Surface Activity of Petroleum Derived Lubricants  book cover
1st Edition

Surface Activity of Petroleum Derived Lubricants

ISBN 9781138374096
Published September 10, 2018 by CRC Press
362 Pages

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Book Description

Hundreds of lubricant additives are available industry-wide to improve base stock properties and protect metal surfaces; however, the wrong combination of these commodities can result in substandard performance. Surface Activity of Petroleum Derived Lubricants explains how surface activity is affected by several factors: the interfacial properties of lube oil base stocks at oil/surface interfaces, lubricant solvency properties, additive interactions, and variations in temperature. The book provides an understanding of these factors that will influence proper selection of base stocks and additives necessary for resisting foaming and air entrainment, inhibiting rust and corrosion, preventing wear, and controlling emulsification and demulsification.

Using 300 tables to provide experimental data from books, journals, and the patent literature, this practical and comprehensive reference examines:

  • the refining of lube oil base stocks
  • the chemistry of additives
  • the formulation technology of lubricants
  • the performance of the most important finished products such as turbine oils, hydraulic fluids, and engine oils

Insight into these variables enables petroleum chemists and engineers to choose the right lubricant base stock and additive combination. By becoming aware of these important elements, those in industry are better able to make the right choices, leading to reduced costs, improved performance, and better management of production timelines.

Table of Contents

Conventional Refining of Crude Oils

Properties and Composition of Crude Oils

Properties and Composition of Petroleum Fractions

Solvent Refining of Lube Oils

Processing of Cylinder Oils and Bright Stocks

Composition of Wax Products

Nonconventional Processing of Base Stocks

Hydrofinishing and Hydrotreatment

Hydrorefining of White Oils

Hydrocracking Process

Catalytic Dewaxing

Hydroisomerization of Slack Wax

Low Temperature Fluidity of Base Stocks

Effect of Isomerization and Esterification on Melting Points of Molecules

Effect of Crude Oils and Dewaxing on Pour Points of Base Stocks

Brookfield Viscosity and CCS Viscosity of Base Stocks

Use of Pour Point Depressants and VI Improvers

Processing Effect

Oxidation Stability of Base Stocks

Oxidation By-Products

Effect of Hydroprocessing

Performance of Antioxidants in Different Base Stocks

Antioxidants Synergism

Interfacial Properties of Base Stocks


Air Entrainment

Stability of Oil/Water Interface

Metal Surface Protection

Lubricant Formulation

Industrial and Automotive Lubricants

Base Stock Selection

Use of Synthetic Fluids

Additive Selection

Use of Surfactants

Effects of Additives on Surface Activity of Turbine Oils

Base Stock and Additive Performance Requirements

Foam Inhibition and Air Entrainment

Rust Prevention and Demulsibility

Effect of Demulsifier on Foaming

Oxidation Resistance

Effects of Base Stocks on Surface Activity of Hydraulic Oils

Base Stock and Additive Performance Requirements

Solvency Effect of Naphthenic Oils

Wear Prevention and Oxidation Resistance of Paraffinic Oils

Performance of Synthetic Fluids

Use of Biodegradable Oils

Surface Activity of Engine Oils

Base Stock and Additive Performance Requirements

Pour Point Depression

High Temperature Foaming

Air Entrainment

Oxidation Resistance and Wear

Additive Interactions

Rust Inhibitors Synergism

"Thickening" Effect of VI Improvers

Formulation of Industrial Gear Oils

Oxidation Resistance and Surface Activity of Food-Grade Lubricants

Additive Antagonism and Incompatibility

Scope and Limits of Lubricant Testing

Fresh Oil Testing of Industrial Oils

Properties of Used Turbine Oils

Fresh Oil Testing of Engine Oils

Water Contamination

Lubricant Storage

Lubricant Life

Colloidal Stability

Low Temperature Stability

Hot Temperature Stability

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Lilianna Z. Pillon received her MSc in chemistry from the University of Lodz, Poland, and her PhD from the University of Windsor, Canada. She was awarded a National Research Council (NRC) of Canada Postdoctoral Fellowship and studied polymer blends at the NRC Industrial Materials Research Institute in Boucherville, Quebec. She joined Polysar Ltd., Latex R&D Division, where she developed an interest in polymer emulsions and chemical interactions. She also worked for Imperial Oil, Research Department, where she developed an expertise in the base stock processing and quality followed by work in the industrial oil group and the engine oil group. She was awarded patents related to the interfacial properties of lube oil base stocks and the use of surface active additives. She is the author of the book Interfacial Properties of Petroleum Products published by CRC Press in 2007.