomasello, S. Adriaenssens, S. Gabriele & V. Varano
    A two-stage approach for the design of grid shells
    E. Grande, M. Imbimbo & V. Tomei
    Three-dimensional lower-bound analysis of masonry structures
    P. Foti, A. Fraddosio, N. Lepore & M. Piccioni
    Structure and form. Changes of state in architecture – from modern to contemporary
    A. Russo

    General Contributions

    Building envelopes
    New equipment for new technology: Fixing systems for thin, Textile Reinforced Concrete façades
    M. Roik
    Mashrabiya reinvented: Double façades, Persian Gulf style
    T. Boake
    Reconstruction of roof decks of large roofs as a result of a synergy between technical and architectural solutions
    V. Tichomirov, K. Landl & D. Beˇckovský
    Façade modernisation for retrofitting existing buildings to achieve nearly zero energy buildings
    S. Zuhaib, M. Hajdukiewicz, M. Keane & J. Goggins
    Structural laminated bamboo passive house
    M. Taylor
    Application of simple surface climate models for modelling mould growth on wooden façades
    T. Thiis, I. Burud, D. Kraniotis & L. Gobakken
    An oak composite thermal dynamic envelope
    I. Foged & A. Pasold
    External musculature: The façade in the works of Ignacio Álvarez Castelao
    P. Cueto
    Understanding the complexities of building physics and human behaviour in achieving a nearly zero energy building
    P. Moran M. Hajdukiewicz & J. Goggins
    Thermal behaviour of reinforced concrete and brick masonry structures. A case study
    M. Molina-Huelva, A. Barrios-Padura & P. Fernández-Ans

    Computer and experimental methods
    Designing a slender footbridge based on a passive control algorithm
    J. Jiménez-Alonso, A. Díaz &A. Sáez
    Free form surfaces construction with precast pieces and minimum formwork
    P. Vegas & A. Bernabeu
    Genetically enhanced parametric design in the exploration of architectural solutions
    P. von Buelow
    Dynamic analysis of a modern cable-stayed footbridge
    J. Dulinska & I. Murzyn
    Optimization of stadium roof structure using force density method
    M. Uroš, P. Gidak & D. Lazarevi´c

    Concept architectural buildings/Futuristic structures
    Sun, sea, sand and architectural structures
    R. Rahman & M. Daud
    Rotoreliefs, definitively unfinished: From constructivism experiences to his legacy in progress, 1915–1998
    C. García

    Concrete and masonry structures
    The structure of the external lift at the Port of Ribadeo, Galicia, Spain
    J. Valcárcel
    Form and structure in the Cathedral of Cuzco
    H. Rodríguez-Camilloni
    Assessment of masonry buildings subjected to landslide by Strut-and-Tie Models
    F. Palmisano &A. Elia
    Beyond the funicular: Exploiting untapped potentials in masonry construction
    E. Jannasch
    Graphical methods for the design of masonry arches: The case of Luis Moya Blanco’s Nuestra Señora de la Araucana in Madrid, 1972
    L. Todisco, S. Rojo & C. Fivet
    Influence of the wall shape on the collapse of arch-wall systems
    D. Aita, R. Barsotti & S. Bennati
    Prefabricated planar elements for reinforced brick shells
    A. Pick, S. Schäfer & J. Reising
    Safety assessment of masonry structures based on modern methods and technologies
    C. Dragomir, M. Calin, S. Purdoiu, A. Virsta & R. Manea
    In the Arabian Gulf maintenance is the key to sustainability
    M. Samarai
    Sustainable construction through eco-efficient ultra-high performance concrete
    I. Ferdosian &A. Camões

    Educating architects and structural engineers
    Advanced structural understanding: Load path and structural function revised
    L. Luyten
    A comparative study of the physical model as a tool for structural education
    L. Luyten, T. Vilquin, I. Vrouwe & E. Verstrynge
    Blending structural application into architectural design studios
    M. Callahan, S. Shadravan & C. Leinneweber
    Architect in residence: Pursuing integrated design within engineering
    T. Nees
    A structuralist view of prefabrication
    A. Correia, L. da Silva & V. Murtinho
    Effective assignments and haptic teaching methods in architectural structure
    R. Schwaen & R. Arlt
    Bridge Design; Education and research in the field of integral, innovative, sustainable bridge design at TU Delft
    J. Smits
    Behavior of building structures: Study through models of relevant architecture
    E. Fenollosa, I. Cabrera, A. Almerich & V. Llopis
    In search of the lunar catenary: Teaching form-active design with lower mathematics
    E. Jannasch
    Drawing in the engineering design process: Learning from the first 150 years of modern engineering
    E. Brito, R. Póvoas & P. Providência
    Structural engineering in architectural studies at CTU Prague
    M. Vavruskova & M. Pospisil
    The relationship between structure, architecture, and cost of building based on conceptual design of cable-stayed footbridge
    S. Skibicki
    The teaching of structural engineering – a practical approach
    L. Houck & T. Aurlien
    Design and build studios in architectural education
    S. Sandness
    Inverse investigations: Material definitions of structure and space
    M. Donofrio
    STEM principles implementation in Building Technology education at Texas universities
    S. Toker-Beeson & R. Azari
    Forces frozen: Hands-on exploration of structural ice shells
    C. Fivet & C. Mueller
    Tectonics in the study abroad design studio
    S. Milovanovic-Bertram
    A survey of structures education in North American schools of architecture
    R. Dermody, D. Oakley & M. Uihlein
    Crossing boundaries: Blurring the lines between engineers and architects
    K. Dong & T. Fowler
    Sketching as thinking: Structural concepts and design
    M. Dunn
    A freehand method for analyzing certain spatial porticoes almost accurately
    A. Lacort

    Emerging technologies
    Systematic case study on energy efficiency of existing Irish buildings using BIM in order to achieve nearly zero energy standards
    T. Ganguly, M. Hajdukiewicz, M. Keane & J. Goggins
    Combining structural Topology Optimization and Big Area Additive Manufacturing – a case study
    N. Nikolov & K. Fletcher

    Glass structures
    The behaviour of Fire Resistant glass under fire
    K. Machalická, M. Charvátová, M. Eliášová & P. Kuklík
    Durability of linear adhesive cold-formed steel-glass connections
    B. Van Lancker,W. De Corte & J. Belis
    System safety of statically indeterminate glass beams after failure
    K. Martens, R. Caspeele & J. Belis
    Developing the bundled glass column
    F. Oikonomopoulou, F. Veer, T. Bristogianni & R. Nijsse
    A scientifically valid approach for determining the design strength and safety factor for Heat Strengthened glass
    F. Veer
    Lateral and torsional stability of hybrid steel-glass beams
    I. Pravdová & M. Eliášová

    Innovative architectural and structural design
    Optimization methodology for cross-section size in moment-resisting frame design
    J. Xu, X. Lu & B. Spencer
    Pedestrian bridge as public art: Detailing in exposed steel
    T. Boake
    Integrated complex shell structures made up of effectively transformed flat folded sheets
    J. Abramczyk
    Bending-active structures: A parametric analysis on decoding structural behavior and capacity
    K. Alexandrou & M. Phocas
    Innovative structural system consisting of CFT columns and precast concrete beams
    L. Bezerra, A. El Debs & M. El Debs
    Bionic patterns in architectural structures
    N. Nawari &T. Chichugova
    Is there a future for fabric-formed concrete structures?
    R. Schmitz
    Sarajevo University library architectural and structural concept
    A.Paši´c, M. Hrasnica & F. Biberki´c
    Early-stage integration of architectural and structural performance in a parametric multi-objective design tool
    N. Brown, J. Ochsendorf, C. Mueller & J. de Oliveira
    The new MAAT in Lisbon. Using old methods to design contemporary architectural solutions 
    E. Brito & R. Furtado
    Structural system concept for twisted buildings
    M. Piekarski
    Integrating engineering and architecture
    S. Smith
    An eco-friendly approach for enhancing rural archaeological heritage in Romania
    S. Bica, M. T˘am˘a¸san & C. M˘ar˘acineanu
    Externally post-tensioned structures: Validation through physical models
    L. Todisco & C. Mueller
    Topology optimization of photovoltaic panels as a factor in shaping structural system and architectural form
    R. Tarczewski & M. ´ Swie˛ciak
    ‘COCOON’ a bamboo building with integration of digital design and low-tech construction
    L. Hansen & S. Kim
    Studies in 3D topologies: Structural morphologies and grid shell structures
    I. Lochner
    Micro-mega – nature inspired structural patterns for tall buildings: Modeling, analysis, design
    G. Montuori, G. Perrella, M. Fraldi & E. Mele

    Lightweight and membrane structures
    A simplified and robust material model for fabrics used in membrane structures
    J. Pargana & V. Leitão
    The newWarner Stand at Lord’s Cricket Ground: Innovative fabric roof structures
    S. Smith, A. Lerpiniere,W. Whitby, M. Trousdell & R. Zara
    Lightweight modular membrane structures for various applications
    S. Gellin & R. Tarczewski
    A case study for the use of structural textile cables in building
    M. Brocato & R. Zarcone

    Steel and composite structures
    New roles of the structure in the refurbishment of the architectural heritage: The MediaLab-Prado project
    J. Rey Rey & P.Vegas

    Structural design challenges
    Bearing structure of a multi layered stone façade in cantilever of a 5 story residence in Athens
    M. Kyriazis
    A yoga analogy in structural behaviour: Understanding versus computation
    J. Bernabeu & A. Bernabeu
    Lightweight steel intensive solutions for over-roofing of existing residential buildings
    A. Floricel, V. Ungureanu & M. Georgescu

    Tall buildings
    Wind tunnel tests around bluff-bodies of circular base to optimize space grid envelope structures for high-rise steel buildings
    R. Señís
    An engineer reads. Interpreting the Citylife Tower RdD1 structural design process through an essay of Italo Calvino
    E. Brito & R. Furtado
    Comparative evaluation of diagrid and braced tube structures for tall buildings
    K. Moon
    Façade integrated structural damping systems for tall buildings
    K. Moon
    The borderline between architecture and structural engineering When structure and architecture are interdependent
    M. Sanvitto
    New orders, in search of a new point-block diagram for Hong Kong
    O. Ottevaere
    Structure as power: The case of the Matosinhos Market, Portugal, 1936–1953
    J. Delgado & P. Pinto
    Architectural vs. structural constraints in urban multi-hazard safety assessment
    E. Georgescu, C. Gociman, I. Craifaleanu, T. Florescu, M. Georgescu & C. Moscu
    Railway stations – the borderline between architecture and structure
    E. Kido
    The physical model in the structural studies of Robert Le Ricolais: “apparatus” or “hierogram”
    M. Vrontissi
    Holistic integration versus separation and fragmentation in architecture
    D. Bijedic, R. Cahtarevic & S. Halilovic
    Formal and structural multiplicity in early truss design
    M. Rinke
    New formal expectations. The dynamic alternative between the evident and the disturbing
    F. Suárez

    The history of the relationship between architects and structural engineers
    A study on the conservation of operating historical bridges – recent experiences in Japan
    H. Isohata
    Technological changes and architecture: The case of APCER magazine, Portugal 1935–45
    P. Pinto & J. Delgado
    Claiming ground: The first structural engineering license in the United States
    M. Uihlein
    Structural documentation of the Palace of Congress in Brasília
    J. Sánchez & E. da Silva
    Collaboration between architects and structural engineers: A history of major successes and major failures
    J. Rey Rey
    Building modelling in historical perspective
    R. Tarczewski

    The tectonic of architectural solutions
    Carlo Scarpa and the search for gravity
    A. Schultz
    Tectonic thinking on housing of modern architecture: Mies van der Rohe vs Alison and Peter Smithson
    A. Rodrigues & P. Baía
    Re-envisioning the Knot: The Neil Astle House
    B. Wrightsman
    From Seia to Guimarães. Fernando Távora’s tectonic shift in the Sacor fuel stations
    E. Fernandes
    Tectonics and landscape: The structure of ground and atmosphere
    M. Laboy
    Tectonic approaches in the design of concrete architecture in postwar Italy
    L. Ingold & M. Rinke
    Appropriate building physics in relation to the tectonic of architectural quality
    C. Kristensen
    Recovering a broader understanding of tectonics. The case for the architectural potentials of sheet metal
    J. Holst & O. Jackson
    Le Corbusier’s Maison Dom-ino and John Habraken’s supports: Differences and similarities
    H. Ferreira, L. da Silva & V. Murtinho

    Timber structures
    Development of roofing grid structures with an orthogonal grid from glulam timber
    D. Loktev, I. Inzhutov, P. Melnikov, S. Deordiev & V. Zhadanov
    Mass timber high-rise design, cost and schedule research: Competitive advantages of wood over concrete
    A. Jacobs, M. Timmers, J. Sundnes & A. Baker
    Structural performance of multi-story Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) buildings
    I. Lukacs & A. Björnfot
    The conceptual design of hybrid structures – theoretical and experimental research of external prestressed timber beams
    S. Miljanovi´c & M. Zlatar
    Hybrid wood-based structural systems for multi-storey buildings
    C. Loss, M. Piazza & R. Zandonini
    Contrasting approaches to load-bearing timber structures
    A. Gianoli & R. Furrer

    Author index


    Paulo J.S. Cruz is Full Professor of Construction and Technology at the School of Architecture of the University of Minho. He is President of IDEGUI - Design Institute of Guimarães and Director of Lab2PT - Landscape, Heritage and Territory Laboratory as well as Head of studies on Product Design. He was President of the School of Architecture of the University of Minho (2004-2011) and Head of the Civil Engineering Department of the University of Minho (2003 & 2004).

    He graduated in Civil Engineering (1987) and received an MSc in Structural Engineering from the University of Porto, Portugal (1991) and obtained his PhD in Civil Engineering from the Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain (1995). Since 1987 he has conducted research in the domain of special structures. After his PhD he started in the field of “Steel and Composite Structures”, progressively devoting his research interests to the area of bridges, particularly concerning safety, inspection, assessment and monitoring.

    Since his involvement with the School of Architecture, he has bridged the gap between architecture and structural engineering, promoting the efficient use of the traditional materials and their judicious combination; exploring innovative technological, constructional and structural solutions and establishing effective collaborations with the construction industry.