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Surface Modeling
High Accuracy and High Speed Methods





ISBN 9781138075672
Published November 22, 2017 by CRC Press
712 Pages 181 Color Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Although GIS provides powerful functionality for spatial analysis, data overlay and storage, these spatially oriented systems lack the ability to represent temporal dynamics, which is a major impediment to its use in surface modeling. However, rapid development of computing technology in recent years has made real-time spatial analysis and real-time data visualization become realizable. Based on newly developed methods, Surface Modeling: High Accuracy and High Speed Methods explores solutions to big-error and slow-efficiency problems, two critical challenges that have long plagued those working in with geographical information system (GIS) and computer-aided design (CAD).

By developing high accuracy and high speed methods for surface modeling, the book builds a bridge between the mathematical-oriented theory of surface modeling and the user-oriented application where the user is actually able to retrieve information on the method itself. The author examines a novel method of high accuracy surface modeling (HASM) in terms of the fundamental theorem of surfaces. He then analyzes the coefficient matrix and develops an adaptive method of HASM (HASM-AM), a multi-grade method of HASM (HASM-MG), and an adjustment method of HASM (HASM-AD). He uses numerical tests and real world studies to demonstrate that HASM-AM, HASM-MG, and HASM-AD have highly accelerated computational speed, especially for simulations with huge computational work.

Building on this, the book discusses a HASM-based method for dynamic simulation (HASM-FDS), and then applies HASM methods to simulate terrains, climate change, ecosystem change, land cover, and soil properties. It demonstrates HASM's potential for simulating population distribution, human carrying capacity, ecosystem services, ecological diversity, change detection, and wind velocity. The book concludes with a discussion of the problems that exist in surface modeling on a global level and evaluates possible solutions to these problems.

Table of Contents

Principles and Methods
Introduction
Surface Modeling
Classical Methods
Error and Multiscale Issues
Geographical Information Systems
References

The Basic Method of HASM
Introduction
Theoretical Formulation
Optimum Formulation
Iterative Formulation of HASM
Numerical Tests
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Comparative Analyses of Various HASM Algorithms
Introduction
Direct Algorithms of HASM
Iterative Formulation of HASM and Its Coefficient Matrix Structure
Gauss-Seidel Algorithm and Preconditioned Gauss-Seidel Algorithm
Conjugate Gradient Algorithm and Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Algorithm
Conclusions and Discussion
References

Adaptive Method of HASM
Introduction
Test Area and Data Acquisition
The Adaptive Method of HASM
Validation of HASM-AM
Discussion and Conclusions
References

The Multigrid Method of HASM
Introduction
The Multigrid Method of HASM
Comparative Analysis of HASM-MG with OK
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Adjustment Computation of HASM
Adjustment Computation
Adjustment Computation of HASM
Tests of Accuracy and Computing Speed
Conclusions and Discussion
References

An Optimal Control Method of HASM for DEM Construction and Its Validation
Introduction
HASM-OC
Validation of HASM-OC
Conclusions and Discussion
References

Basic Approach of HASM to Dynamic Simulation
Introduction
The Basic Formulation
Numerical Test
Conclusions and Discussion
References

Surface Modeling of Environment Components of Earth Surface
Surface Modeling of DEM

Introduction
SRTM Void Filling
Surface Modeling of DEM Based on Height-Sampling Points
Surface Modeling of DEM Based on Topological Maps
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Surface Modeling of Population Distribution
Introduction
The SMPD Method
SMPD-Based Population Simulation on a National Level of China
Surface Modeling of Population Distribution in Beijing
Conclusions and Discussion
References

Surface Modeling of Human Carrying Capacity
Introduction
Method
Data Sets
Food Provision Capacity of Terrestrial Ecosystems
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Changing Trends of Food Provision in China
Introduction
Farmland Change
Yield Change and Food Production in Farmland
Grassland Productivity
Aquatic Products
Import and Export of Food
Population that Food Could Support
Conclusions and Discussion
References

Surface Modeling of Ecological Diversity
Introduction
The Ecological Diversity Index
Effects of Different Spatial Scales on the Relationship between Species Diversity and Ecosystem Diversity
Case Studies
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Change Detection
Introduction
Landscape Change Detection
Change Detection of Land Cover in the Yellow River Delta
Discussion and Conclusions
References

The Simulation of Horizontal Wind Velocity
Introduction
Estimation of the Parameters
The Simulation of Vertical Wind Profile
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Surface Modeling of Climatic Change and Scenarios
Introduction
The Downscaling of HadCM3 Scenarios on a Global Level
Simulation of Climatic Surfaces on a National Level
The Simulation of Climatic Surfaces on a Provincial Level
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Surface Modeling of Terrestrial Ecosystems
Introduction
Methods
Scenarios of Terrestrial Ecosystems on a Global Level
Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulation on a National Level
Ecosystem Changing Trends on a Provincial Level
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Surface Modeling of Land Cover
Introduction
Land-Cover Classification and Transition Probability Matrixes
The Spatial Distribution of Land-Cover Types
Area Changes of Land-Cover Types
Ecotope Diversity and Patch Connectivity of Land-Cover
Mean Center Shifts of Land-Cover Types
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Surface Modeling of Soil Properties
Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results and Analyses
Discussion and Conclusions
References

Ecological Modeling and Earth Surface Simulation
Introduction
Earth Surface Modeling
Systems Ecology
Worldwide Collaborations
Global Models
Simulation Systems
Discussion and Conclusions
References
Index

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Reviews

"... essential reading for all interested in surface modeling because it presents a new high accuracy and high speed methodology of surface modeling. ... has made a new and important contribution to earth surface modeling. It is helpful for everybody involved in geographical information science, ecological informatics, landscape ecology, geography, computer-aided design, global earth observation, and planetary surface modeling."
—Sven Erik Jørgensen, University of Copenhagen, Ecological Modelling

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