1st Edition

Structures and Architecture New concepts, applications and challenges

Edited By Paulo J. Cruz Copyright 2013

    Although the disciplines of architecture and structural engineering have both experienced their own historical development, their interaction has resulted in many fascinating and delightful structures. To take this interaction to a higher level, there is a need to stimulate the inventive and creative design of architectural structures and to persuade architects and structural engineers to further collaborate in this process, exploiting together new concepts, applications and challenges.

    The Structures and Architecture set of book of abstracts (704pp) and full paper searchable CD-ROM (2262pp) presents over 300 selected papers presented at the 2nd International Conference on Structures and Architecture Conference (ICSA2013), organized by the School of Architecture of the University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal (July 2013), to promote the synergy in the collaboration between the disciplines of architecture and structural engineering.

    The set addresses all major aspects of structures and architecture, including building envelopes, comprehension of complex forms, computer and experimental methods, concrete and masonry structures, educating architects and structural engineers, emerging technologies, glass structures, innovative architectural and structural design, lightweight and membrane structures, special structures, steel and composite structures, the borderline between architecture and structural engineering, the history of the relationship between architects and structural engineers, the tectonics of architectural solutions, the use of new materials, timber structures and more.

    The contributions on creative and scientific aspects of the conception and construction of structures, on advanced technologies and on complex architectural and structural applications represent a fine blend of scientific, technical and practical novelties in both fields.

    This set is intended for both researchers and practitioners, including architects, structural and construction engineers, builders and building consultants, constructors, material suppliers and product manufacturers, and other experts and professionals involved in the design and realization of architectural, structural and infrastructural projects.

    Conference organization
    Non financial sponsors


    A façade roadmap
    U. Knaack

    Pier Luigi Nervi: Architecture as challenge
    M.A. Chiorino & C. Chiorino

    The great counterintuitive: Re-evaluating historic and contemporary building construction for earthquake collapse prevention
    R. Langenbach

    Emilio Pérez Piñero: Inventor of deployability
    F. Escrig


    Mini-symposia & special sessions

    Modern renaissance timber construction

    Merging seismic and fire design of timber buildings and potential and limitationson going high
    B. Kasal, D. Kruse, N. Rüther & T. Polocoser

    Status of Cross-laminated Timber construction in North-America
    S. Gagnon & E. Karacabeyli

    A review on seismic response of timber frames
    H. Stamatopoulos & K.A. Malo

    Investigation of seismic performance of multi-storey timber buildings within the framework of the SERIES project
    M. Piazza & R. Tomasi

    Seismic design of CLT buildings: Definition of the suitable q-factor by numerical and experimental procedures
    L. Pozza, D. Trutalli, A. Polastri & A. Ceccotti

    Seismic design of timber buildings with a direct displacement-based design method
    C. Loss, M. Piazza & D. Zonta

    Behaviour of moment connections in timber frameworks
    A. Polastri, R. Tomasi, M. Piazza & I. Smith

    Seismic performance assessment of a timber log house
    J.M. Branco, C. Aranha & P.B. Lourenço

    Better than steel? (Part 2): Tall wooden factories and the invention of “slow-burning” heavy timber construction
    R. Langenbach

    Performance-based design for mid-rise wood constructions in Canada
    C. Dagenais, S. Gagnon & R. Desjardins

    Predicting force flows in timber light-frame building superstructures
    G. Doudak & I. Smith

    Is cross-laminated timber suitable for building structures to thirty levels?
    J.B. Chapman

    Wind design of timber buildings
    I. Zisis & T. Stathopoulos

    Design concepts and principles for tall multi-storey superstructures incorporating timber frameworks
    I. Smith

    Vibrations of timber floor beams with end restraints
    K.A. Malo & J. Köhler

    Behavior of dowel-type timber connections under cyclic loading
    S. Zhang, W. Wang, C. Huang & W. Wu

    Design and production of a heavy timber reaction frame for a laboratory test setup
    M. Andreolli, P. Grossi, T. Sartori & R. Tomasi

    Glulam structures: Some Portuguese case studies
    A.O. Feio, P.J.S. Cruz & A. Pinto

    On the “tectonics” in architecture—between aesthetics and ethics

    Shells—Innovation system design by Ildefonso Sánchez (1898–1980)
    P. Cassinello

    The DNA of the avant-gardes
    L.E. Mayo

    Conceptual design of a pedestrian bridge by means of topology optimization
    L. Frattari, J.P. Dagg & G. Leoni

    The nature of tectonic architecture and structural design
    A. Carter, P.H. Kirkegaard & R. Tyrrell

    Construction and form-finding of a post-formed timber grid-shell
    S. Pone, S. Colabella, B. Parenti, D. Lancia, A. Fiore, B. D’Amico, F. Portioli, R. Landolfo, M. D’Aniello & C. Ceraldi

    Félix Candela between philosophy and engineering: The meaning of shape
    M. Savorra & G. Fabbrocino

    The recovery of the ethic of constructions: P.L. Nervi vs. S. Musmeci, two structural conceptions compared
    P. Trovalusci & A. Tinelli

    Tensegrity tectonics: Structural concept and architectural expression
    K.A. Liapi

    The Nervi system: Between complexity and ethic
    T. Iori & S. Poretti

    The school of bridges in Venice: Teaching bridge design in a University of Architecture
    A. Zanchettin, E. Siviero & E. Reccia

    Structural glass: Crossing borders

    Double skin facades made of glass—aspects of structural design and static analysis
    B. Siebert

    Boosting European education on structural glass: COST action TU0905 training school
    J. Belis, C. Louter, J. Neugebauer & J. Schneider

    Glass structures, from theory to practice
    N. Emami

    Evaluation of the SLG method for applications with adhesive point-fixings
    J. Dispersyn, K. Calleyl & J. Belis

    Influence of various factors to mechanical properties of glued joint in glass
    K. Machalická & M. Eliášová

    Cones made of glass for a new entrance of a museum
    J. Neugebauer

    Analytic models of adhesively bonded steel-glass beams
    T. Fremr, M. Netusil & M. Eliášová

    Building integrated photovoltaic—new developments
    G. Siebert & B. Siebert

    Stress corrosion parameters for glass with different edge finishing
    M. Vandebroek, C. Louter, J. Dispersyn, D. Sonck & J. Belis

    Exploratory experimental investigations on post-tensioned structural glass beams
    C. Louter, J.H. Nielsen & J. Belis

    Experimental investigations and numerical modeling of point-fitted glass panes
    M. Tibolt, O. Hechler & C. Odenbreit

    Reinforced glass connection—concept, test and detail
    P.L. Carvalho, P.J.S. Cruz & F.A. Veer

    From open structures to the cladding of control: A critical call for current tectonic theories and practices in architecture

    Structural cladding/clad structures: Studies in tectonic building practice
    A. Beim

    Tectonics of montage: Architectural positions for a tectonic sustainable building practice
    C. Bundgaard

    Wallpaper & tectonics—a critical discussion of the state of the architectural discipline
    M.F. Hvejsel & P.H. Kirkegaard

    Architectural assemblages and materializations—changing notions of tectonics and materiality in contemporary architecture
    F. Nilsson

    From new tools and methods towards new tasks and ideals: The impact of technology and science in the post-war era

    The architecture of absence: Building, landscape and the changing character of technology in the post-war era
    C.P.C. Cabral

    New French architectural treatises for a new kind of public architecture
    E. Monin

    The development of architectural concrete in Belgium during the 1960s and 1970s
    S. Van de Voorde

    Working relationships between architects and structural engineers: World War II to the 1970s
    D.T. Yeomans

    Finnish architect-engineer cooperation on concrete and shell structures in the 1950s and 1960s
    A. Niskanen

    Innovation in reciprocal structures

    Reciprocal systems based on planar elements
    O. Baverel & A. Pugnale

    Reciprocal-frame structures—a digital design instrument
    U. Thönnissen

    The proposal of an ancient technique for modern construction: A stone reciprocal structure
    M. Brocato & L. Mondardini

    Efficient design and fabrication of free-form reciprocal structures
    D. Parigi & P.H. Kirkegaard

    Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies
    D. Parigi & P.H. Kirkegaard

    Innovation in timber

    Wood structures—versatility and innovation
    F. Jensen

    Cross-laminated timber: A key material for the future of structural design
    M. Nevado

    Cross-laminated timber: Driving forces and innovation
    A. Falk

    The wooden cooling tower
    E. Nozhova

    MonaLisa Wood Pavilion: Poplar pl(a)ywood
    G. Callegari, M. Sassone, A. Spinelli & R. Zanuttini

    Robustness issues for design of innovative timber structures 161
    F. Hald, P.H. Kirkegaard & J.D. Sørensen

    Principles in practice for the analysis, conservation and structural restoration of architectural heritage

    The ISCARSAH principles in practice
    S.J. Kelley

    The building and its structural history (or how the history is the source of endless technical knowledge)
    M.M.S. Lagunes

    Master Builders’ design skills in diagnosing the failures
    G. Arun

    Physical evaluation of the endless column
    R.A. Sofronie

    Structural evaluation of Kilitbahir castle in Canakkale, Turkey
    A. Turer

    Dismantling of foundation system for conservation of masonry structures in Angkor, Cambodia
    Y. Iwasaki, Y. Akazawa, M. Fukuda, J. Nakazawa, K. Nakagawa, I. Shimoda & T. Nakagawa

    General contributions

    Building envelopes

    Life cycle assessment of Irish residential buildings and typical building envelope analysis
    A. Armstrong & J. Goggins

    Proposals for intervention in obsolete building envelopes in Andalusia
    M. Molina-Huelva, J.M. Rincón-Calderón & P. Fernández-Ans

    Integrated design applied in thermal retrofitting solutions for residential buildings
    A. Ciutina, V. Ungureanu, D. Dubina & D.M. Grecea

    Modificated plastic materials for a new generation of architecture
    T. Ries

    Isostatic lines’ study to optimize steel space grid envelope structures for tall buildings according to their solicitations
    R. Señís

    Balconies, analysis of constructive technology current state and foresight of new industrial development
    L. Sierra & J.L. Zamora

    Expanded cork as building envelope—architectonic and technological aspects
    P. Sousa & P.J.S. Cruz

    Computer and digital design tools

    Modular construction systems for freeform architecture
    S. Schäfer, J. Reising, S. Abedini & A. Ljubas

    Seismic rehabilitation of RC structures—case study: Educational building with GF + 4 storey height regime
    M.C. Calin, D. Iordan & C.S. Dragomir

    Thicker funicular: Particle-spring systems for variable-depth form-responding compression-only structures
    B. Clifford

    Architectural feedback in the structural optimization process
    J. Felkner, E. Chatzi & T. Kotnik

    Multimodal structural optimization for conceptual design
    K. Martini

    Investigating a new material practice
    M. Tamke, P. Nicholas, P. Ayres & M.R. Thomsen

    Study of the sensitivity of different building structures to tunneling induced settlements
    C. Molins & C. Camós

    Multi-objective optimization of concrete shells
    T. Mendez Echenagucia, M. Sassone & A. Pugnale

    Structures for quality and quantity of natural light in architecture
    S. Bica, I.M. Cristutiu & O. Micsa

    Performance assessment of mixed CFRP retrofitting solution for RC slabs
    S.C. Floruţ, V. Stoian, T. Nagy-György, D. Dan & D. Diaconu

    The use of unconventional reinforcements in structures—design aspects
    K. Jaafar

    Comprehension and complex forms

    The dynamic phraseology of structures: Enabling the design of complex systems
    T.M. Boake

    Railway stations between infrastructural complexity and architectural form
    E. Conticelli & S. Tondelli

    Structural analysis of the Curators’ Lab Arena—an impressive ephemeral timber structure
    P.J.S. Cruz & A.O. Feio

    Tessellation of Islamic star patterns on complex forms
    M.C. Fernández-Cabo & A. Casas-Pérez

    Parametric design and non-linear analysis of a large-scale deployable roof structure based on action origami
    T.R. Gentry, D. Baerlecken, M. Swarts & N. Wonoto

    Diagrids for design and construction of freeform tall buildings
    K.S. Moon

    Outrigger structures for twisted, tilted and tapered tall buildings
    K.S. Moon

    Discretization solutions for the construction of free form complex surface structures
    H. Giles & A. Berk

    Architectural topology parametrically defined by digital manufacturing
    M.G. del Valle Lajas & J.A. Díaz

    Virtual reality as a multidisciplinary communication tool
    L. Houck, R. Hassan, T.K. Thiis & K. Solheim

    Structural form as ornament
    R.A. Opriţa

    Concrete and masonry structures

    Reinforced concrete in the early 20th century: The search for a form language for the material
    M.B. Dan

    Technology of thin shells in the German baroque
    V. Compán, M. Cámara & J. Sánchez

    Control of conservation works for architectural heritage buildings by microseismic recordings and structural analysis
    C.S. Dragomir, A. Duţu, C.S. Dragomir & E.S. Georgescu

    “Reticolatus”: An innovative reinforcement for irregular masonry—a numeric model
    M. Paradiso, S. Galassi, A. Borri & D. Sinicropi

    Study to evaluate the characteristics of masonry for “Stirbey family chapel” to retrofit the structure
    C.-L. Matei & R.-C. Matei

    A critical assessment of concrete and masonry structures for reconstruction after seismic events in developing countries
    H. McWilliams & C.T. Griffin

    Funicular forms and earthquake performance of low-strength masonry buildings
    S. Rihal & J. Edmisten

    Load-bearing capacity of corroded reinforced concrete joists
    J. Vercher, E. Gil & A. Mas

    Determination of residual load-bearing capacity of existing masonry structures
    J. Witzany, T. Cejka & R. Zigler

    Structural behaviour of masonry buildings subjected to landslide: Load path method approach
    F. Palmisano & A. Elia

    Fabric formed concrete structures and architectural elements
    R.F. Pedreschi

    Application of the operational modal analysis method for the control of the intervention in the Roman Theatre (Cádiz, Spain)
    P. Pachon, E. Rodriguez-Mayorga, J.F. Jimenez, V. Compán, A. Saez & E. Yanes

    An approach to patents of prestressed concrete in 20th century architecture
    M.P.L. Zurdo, J.A. Díaz & M. de Miguel Sánchez

    Historical concrete structures in Romania and Italy: Exchange in building and conservation
    M.B. Dan & C.O. Gociman

    Emerging technologies

    Monitoring the recovery of the architectural heritage
    P.D. Simal, E.L. Rodríguez, E.L. Burló & J.L. Díaz

    The role of spontaneous construction for post-disaster housing
    D. Félix, A.O. Feio, J.M. Branco & J.S. Machado

    Comparing the embodied energy of structural systems in parking garages
    C.T. Griffin, L. Bynum, A. Green, S. Marandyuk, J. Namgung, A. Burkhardt & M. Hoffman

    Bridge design 2.0: Developments in the field of integrated, sustainable and durable bridge design
    J. Smits

    Earth architecture: Ancient and new methods for durability improvement
    R. Eires, A. Camões & S. Jalali

    Daylight in interiors
    L. Janečková & D. Bošová

    Innovative architectural and structural design

    Design of adaptive structures by kinematic synthesis of mechanisms
    Y. Akgün, F. Maden & K. Korkmaz

    Prestressing, technique and innovation in the 1950–1975 architecture
    J.A. Díaz

    Diagrid structures—innovation and detailing
    T.M. Boake

    Housing industrialization, success and failure, universal and local: Limits for housing globalization
    A.L. Correia, V. Murtinho & L.S. da Silva

    Innovative architectural and structural design to preserve historical centers
    D. Félix, A.O. Feio, J.M. Branco & J.S. Machado

    Sustainable design of a multistory welded steel structure located in a seismic area
    M. Georgescu, V. Ungureanu & M. Szitar

    Concepts for a movable bridge
    J. Hołowaty

    Partial dismantling of 1960s to 80s housing estates—a sustainable holistic solution
    S. Huuhka

    Design of reconfigurable doubly-curved canopy structure
    F. Maden, K. Korkmaz & Y. Akgün

    Natural structures and innovative design
    N.O. Nawari & A.M. Gutierrez

    A new building system: Structural aspects of COTaCERO system
    J.P. Valcárcel, V. Hermo & J.B.R. Cheda

    Hybrid structures: A case of a pedestrian bridge
    T. Sophocleous, M.C. Phocas & A. Michael

    Reciprocal structures in architectural shaping of floors and roofs
    M. Piekarski

    Origami based, deployable disaster relief shelter
    S. Rihal

    Three-hinged structures in a historical perspective
    L. Slivnik

    “Floating Roofs”: The Dorton Arena and the development of modern tension roofs
    T.S. Sprague

    Dynamic design of slender footbridges
    E. Caetano & A. Cunha

    Deployable stage: Proposal of an application with mobile structures
    N. Torres

    Naturwall©—timber multifunctional systems in refurbishment sustainable process
    A. Spinelli & G. Callegari

    Multi-objective search in the early phase of architectural design
    T. Mendez Echenagucia, M. Sassone, P.A. Croset & A. Astolfi

    Using the laser scanning technology in the rehabilitation of existing buildings
    S. Pescari, D. Dan & V. Stoian

    Computational morphogenesis in architecture: Structure and light as a multi-objective design/optimization problem
    A. Liuti, A. Pugnale & A. Erioli

    Form structure inte(g)ration
    E. Mele & M. Toreno

    Mass-customized architectural design approach: Evaluation and a proposal based on fractal geometry principles
    M. Asefi & F. Fakourian

    The legacy of the Modern Movement and its adversities in the face of the current development of changeable housing construction solutions
    H.J.V. Ferreira, L.S. da Silva & V. Murtinho

    Nature-inspired structural optimization of freeform shells
    F. Waimer, R. La Magna & J. Knippers

    An innovative proposal for a deployable shading system
    M. Asefi, E.E. Salari, Sh. Valadi & Gh. Kouchenani

    Interdisciplinary work and educating architects and structural engineers

    Hybrid architecture: Coupling structural understanding and architectural education
    R. Balbo, T. Kocaturk & A. Veliz

    Cultivating the next generation of architects through pattern of structural systems
    M.P. Callahan & I.K. Chang

    Teaching seismic and wind subjects to architecture students
    I.K. Chang, M.P. Callahan, P. Lu, H.Y. Chan & S. Luong

    Embracing the past: Using historical structures to teach engineering fundamentals
    R.J. Dermody

    Design engineer construct: Building large scale structures
    K. Dong & J. Feldman

    The interdisciplinary design studio—identifying collaboration
    K. Dong, J. Doerfler & T. Fowler

    Constructing by creative re-use of unexpected materials
    P.L. Carvalho & P.J.S. Cruz

    Understanding the interplay between structure and architecture using Building Information Modeling (BIM)
    N.O. Nawari

    Force material form—transferring historical construction concepts into contemporary architectural design
    M. Rinke & J. Schwartz

    Numerical models of a beam belonging to a tall building: Errors and approximations within ordinary design
    L. Sgambi, N. Basso, R. Pavani, E. Civelli, C.D. Meroni & M. Pagin

    Conceptual structural design: An important topic in architectural education
    L. Sgambi, N. Basso & M.E. Codazzi

    The advantage of full-size construction as an educational tool in architecture education
    J. Siem, B.O. Braaten, B. Manum, P. Aalto & A. Gilberg

    Found in translation: Physical models as a structural design tool for architects
    Th. Vilquin

    Reframing structures: Frame experimentation in artistic studies
    I. Vrouwe & B. Pak

    Aesthetics in the education of civil and structural engineers
    J.M. Songel

    Lightweight and membrane structures

    Fold here: Optimizing a disaster relief shelter with prototypes
    R.M. Arens & E.P. Saliklis

    Deployable membrane structures: Design proposal for the scissors-type system
    O.F. Avellaneda & R. Sastre

    Innovative solutions for ultra-lightweight textile shelters covering archaeological sites
    A. Zanelli, E. Rosina, R. Maffei, G. Carra & P. Beccarelli

    Tree like structures and fractals
    J.S. Sánchez, F. Escrig & T.R. León

    Lightweight architecture: Characteristics for an effective application in case of emergency
    R. Maffei, A. Zanelli & P. Beccarelli

    Minimal-surface-T-connections in architecture
    G.H. Filz

    Spaceplates Building System
    A. Romme, I. Sørvin & A. Bagger

    Qualitative investigation: Efficiency of a membrane roof project
    E.F. Nunes, J.B.M. de Sousa Jr., A.M.S. de Freitas & B. Baier

    “Corogami Hut” case study
    C. Wiebe

    Surface- and mesh-based approaches towards a materialization of architectural catenoids
    G.H. Filz, S. Schiefer & Th. Stecher

    Temporary reticulated membrane at PS1
    P.D. Endres

    Special structures

    Shapes and behavior of triangular grid structures: Current trends in architecture of the 21st century
    E.G. Meza & J.A. Díaz

    Elevated pedestrian ways in Japan: A historical view
    H. Isohata

    Building on planet Mars student project
    A. Nussbaumer, P. Zurbruegg, S. Erkman & T. Besson

    Adaptable hybrid steel structures: Kinetic modeling and simulation study
    M. Matheou, M.C. Phocas & E.G. Christoforou

    Analysis of Portadas de Feria subjected to wind loads incorporating nonlinearity of the guys
    M.T. Rodríguez-León, J.S. Sánchez & F. Escrig

    Foundation Louis Vuitton: Exploring new structural typologies
    A.M.B. Geli & M.P. Sendra

    Steel and composite structures

    Specificity of shaping light gauge steel shells
    J. Abramczyk

    Numerical analysis of sliding rigid beam-column joints made from encased tubes for high-rise structures
    A.A. Valls, A.A. Puigcerver & J.M. Carreras

    Experimental and theoretical analysis of bridges with encased filler beams
    V. Kvočák, R. Vargová & P. Beke

    Shear connection of composite steel and concrete bridge trusses
    M. Charvát & J. Macháček

    Experimental study on steel-concrete shear walls with steel encased profiles retrofitted with FRP composites
    D. Dan, A. Fabian, V. Stoian & T. Nagy-György

    The re-use of disassembled steel structures between architectural design and environmental sustainability
    M. Pongiglione, C. Calderini & A. Giachetta

    Theoretical and experimental studies on composite steel-concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles
    A. Fabian, V. Stoian & D. Dan

    Analysis of composite section columns under axial compression and biaxial bending moments
    E. Fenollosa & I. Cabrera

    Great steel structures: The Italian post-war trial
    M. Zordan & F. Fragnoli

    Required performance level of an existing building for over roofing
    Zs. Nagy & M. Cristuţiu

    Innovative conception and design of structural systems for flexible floor spaces
    C. Odenbreit, O. Hechler & M. Braun

    Double curved aluminum façade
    K. Najjar

    Comparing the seismic performance of concentrically braced frames with and without self-centering behaviour
    G.J. O’Reilly & J. Goggins

    Efficient solution for large motorways composite bridges
    E. Petzek, L. Toma & E. Meteş

    Technical solutions for rehabilitation of old arch bridges
    E. Petzek, L. Toma & R. Băncilă

    Reconversion process of an old building into a modern commercial center
    Zs. Nagy & M. Cristuţiu

    Adapting a historic truss viaduct to modern requirements
    J. Hołowaty

    Structural solutions for emergency architecture
    T. Otilia-Alexandra & G.D. Mihai

    The borderline between architecture and structural engineering

    The challenges of structure in today’s architectural, economic and social context
    A.B. Larena & J.B. Larena

    Conceptural planning by the structural engineer
    A. Gianoli

    Alpexpo building by Jean Prouvé in Grenoble: The specific issue of the suspended facade
    A. Coste & C. Blachot

    Great light spans: Geometry and simple structural behaviour—2nd half of the 20th century
    V.A. García & J.A. Díaz

    Structure and architecture: The illogical results of considering them two separated entities, after the 2009 earthquake in L’Aquila
    C. Bartolomucci

    A concrete prefabricated attic
    C. Bocan

    The importance of engineers in the development of modern Spanish architecture: Alejandro de la Sota’s industrial architecture
    M.C. González & A.S. Estrela

    Architecture and engineering in the new leaning towers
    M. Cámara, V. Compán & J. Sánchez

    Structure as architectural system
    B. Corotis & A. Daringa

    Closing the gap while celebrating the divide: Tools for A/E collaborative learning
    M.K. Donofrio

    A multi-performance comparison of long-span structural systems
    C.T. Griffin, E. Douville, B. Thompson & M. Hoffman

    Timber framed masonry buildings, an earthquake resistance influenced architecture
    A. Duţu, J.G. Ferreira & C.S. Dragomir

    Homeostatic patterns
    A. Erioli, C. Giacobazzi & G. Castellazzi

    The architecture of the fall: Metamorphosis of structure in the work of Enric Miralles (1988–1997)
    J.M. Rovira & C.B. García

    The role of architectural theory in exploiting the potential of iron load-bearing structures
    M.V. Hârţa

    The interaction of architects and structural engineers for the Hellenic World Complex in Athens
    E.S. Kyriazis

    A structural language for a conceptual design collaboration
    L. Luyten

    Engineers and the role of structures in architecture
    B. Manum & D. Nilsen

    On the extension of graphical statics into the 3rd dimension
    M. Schrems & T. Kotnik

    Configuration design for collective housing building structure—IFD systems configuration
    J. Nikolic

    Architectural taming of infrastructure: Interaction architect—structural engineers
    R. Tarczewski & P. Ogielski

    Infrastructures and environmental impact: The synergy of architectural and structural design
    M. Pasca

    New species of structures
    J. Pérez-Herreras

    The disappearance of the structural analysis barrier: The Sydney Opera House from a contemporary perspective
    J.R. Rey

    The role of structures in daylighting retrofits for existing buildings
    M. Sedor, C.T. Griffin & K. Konis

    Built environment sustainability—breaking the borderlines between architects and civil engineers
    M.A. Szitar, T.O. Gheorghiu & D.M. Grecea

    Examining the architectural engineer
    M.S. Uihlein

    Traditional and scientific knowledge for a sustainable vulnerability reduction of rural housing in Haiti
    A. Caimi, H. Guillaud, O. Moles, F. Vieux-Champagne, P. Garnier, S. Grange, Y. Sieffert & L. Daudeville

    Experimental tests on steel members with variable I welded section
    I.M. Cristutiu & D.L. Nunes

    The evolutionary process of built heritage influenced by the architecture/engineering borderline decisions
    A. Tavares, A. Costa & H. Varum

    Confrontation between building and ground: Notions of force and gravity in the work of João Vilanova Artigas
    L. Borgonovi e Silva & T. Kotnik

    Structuring geometry and abstraction of structures in architectural synthesis
    Dž. Bijedić, R. Čahtarević & S. Halilović

    Design of the Brasilia TV Tower
    E.B.C. Azambuja & J.M.M. Sánchez

    Energy efficiency upgrading, architectural restyling and structural retrofit of modern buildings by means of “engineered” double skin façade
    F. Feroldi, A. Marini, B. Badiani, G.A. Plizzari, E. Giuriani, A. Belleri & P. Riva

    Structural assessment of heritage architecture
    M. Holicky & M. Sykora

    Structure and architecture in the design studio
    P.D. Endres & C. Wetzel

    Can collaboration within multidisciplinary teamwork be explained using Belbins theory?—a case study
    A.S. Dederichs & J. Karlshøj

    Interaction of shape and structural performance: Design of structures using methods of structural optimization
    I. Lochner

    The history of the relationship between architects and structural engineers Pier Luigi Nervi in the United States: The height and decline of a master builder
    A. Bologna & G. Neri

    Doménico Parma and Guillermo González Zuleta: A story of challenges, innovation and development of concrete architecture in Colombia
    E.C. Cortes & A. Primmer

    Supporting modern architecture: Sources for the Matosinhos Market structural design
    J.P. Delgado & P.T. Pinto

    Structure impact on architectural form of multi-storey factory buildings of industrial revolution
    T. Šenberger & J. Hořická

    Memories of Mario: The best structures professor I never knew
    D.J. Oakley

    Prefabrication and standardization: Arne Jacobsen’s contribution
    Y.O. Sanz

    From construct to type—the transformation of constituents in the development of trusses
    M. Rinke & T. Kotnik

    Architect and engineer: The collaboration of Louis I. Kahn and August E. Komendant
    H. Rodríguez-Camilloni

    What is a steel construction?
    F.R. Rosenberg

    Between Le Duc and Mérimée. Talking about Vézelay
    A.R.M. de la Plata, J.A. Díaz & P.C. Franco

    Systems of rationalization: New methods and changes of organization in Swedish building construction around 1970
    E. Sigge

    The architect/structural engineer relationship—a symmetrical symbiosis
    R.A. Opriţa

    Structural engineering for timber and steel-timber trusses in Italy (1800–1950)
    E. Zamperini

    “Arup calling”: The engineering gets to Paris—Centre George Pompidou (1971–77)
    M. Comba

    Significant pioneers of engineer—architect collaboration in the twentieth century
    A.J. Macdonald

    Steel skeleton and terra cotta skin: Engineering and architecture of the Chicago stock exchange by Adler and Sullivan
    M.A. Chiuini

    The structural engineer: Finding the philosophy of the profession
    M.S. Uihlein

    Anatomy of structures
    F.H. Selmani

    The tectonic of architectural solutions

    AgwA architecture office: Study cases on structure and architecture
    H. Fallon & B. Vandenbulcke

    Viljo Revell: Tectonic structures
    J.J.F. Forés

    The Tectonic meaning in Le Corbusier’s architecture the case of Le Cabanon
    F. Hakonsen

    Mies’ early American work and the Tectonic bond between architecture and structure
    R.S. Avilés

    Alternative affordable housing through simulated 3D architectural tectonic: V3 Residence, Putrajaya
    R. Ab. Rahman & A.A. Dzaharudin

    Tectonics or reinforced concrete and timber and earthquake vulnerability
    M.B. Dan

    Combining shape grammars and BIM in the rehabilitation design process of the bourgeois house of Oporto: The research progress
    E. Coimbra & V. Riso

    AgwA architecture office: Addressing structure in architecture competitions
    H. Fallon & B. Vandenbulcke

    Towards an improved architectural quality in contemporary architecture
    C. Kristensen & P.H. Kirkegaard

    The use of new materials

    Agricultural residues applications in contemporary building industry
    H. Dahy & J. Knippers

    The finishing touch for better energy efficiency of episodically used masonry wall single family houses
    S.T. Djambova & O. Simov

    Light, colour, form and surface
    C. Eckhardt

    How to build the future with limited and finite resources?
    Y. Sieffert, D. Daudon & J.-M. Huygen

    Thermal and energy refurbishment of university buildings using phase change materials
    L.N. Gomes, M.S. Rodrigues, R.S. Vicente & T.R. Silva

    Cement-bonded particleboards of modified composition with alternative raw sources utilization
    T. Melichar & J. Bydžovský

    Timber structures

    Connections loaded perpendicular to grain—analysis of the failure behavior and design approach
    B. Franke & P. Quenneville

    Contribution to the fire resistance of timber construction using boards
    M. Dufková & P. Kuklík

    Low cost construction: State of the art and prospects for using structure wood apartment buildings in Portugal
    M. Oliveira, J.P. Couto, P. Mendonça, J.M. Branco, M. Silva & A.P. Reis

    Embodied information in structural timber
    E. Jannasch

    Convertible city: Light wood prefab systems in the extension of built environment
    A. Spinelli

    Analysis of the elasto-plastic failure behavior of wood under compression
    S. Franke

    Fire-resistance analysis of a novel wood-concrete composite deck
    R. Meena, M. Schollmayer & S. Hehl

    Optimized generation of non-standard wood structures based on native irregular components
    V. Monier, G. Duchanois & J-C. Bignon

    Development of prefabricated timber-concrete composite floors
    P. Nechanický & P. Kuklík

    Barriers to the design and use of cross-laminated timber structures in high-rise multi-family housing in the United States
    J. Schmidt & C.T. Griffin

    A modular timber construction system made with ribbed-box or rather hollow-box elements
    S. Franke & R. Hausammann

    The Roman timber framework, a neglected construction method
    X. Laumain

    The behavior of toothed-plate connectors under reversed cyclic loading
    E. Tuhkanen & K. Õiger

    On seismic response of retrofitted wooden house by collapsing process analysis
    T. Takatani & H. Nishikawa

    Author index


    Paulo J.S. Cruz is Full Professor of Construction and Technology at the School of Architecture of the University of Minho. He is President of IDEGUI - Design Institute of Guimarães and Director of Lab2PT - Landscape, Heritage and Territory Laboratory as well as Head of studies on Product Design. He was President of the School of Architecture of the University of Minho (2004-2011) and Head of the Civil Engineering Department of the University of Minho (2003 & 2004).

    He graduated in Civil Engineering (1987) and received an MSc in Structural Engineering from the University of Porto, Portugal (1991) and obtained his PhD in Civil Engineering from the Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain (1995). Since 1987 he has conducted research in the domain of special structures. After his PhD he started in the field of “Steel and Composite Structures”, progressively devoting his research interests to the area of bridges, particularly concerning safety, inspection, assessment and monitoring.

    Since his involvement with the School of Architecture, he has bridged the gap between architecture and structural engineering, promoting the efficient use of the traditional materials and their judicious combination; exploring innovative technological, constructional and structural solutions and establishing effective collaborations with the construction industry.