Supercritical Fluids Technology in Lipase Catalyzed Processes: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Supercritical Fluids Technology in Lipase Catalyzed Processes

1st Edition

By Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Hanifa Taher

CRC Press

160 pages | 29 B/W Illus.

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Paperback: 9781138893207
pub: 2017-07-26
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Enzymes are currently used in various industries, most commonly in food, detergents, and pharmaceuticals production. Lipases are hydrolytic enzymes that demonstrate great potential as an alternative to conventional catalysts in a number of industrial applications. A complete understanding of enzymes, and their proteins structure and environmental behavior, can greatly aid in the further development of industrial applications. Supercritical Fluids Technology in Lipase Catalized Processes provides basic information about enzymes, their sources, reaction kinetics, and main industrial applications. The book focuses in lipases. their main sources, structure, and features, with an emphasis on their specificity and interfacial activity, and presents proven techniques for isolating, extracting, and purifying.

Comprised of six compact chapters, this comprehensive guide introduces:

  • Immobilization techniques and immobilized lipases that allow repeated use (which is essential from an economic point of view)
  • Different bioreactor configurations using immobilized lipases
  • The latest information on the available technologies in lipolytic reactions
  • The advantages of nonaqueous media in biochemical synthesis over aqueous and solvent-free systems
  • Material on the use of lipases in nonaqueous media to overcome the drawbacks usually encountered with the use of conventional chemical catalysts
  • The use of supercritical fluids (SCFs) as a green alternative reaction medium
  • Factors affecting the physical properties of lipases in this medium and, hence, their activity and stability
  • A case study using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for biodiesel production
  • Novel, cutting-edge technology, using immobilized enzymes to reduce the overall production cost

Supercritical Fluids Technology in Lipase Catalized Processes outlines the main industrial applications of common enzymes and discusses relevant challenges and innovations emerging in the field.


"Overall, the book presents a relatively new and focused topic on supercritical fluid technology in enzymatic reaction system[s]. The writing style of the book has a good flow of information and [is] easy to understand."

—Dr. Mutasim Nour, Associate Professor (BSc, MSc, PhD), Director of MSc Energy and Renewable Energy Program, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Dubai Campus

"… well-written … covers all aspects related to the use of enzyme to catalyze biodiesel reaction and other important reactions."

—Dr. Mohammed Farid, Professor of Chemical and Materials Engineering, the University of Auckland, New Zealand

"… a good combination between theory and application in real engineering… touching the key points in the field."

—Marwan Al-Rubaye, Executive Mat Service Ltd., Canada

Table of Contents

Enzyme Fundamentals

Catalysts and Enzymes

Sources of Enzymes

Classification of Enzymes

Enzyme Production

Industrial Applications of Enzymes

Enzyme Engineering



Lipases, Esterases, and Phospholipases

Sources of Lipases

Lipase Structure and Interfacial Activation

Specificity as an Attractive Feature of Lipase

Lipases Production, Isolation, and Purification

Industrial Applications of Lipase

Improvements of Lipase Properties


Lipase Immobilization

Lipase Immobilization

Support Materials

Methods of Immobilization

Lipase Physiochemical Properties Improvement

Immobilized Lipase Reactors


Kinetics of Soluble and Immobilized Enzymes

Enzyme Activity

Reaction Mechanisms

Kinetic Models

Determination of Kinetic Parameters

Factors Affecting Reaction Rates

Kinetics of Immobilized Enzymes

Immobilized Enzyme Bioreactor Design and Scale-Up


Lipase-Catalyzed Reactions in Nonaqueous Media

Organic Solvents

Supercritical Fluids

Ionic Liquids

IL–SC-CO2 Biphasic Systems


Lipase-Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel Using Supercritical Technology



Biodiesel Production Technologies

Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification: Technical Challenges

Lipase-Catalyzed Reactions with Supercritical Fluids

High-Pressure Reaction Systems

Processes Integration


About the Authors

Sulaiman Al-Zuhair is a professor of chemical engineering at UAE University. Prior to joining UAE University in 2006, Al-Zuhair worked as an assistant professor in the School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at Nottingham University, Malaysia Campus. He obtained his PhD in biochemical engineering from the University of Malaya in 2003, his MSc degree in chemical and environmental engineering from University Putra Malaysia in 1998, and his BSc degree in chemical engineering from the Jordan University of Science and Technology in 1996. Al-Zuhair has published more than 50 peer-reviewed journal papers, two patents, and two book chapters.

Hanifa Taher is an assistant professor of chemical and environmental engineering at the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology. She earned her PhD in chemical engineering from the UAE University in June 2014. Taher’s research work is focused on the enzymatic production of biodiesel from lipids extracted from different feedstocks using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). Taher developed a novel integrated continuous biodiesel production process in SC-CO2. Taher has reviewed a number of research articles submitted for publication to international journals.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Biotechnology
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General