Surface Modeling: High Accuracy and High Speed Methods, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Surface Modeling

High Accuracy and High Speed Methods, 1st Edition

By Tian-Xiang Yue

CRC Press

712 pages | 181 Color Illus.

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Description

Although GIS provides powerful functionality for spatial analysis, data overlay and storage, these spatially oriented systems lack the ability to represent temporal dynamics, which is a major impediment to its use in surface modeling. However, rapid development of computing technology in recent years has made real-time spatial analysis and real-time data visualization become realizable. Based on newly developed methods, Surface Modeling: High Accuracy and High Speed Methods explores solutions to big-error and slow-efficiency problems, two critical challenges that have long plagued those working in with geographical information system (GIS) and computer-aided design (CAD).

By developing high accuracy and high speed methods for surface modeling, the book builds a bridge between the mathematical-oriented theory of surface modeling and the user-oriented application where the user is actually able to retrieve information on the method itself. The author examines a novel method of high accuracy surface modeling (HASM) in terms of the fundamental theorem of surfaces. He then analyzes the coefficient matrix and develops an adaptive method of HASM (HASM-AM), a multi-grade method of HASM (HASM-MG), and an adjustment method of HASM (HASM-AD). He uses numerical tests and real world studies to demonstrate that HASM-AM, HASM-MG, and HASM-AD have highly accelerated computational speed, especially for simulations with huge computational work.

Building on this, the book discusses a HASM-based method for dynamic simulation (HASM-FDS), and then applies HASM methods to simulate terrains, climate change, ecosystem change, land cover, and soil properties. It demonstrates HASM's potential for simulating population distribution, human carrying capacity, ecosystem services, ecological diversity, change detection, and wind velocity. The book concludes with a discussion of the problems that exist in surface modeling on a global level and evaluates possible solutions to these problems.

Reviews

"… essential reading for all interested in surface modeling because it presents a new high accuracy and high speed methodology of surface modeling. … has made a new and important contribution to earth surface modeling. It is helpful for everybody involved in geographical information science, ecological informatics, landscape ecology, geography, computer-aided design, global earth observation, and planetary surface modeling."

—Sven Erik Jørgensen, University of Copenhagen, Ecological Modelling

Table of Contents

Principles and Methods

Introduction

Surface Modeling

Classical Methods

Error and Multiscale Issues

Geographical Information Systems

References

The Basic Method of HASM

Introduction

Theoretical Formulation

Optimum Formulation

Iterative Formulation of HASM

Numerical Tests

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Comparative Analyses of Various HASM Algorithms

Introduction

Direct Algorithms of HASM

Iterative Formulation of HASM and Its Coefficient Matrix Structure

Gauss-Seidel Algorithm and Preconditioned Gauss-Seidel Algorithm

Conjugate Gradient Algorithm and Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Algorithm

Conclusions and Discussion

References

Adaptive Method of HASM

Introduction

Test Area and Data Acquisition

The Adaptive Method of HASM

Validation of HASM-AM

Discussion and Conclusions

References

The Multigrid Method of HASM

Introduction

The Multigrid Method of HASM

Comparative Analysis of HASM-MG with OK

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Adjustment Computation of HASM

Adjustment Computation

Adjustment Computation of HASM

Tests of Accuracy and Computing Speed

Conclusions and Discussion

References

An Optimal Control Method of HASM for DEM Construction and Its Validation

Introduction

HASM-OC

Validation of HASM-OC

Conclusions and Discussion

References

Basic Approach of HASM to Dynamic Simulation

Introduction

The Basic Formulation

Numerical Test

Conclusions and Discussion

References

Surface Modeling of Environment Components of Earth Surface

Surface Modeling of DEM

Introduction

SRTM Void Filling

Surface Modeling of DEM Based on Height-Sampling Points

Surface Modeling of DEM Based on Topological Maps

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Surface Modeling of Population Distribution

Introduction

The SMPD Method

SMPD-Based Population Simulation on a National Level of China

Surface Modeling of Population Distribution in Beijing

Conclusions and Discussion

References

Surface Modeling of Human Carrying Capacity

Introduction

Method

Data Sets

Food Provision Capacity of Terrestrial Ecosystems

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Changing Trends of Food Provision in China

Introduction

Farmland Change

Yield Change and Food Production in Farmland

Grassland Productivity

Aquatic Products

Import and Export of Food

Population that Food Could Support

Conclusions and Discussion

References

Surface Modeling of Ecological Diversity

Introduction

The Ecological Diversity Index

Effects of Different Spatial Scales on the Relationship between Species Diversity and Ecosystem Diversity

Case Studies

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Change Detection

Introduction

Landscape Change Detection

Change Detection of Land Cover in the Yellow River Delta

Discussion and Conclusions

References

The Simulation of Horizontal Wind Velocity

Introduction

Estimation of the Parameters

The Simulation of Vertical Wind Profile

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Surface Modeling of Climatic Change and Scenarios

Introduction

The Downscaling of HadCM3 Scenarios on a Global Level

Simulation of Climatic Surfaces on a National Level

The Simulation of Climatic Surfaces on a Provincial Level

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Surface Modeling of Terrestrial Ecosystems

Introduction

Methods

Scenarios of Terrestrial Ecosystems on a Global Level

Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulation on a National Level

Ecosystem Changing Trends on a Provincial Level

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Surface Modeling of Land Cover

Introduction

Land-Cover Classification and Transition Probability Matrixes

The Spatial Distribution of Land-Cover Types

Area Changes of Land-Cover Types

Ecotope Diversity and Patch Connectivity of Land-Cover

Mean Center Shifts of Land-Cover Types

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Surface Modeling of Soil Properties

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results and Analyses

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Ecological Modeling and Earth Surface Simulation

Introduction

Earth Surface Modeling

Systems Ecology

Worldwide Collaborations

Global Models

Simulation Systems

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Index

About the Series

Applied Ecology and Environmental Management

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI019000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / General
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TEC036000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems