Survival, the IISS’s bimonthly journal, challenges conventional wisdom and brings fresh, often controversial, perspectives on strategic issues of the moment.

    In this issue:

    • Lawrence Freedman assesses Russia’s nuclear red line and how Vladimir Putin’s views compare to those of Russian pundits
    • Steven Simon and Jonathan Stevenson explore the roots of Hamas’s attack on Israel on 7 October, and the options available to the United States for restraining the Israeli government
    • Charlie Laderman assesses the similarities between December 1941 – when Germany and Japan, determining it to be inevitable, declared war on the US – and the ongoing geopolitical crises governments face today
    • Sara Bjerg Moller reflects on NATO allies’ failure to deliver on national collective-defence targets as the Alliance approaches its 75th anniversary
    • Lynn Kuok explores China’s reshaping of international law to achieve its strategic goals, and other countries’ failure to do so
    • And seven more thought-provoking pieces, as well as our regular Book Reviews and Noteworthy column.

    Editor: Dr Dana Allin

    Managing Editor: Jonathan Stevenson

    Associate Editor: Carolyn West

    Editorial Assistant: Conor Hodges

    Survival 65.6 (December 2023–January 2024), pp. 1–232

    The Russo-Ukrainian War and the Durability of Deterrence, by Lawrence Freedman

    The Gaza Horror and US Policy, by Steven Simon and Jonathan Stevenson

    The Gaza War and the Region, by Emile Hokayem

    Israel and the Palestinians: The Day After, by Chuck Freilich


    Time Is Short: Ukraine, Taiwan and the Echoes of 1941, by Charlie Laderman

    NATO at 75: The Perils of Empty Promises, by Sara Bjerg Moller

    The Primitivisation of Major Warfare, by Lukas Milevski

    Slouching Towards a Nuclear Gomorrah, by Anonymous

    China’s Legal Diplomacy, by Lynn Kuok

    Military Allies and Economic Conflict, by Ethan B. Kapstein

    The Ambivalence of Soft Power, by David W. Ellwood

    Book Reviews

    Europe, by Hanns W. Maull

    Counter-terrorism and Intelligence, by Jonathan Stevenson

    United States, by David C. Unger

    Applying History: Gaza and the Twentieth Century, by Dana H. Allin


    The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), a registered charity with offices in Washington, London, Manama, Singapore and Berlin, is the world’s leading authority on political–military conflict. It is the primary independent source of accurate, objective information on international strategic issues. Publications include The Military Balance, an annual reference work on each nation’s defence capabilities; Strategic Survey, an annual review of world affairs; Survival, a bimonthly journal on international affairs; Strategic Comments, an online analysis of topical issues in international affairs; and the Adelphi series of books on issues of international security.

    ‘In a world of complex security challenges the need for serious, thoughtful analysis is greater than ever. Survival’s combination of elegant writing and rigorous scholarship from the world’s top experts makes it essential reading for both practitioners and academics.’

    Professor Sir Lawrence Freedman, War Studies King's College London