1st Edition

Studies on Authorship in Historical Keyboard Music

Edited By Andrew Woolley Copyright 2024
    222 Pages 41 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Authorship is a pertinent issue for historical musicology and musicians more widely, and some controversies concerned with major figures have even reached wider consciousness. Scholars have clarified some of the issues at stake in recent decades, such as the places of borrowing and arranging in the creative process and the wider cultural significance of these practices. The discovery of new sources and methodologies has also opened up opportunities for reassessing specific authorship problems. Drawing upon this wider musicological literature as well as insights from other disciplines, such as intellectual history and book history, this book aims to build on what has already been achieved by focussing on keyboard music. The nine chapters cover case studies of authorship problems, the socioeconomic conditions of music publishing, the contributions of composers, arrangers, copyists and music publishers in creating notated keyboard compositions, the functions of attribution and ascription, and how the contexts in which notated pieces were used affected concepts of authorship at different times and places.


    Lists of figures

    List of tables

    List of music examples

    List of contributors

    List of abbreviations

    Manuscript (RISM) Sigla


    Chapter 1: Conrad Paumann’s Fundamentum? New Light on Authorship in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Instrumental Music

    August Rabe

    Chapter 2: Authorship in Sixteenth-Century Italian Printed Keyboard Music

    Cristina Cassia

    Chapter 3: Authorship and Identity in Early English Keyboard Music

    David J. Smith

    Chapter 4: Authorship and Improvisation in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Keyboard Music

    Andrew Woolley

    Chapter 5: Chronology, Style and Attribution in the Early Keyboard Suites of J. S. Bach

    Francis Knights, Pablo Padilla and Mateo Rodriguez

    Chapter 6: The Authorship of BWV 565: Disputing Former Methodologies and Assessing the Evidence of Five New Manuscript Sources

    John Scott Whiteley

    Chapter 7: ‘Es fällt kein Meister vom Himmel’: W. F. Bach’s Juvenilia and the Methods of Creative Imitation

    Matthew J. Hall

    Chapter 8: Many Hands Make Light Work: ‘Nel cor più non mi sento’ and Multiple Layers of Authorship at the Keyboard

    Penelope Cave and Katrina Faulds

    Chapter 9: Authorship and Authenticity in John and William Crotch’s Original Airs (1803)

    Alice Little

    List of Figures

    Fig. 1.1. Conrad Paumann (Franz Trautmann, 1849)

    Fig. 1.2. Franz Liszt (Josef Danhauser, 1840)

    Fig. 5.1. First and second Principal Components of the melodic lines from the allemandes BWV 809, 816-817, 821, 829 and 832-833.

    Fig. 5.2. First and second Principal Components of the bass lines from the allemandes BWV 809, 816-817, 821, 829 and 832-833.

    Fig. 6.1. Kilian’s 1979 stemmata [A = ‘Autograph’].

    Fig. 6.2. The only known instances of fermatas in the final bar of BWV 565/1. Upper left: Ritz (Mendelssohn) (reproduced by kind permission of The Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford, c.103, r1); lower left: Ringk (from Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin: Digitised Collections, <https://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de>); right: Rara II.134 (reproduced by kind permission of the Bach-Archiv, Leipzig).

    Fig. 6.3. Rara II.134: BWV 565 showing Layers 1 and 2 (darker ink). Reproduced by kind permission of the Bach-Archiv, Leipzig.

    Fig. 6.4. Voß titles. Upper: front cover incipit; lower: main page title. Reproduced by kind permission of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Musikabteilung mit Mendelssohn-Archiv.

    Fig. 6.5. Revised stemmata for BWV 565.

    Fig. 7.1. An opening in W. F. Bach’s Liber Exercitiorum, showing entries from February 1727 (D-EIb Mu. Nr., pp. 82–3). Image: Bachhause und Museum, Eisenach, used by permission.

    Fig. 7.2. Clavierbüchlein, fol. 7v; ‘Allemande.’, first system’s clefs, time signature, and pickup notes in the hand of J. S. Bach; otherwise in the hand of W. F. Bach. Image: Bach digital, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribute-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

    Fig. 7.3. Hypothesis for how W. F. Bach held the Clavierbüchlein open during model composition of BWV 924a. Photo illustration: the author; incorporated image: Bach digital, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribute-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

    Fig. 8.1. Stationers’ Hall register for July 1796, showing the registration of the Three Original Sonatas under both Dussek’s and Pleyel’s names by Corri, Dussek & Co., Stationers’ Company Archive, TSC/1/E/06/13, image reproduced with permission of the Stationers’ Company.
    Fig. 8.2. Title page of Pleyel’s Three Original Sonatas, The Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford, Mus. Instr. I, 194 (7), Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC 4.0.
    Fig. 8.3. Title page of Dussek’s Three Original Sonatas, © The British Library Board, Music Collections g.150.(7.).

    Fig. 9.1. John and William Crotch’s Original Airs, p. 14 (exemplar: GB-NWr 11245).

    Fig. 9.2. J. B. Crotch’s tunebook, GB-Lbl Add. MS 30272, p. 26 (fol. 17v), © The British Library Board, used with permission.

    List of Tables

    Table 1.1. The structures of Loc1 and Erl

    Table 1.2. Synopsis of the structures of Bux6–8

    Table 3.1. Genres of English secular keyboard music of the Byrd School

    Table 3.2. Intabulation of English dances in manuscripts associated with Sweelinck and his students

    Table 3.3. Ascriptions involving composers of original material and of keyboard settings in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book

    Table 4.1. Summary of the sources for two voluntaries by Christopher Gibbons

    Table 5.1. Bach’s major keyboard suite collections

    Table 5.2. Miscellaneous early suites attributed to Bach.

    Table 6.1. The manuscripts of BWV 565 known in 1979.

    Table 6.2. The manuscripts of BWV 565 discovered since 1979.

    Table 6.3. BWV 565: main differences in the readings of Ritz (Mendelssohn) and Ringk.

    Table 6.4. BWV 565: different readings in Dröbs and Rara II.134 Layer 1.

    Table 6.5. Different readings in BWV 565: Ringk and Rara II.134 Layer 1.

    Table 6.6. Hallmark readings in [P] that are not found in [T]

    Table 7.1. Wilhelm Friedemann Bach’s commonplace books, 1723–1727

    Table 7.2. Chronological sequence of W. F. Bach’s entries in the Clavierbüchlein

    List of Music Examples

    Ex. 1.1. Comparison of a discant clause according to Wolff, p. 209.

    Ex. 1.2. The clause from Example 1.1 (Loc1, p. 50, line 3–4) without error correction.

    Ex. 3.1 Transcription of two settings of a symphony by William Lawes for The Triumph of Peace (1634) from a) Anne Cromwell’s Virginal Book, and b) Elizabeth Rogers hir Virginal Book.

    Ex. 3.2 Opening of an anonymous arrangement of ‘My heart will go on’, the love theme from Titanic.

    Ex. 3.3. Sellingers Rownde.

    Ex. 3.4. ‘fife and drum’. Extract from ‘The battle by mr: bird’ in Priscilla Bunbury’s Virginal Book, fol. 22v.

    Ex. 4.1. Johann Jakob Froberger, Fantasia FbWV 204, bb. 1–8, 53–6 and 73–8: as published in Diverse curiose e rarissime partite (Mainz: Ludwig Bourgeat, 1685) (a); as modified by John Blow (b).

    Ex. 4.2. Jacques Champion de Chambonnières: ‘Allemande La Dunquerque’ (GusC 7) (a); ‘Allemande du même auteur’ (GusC 72) (b).

    Ex. 4.3. Matthew Locke: Almain (Melothesia, p. 4), first half (a); Almain (Melothesia, p. 14), first half (b).

    Ex. 4.4. Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, Sarabande (GusC 34) (a) and Jean Henry D’Anglebert, Galliarde (b), bb. 1–16, melodies.

    Ex. 4.5. Johann Jakob Froberger, Ricercare (FbWV 407/407a): as copied into A-Wn Mus. Hs. 18707 (a); as published in François Roberday, Fugues et Caprices a Quatre Parties (Paris: Jean Hanocq, & Jacques Laisné, 1660) (b).

    Ex. 6.1. BWV 565, bb. 57–9 (a); Pachelbel, Fantasia in D minor, bb. 32–3 (Newman 1995) (b); Buxtehude, Praeludium BuxWV 140, b. 4 (Williams 1980) (c).

    Ex. 6.2. J.S. Bach, Cembalo Concerto, BWV 1053/3, bb. 138–40, transposed to D minor (a); C.P.E. Bach, Fugue in D minor, Wq. 119, no. 2, bb. 47–9 (b).

    Ex. 6.3. BWV 565, bb. 60–1 (a); J. P. Kellner, Certamen musicum: Suite in D (N01: 02), Allemande, bb. 5–6 (transposed up a minor sixth) (b).

    Ex. 6.4. C.P.E. Bach, Rondo in A, Wq. 58/1, bb. 79–83 (transposed a major sixth lower) (a); BWV 565, bb. 79–82 (b).

    Ex. 6.5. BWV 565, bb. 116–18 (a); C.P.E. Bach, Solfeggietto in C minor, Wq. 117/1, bb. 1–3 (transposed a tone higher) (b).

    Ex. 6.6. BWV 565, b. 72.

    Ex. 6.7. BWV 565/1, the only instances of slurs in bb. 18–19.

    Ex. 7.1. W. F. Bach, Allemande BWV 836, first strain melody.

    Ex. 7.2. BWV 836, parallel structure of bb. 2–5 and bb. 8–12.

    Ex. 7.3: Johann Richter, Allemande in C (fol. 27v), bb. 2d–5b.

    Ex. 7.4. Triple counterpoint in BWV 927a, mm. 1–4.

    Ex. 7.5. Composition by means of elaborated copying: J. S. Bach, BWV 924, bb. 1–7 (a);

    W. F. Bach, BWV 924a, bb. 1–8 (b).

    Ex. 7.6. J. S. Bach, BWV 924 mm. 1–7 (a); W. F. Bach, BWV 924a mm. 1–8 (b).

    List of Contributors

    Cristina Cassia holds a PhD in Musicology co-sponsored by the CESR of Tours and the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB - FNRS). From 2018 to 2020 she was researcher at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis in Basel and then Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellow at the University of Padua.

    Penelope Cave is an international prize-winning harpsichordist and specialist in early keyboards, and has taught, performed and broadcast throughout Europe. She was awarded a doctorate at the University of Southampton in 2014, funded by the AHRC and the National Trust, on music in the English country house.

    Katrina Faulds is a musicologist with research interests in domestic music collections and social dance music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.  She was a postdoctoral research fellow on the AHRC-funded ‘Music, Home and Heritage’ project and a historical consultant on the HEIF-funded ‘Re-sounding the Past: Decolonising Sonic Heritage Spaces’ project.

    Matthew Hall Matthew J. Hall is a lecturer in music at Ithaca College, where he teaches music history, theory, and organ and harpsichord performance, and managing editor of the Journal of Musicology. His research focuses on J. S. Bach and extends to compositional process, apprenticeship, and issues of borrowing and authorship in the early modern period (1400–1800).

    Francis Knights is a Fellow & Tutor at Fitzwilliam College, University of Cambridge, Editor of Harpsichord & Fortepiano and Chairman of the National Early Music Association, UK. He has research interests in organology, pedagogy, performance practice and manuscript sources. He is a busy recitalist, and has recently completed major cycles of all Bach’s keyboard music and the Tudor virginalist repertoire.

    Alice Little is a Research Fellow in the Music Faculty at Oxford University, based in the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments. From 2018–22 Alice was a Junior Research Fellow at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and from 2019–21 held a TORCH Knowledge Exchange Fellowship.

    Pablo Padilla is professor of mathematics at the Institute for Applied Mathematics (IIMAS) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), and teaches in both the science and music faculties.

    August Rabe is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of music and performing arts Vienna. He studied musicology, harpsichord/historical keyboard instruments and art history at the Hochschule für Musik Franz Liszt Weimar and the Friedrich Schiller University Jena. His interests include music for keyboard instruments from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries as well as singing and improvisation techniques of the early modern period.

    Mateo Rodriguez Mateo Rodríguez obtained a BSc in Physics at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. He is currently studying for a Masters in Mathematics, and is finishing a BA in Composition at the National Institute of Fine Arts.

    David J. Smith moved to Northumbria University as Founding Head of Music in 2018. His research revolves around early modern instrumental music in England and the Low Countries, especially for keyboard. He has published editions of instrumental music by Peter Philips and Richard Dering in the scholarly series, Musica Britannica, and is currently leading an AHRC-funded project on digital directions of collected editions.

    John Scott Whiteley Organist Emeritus, York Minster, became known for BBC television’s series, 21st-Century Bach. He is a Visiting Research Fellow at The University of Huddersfield and Academic Adviser to the Orgelbüchlein project. His work has been published in the Bach-Jahrbuch and The New Grove.

    Andrew Woolley is a musicologist and Invited Researcher at CESEM, the Centre for the Study of the Sociology and Aesthetics of Music at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. He is currently co-investigator for the Portuguese-government, FCT-financed project, ‘Music paper and handwriting studies in Portugal (18th and 19th centuries): the case study of the collection of the Count of Redondo’.






    Acta Musicologica

    b., bb.

    bar, bars




    BACH: Journal of the Riemenschneider Institute








    Current Musicology


    Cambridge University Press




    Eighteenth-Century Music

    ed(s)., edn.

    edited by, edition


    Early Music


    floruit (flourished)

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    Fontes Artis Musicae


    Oxford Music Online. Grove Music Online, ed. Deane L. Root (Oxford University Press) [www.oxfordmusiconline.com]


    Harvard University Press


    Journal of the American Musicological Society


    The Journal of Musicology


    Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music


    Leuven University Press






    Musica Disciplina


    MGG Online, ed. Laurenz Lütteken (Bärenreiter) [https://www.mgg-online.com]


    The Musical Quarterly


    The Musical Times


    Music & Letters


    Bach-Archiv Leipzig & Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Institut Göttingen, Johann Sebastian Bach. Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke (Bärenreiter: Kassel 1954–2007).


    National Early Music Association Newsletter


    Notes: the Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association


    no date


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    Oxford University Press


    The Organ Yearbook

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    Revue belge de Musicologie / Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Muziekwetenschap


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    Manuscript (RISM) Sigla


    Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna


    Bibliothèque royale de Belgique (KBR), Brussels


    Zentralbibliothek, Zürich


    Universitätsbibliothek, Basel


    Universitätsbibliothek Erlangen-Nürnberg, Hauptbibliothek, Erlangen


    Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Musikabteilung, Berlin


    Stadtbibliothek, Musikbibliothek, Berlin


    Bachhaus und Bachmuseum, Eisenach


    Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Carl von Ossietzky, Hamburg


    Bach-Archiv, Leipzig


    Leipziger Stadtbibliothek, Leipzig


    Stadtarchiv, Leipzig


    Ratsbücherei, Lüneburg


    Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München


    Niedersächsisches Landesarchiv - Standort Wolfenbüttel, Wolfenbüttel


    Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris


    Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge


    British Library, London


    Royal College of Music, London


    Record Office, Norwich


    Bodleian Library, Oxford


    Christ Church, Oxford


    Országos Széchényi Könyvtár, Budapest


    Biblioteca nazionale centrale, Florence


    Biblioteka Jagiellońska, Kraków


    Universitetsbibliotek, Carolina Rediviva, Uppsala


    Yale University, Music Library, New Haven, CT


    New York Public Library


    Andrew Woolley is a musicologist and Invited Researcher at CESEM, the Centre for the Study of the Sociology and Aesthetics of Music at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. He is currently co-investigator for the Portuguese-government, FCT-financed project, ‘Music paper and handwriting studies in Portugal (18th and 19th centuries): the case study of the collection of the Count of Redondo’.