As cities become increasingly congested, current transport patterns are unsustainable: heavy in energy use, high in economic and environmental cost, and exacerbating inequity between those who can access high-speed travel and those who cannot. Good urban planning develops human-scale cities and encourages modes such as bicycles, increased zones exclusive to pedestrians within cities, and changed fiscal policies to incentivize public over private transport. Equally, it requires good engineering design to manage road use.
Sustainable Approaches to Urban Transport brings together contributions from leading international experts in urban planning, transport, and governance who suggest changes to make our cities more sustainable in the face of climate change. All professionals working in transport and engineering and planning students will find an overview of a broad field in this interdisciplinary collection of essays.
Table of Contents
1. Urban Transportation Planning
2. From Myth to Science in Urban and Transport Planning: From Uncontrolled to Controlled and Responsible Urban Development in Transport Planning
3. The Neo-Liberal Urban Development Paradigm and Transport-Related Civil Society Responses in Karachi, Pakistan
4. City Design and Transport: Observations at Different Urban Scales
[Philipp Rode and Ricky Burdett]
5. Urban Layouts, Densities and Transportation Planning
[Shirish B. Patel]
6. Coming to Terms with the Complexity of Indian Urbanism
[A. G. Krishna Menon]
7. Urban Mobility: Is Anyone in Charge?
[K. C. Sivaramakrishna]
8. Railroading the Rules: Transport, Government, and Stakeholders
9. City Governance and Effectiveness
10. Alternative Transport Policies for Personal Public Transport: Lessons Learned
11. The Changeable Shape of the City
12. Moving Transport: Injecting Transportation Planning in Nairobi’s Metropolitan Land-Use Agenda
13. Urban Public Transport and Economic Development
[Harry T. Dimitriou]
14. Urban Mobility in China: Developments in the Past 20 Years
15. The Potential of Casualty Prevention in Road Traffic
[Matthijs J. Koornstra]
16. Health Effects of Transport
17. Traffic Safety, City Structure, Technology and Health
18. Paratransit, Taxis and Non-Motorised Transport: A Review of Policy Debates and Challenges
19. Paratransit and Non-Motorized Traffic as Mainstream Road Users
20. Politics of Mobility and the Science (?) of Sustainability
Geetam Tiwari obtained her B. Arch from the University of Roorkee and Master of Urban Planning and Policy, and Ph.D. in Transport Planning and Policy, from the University of Illinois, Chicago. Currently she is MoUD Chair Professor for Transport Planning at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and Adlerbretska Guest Professor for sustainable urban transport at the Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden 2007-2010. She has extensive research experience in dealing with transportation issues of special relevance to low income countries. These include development of bus systems and road designs that would make transportation efficient and safer. She has been working in the area of traffic and transport planning focusing on pedestrians, bicycles and bus systems. She has published over 70 research papers on transportation planning and safety in national and international journals and peer reviewed seminar proceedings, as well as edited four books on transportation planning and road safety. She received the International Velocity Falco Lecture Prize, Barcelona, Spain, the Stockholm Partnerships award for local impact, innovative thinking and a potential for replication or transferability, and Centre for Excellence grant from Volvo Research and Educational Foundations (VREF), IRTE & Prince Michaels award for promoting road safety research and LMA (Lucknow Management Association) award for woman achiever, 2010. She is advisor to Urban Age series of conferences coordinated by London School of Economics since 2005. She also is editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion.
Dinesh Mohan is Honorary Professor at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Distinguished Professor Shiv Nadar University & Director Independent Council for Road Safety International. He is member of the WHO Advisory Panel on Accident Prevention. He serves on the editorial boards of 4 international journals dealing with safety. Professor Mohan has been a consultant on safety related matters to government departments in India, Nepal, Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh, Iraq and Libya and automotive industries including TELCO, Ashok Leyland, Volvo Trucks, Eicher Motors Ltd., Escorts Ltd., Maruti Udyog Ltd., SIAM, Bajaj Auto Ltd. and also to international organisations like the World Bank and WHO. Professor Mohan’s research includes the following areas: transportation research (safety and pollution), human tolerance biomechanics, motor-vehicle safety, road traffic injuries, childhood injuries, effectiveness of automobile safety equipment, evaluation of injuries to cyclists and motorcyclists, motorcycle helmet design, evaluation of government’s and motor-vehicle manufacturer's standards concerning motor-vehicle safety.
He is the recipient of: (1) Distinguished Career Award from the University of Delaware (USA) & Distinguished Alumnus Award 2002 from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. (2) International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact’s 2001 Bertil Aldman Award for Outstanding Research on the Biomechanics of Impacts; (3) American Public Health Association International Distinguished Career Award in recognition of dedication and leadership in the area of injury research and teaching, with contributions and achievements that have significant and long term impact on the problem of injury prevention and control; (4) The International Velo-City Falco Lecture Prize (5) The Association for Advancement of Automotive Medicine’s 1991 Award of Merit for outstanding research in traffic safety; (6) The 1991 International Association for Accident & Traffic Medicine’s International Award and Medal for Outstanding Achievement in the Field of Traffic Medicine.
A G Krishna Menon
A G Krishna Menon is an architect, urban planner and conservation consultant practicing in Delhi for over 30 years. He has been simultaneously teaching in Delhi and in 1990 co-founded the TVB School of Habitat Studies in New Delhi, and is currently its Director. He is actively engaged in research, has contributed extensively to professional journals and several academic books. He has been actively involved in urban conservation and has been associated with the formulation of The Delhi Master Plan – 2021, The National Capital Region Master Plan – 2021 and is a Member of several statutory Committees set up by the Government.
Arif Hasan is an architect/planner in private practice in Karachi. He studied architecture at the Oxford Polytechnic and on his return to Karachi in 1968, established an independent practice which slowly evolved into dealing with urban planning and development issues. He has been a consultant and advisor to many local and foreign CBOs, national and international NGOs, and bilateral and multilateral donor agencies. Since 1982, he has been involved with the Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) and is the founder Chairman of the Urban Resource Centre (URC), Karachi, since its inception in 1989. The OPP is an informal settlement upgrading project whose development is managed and funded by local communities. The URC is a research and advocacy organization supporting communities against eviction and against gentrification and/or degradation of Karachi’s inner city.
Arif Hasan has taught at Pakistani and European universities, served on juries of international architectural and development competitions, and is the author of a number of books. He was a celebrity speaker at the Union of International Architects Congress in Brighton in 1987 and has been a member of the Steering Committee of the Aga Khan Award for two cycles. He is currently on the board of several international journals He has received a number of awards for his work including the UN Year for the Shelterless Memorial Award of the Japanese Government (1990), the Prince Claus Award of the Netherlands Government (2000), and the Hilal-i-Imtiaz of the Government of Pakistan (2001). Recently, he has been given a Life Time Achievement Award by the Institute of Architects, Pakistan (2003). The Orangi Project-Research and Training Institute, of which Arif Hasan is Chairman, received the British Housing Foundation’s World Habitat Award in 2002.
Carlos F. Daganzo has a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering (Transportation)from the University of Michigan is currently the Robert Horonjeff Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He is best known for his contributions to econometrics, network theory, logistics, port operations and traffic flow. He is Director of the UC Berkeley Center for Future Urban Transport and associated with the Center's Congestion Mitigation through Control Strategies, and Adapting to Urban Form research areas. Has developed games and simulations to explain how gridlock develops and how to prevent it, how simulations solve complex optimal facility location problems, how traffic queues are created, why does the discharge flow from a bottleneck drop after queue formation, and an explanation why when you drive out of a traffic jam you can find that nothing was apparently causing it.
Carlos Dora is an environmental health policy expert with WHO, where he leads the development of new approaches to impact assessment that include both environment and health. He presently is involved in a series of pilot projects testing new impact assessment approaches in developing countries of Africa and Asia. As a medical doctor he first worked to developed quality primary health care in Latin America. He later completed a PhD at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine investigating diet and non-communicable diseases, with a developing country emphasis. He then moved to the WHO's European Centre for Environment and Health, where he dealt with a range of environmental health issues, including health impacts of Chernobyl and depleted uranium and capacity building in environmental epidemiology. He then went on to create a new WHO programme on the health implications of transport policies and contributed to developing an inter-governmental plan of action for healthy transport. He has since led the development of the health aspects of a new Protocol on Strategic Environment Assessments, to the Espoo convention on EIA. A former senior policy analyst for the WHO Director General's office, his research work included models for HIA of transport scenarios, and the interplay of mass media, government and health care discourses in risk communication strategies.
Dinesh Mohan obtained his BTech in Mechanical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, followed by a Masters degree in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from the University of Delaware and then a PhD in Biomechanics from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He started his research career working on vibrations of anisotropic plates and moved on to mechanical properties of human aortic tissue. This was followed by work on head, chest and femur injury tolerance, injuries in human free falls, effectiveness of helmets, child seats and the first evaluation of airbags in real world crashes. This background helped him to work on epidemiology of road traffic crashes and injuries in rural India, helmet design, pedestrian, bicycle and motorcycle crash modelling, and technological aids for the disabled. Concerned with mobility and safety of people outside the car he is trying to integrate these issues within a broader framework of sustainable transport policies, urban transport options and people’s right to access and safety as a fundamental human right. Recognised as a distinguished alumnus by the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay and received the International Distinguished Career Award from the American Public Health Association.
A K (known more as Dunu) Roy. Trained as a chemical engineer, forced into social science by complulsion, political ecologist by choice. Almost four decades interacting with community groups in rural and urban India, listening mostly, occasionally providing information and advice on how to deal with problems. Several years of experimentation with failure in Shahdol district of Madhya Pradesh, trying to understand society, technology, and the relationship between the two. Other years with wild life, pollution, development, watersheds, and other assorted forms of human vagaries. Random consultancies on thermal power, water management, coal mining, highways, energy management, land reforms, disaster management and so on with clients such as the World Bank, GTZ, Oxfam, Dorabji Tata Trust - institutions with much input but little insight. Flit into the People's Science Institute at Dehradun as research advisor from time to time. Happily occupying a directorial chair in the Hazards Centre at Delhi.
Elliott Sclar is the director of CSUD and Professor of Urban Planning and Public Affairs at Columbia University. He holds senior appointments in the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation and the School of International and Public Affairs. He is the Director of graduate programs in Urban Planning and is an active participant in the work of the Earth Institute at Columbia University (EI). Sclar was the co-coordinator of the Taskforce on Improving the Lives of Slum Dwellers. It is one of the ten taskforces set up by the UN Millennium Project to help guide the implementation of the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals. The Taskforce's book length report (2005): A Home in the City (PDF download), is available on the UN Millennium Project website and from Earthscan.
As a professional economist, Professor Sclar has written extensively about the strengths and limitations of markets as mechanisms for effective public policy implementation. The main focus of this Center will be to work at the nexus that connects the regulatory mechanisms of planning with market-based incentives to create environmentally and economically sustainable urban development. Sclar’s book "You Don’t Always Get What You Pay For: The Economics of Privatization," a critique of over reliance on market mechanisms, has won two major academic prizes; the Louis Brownlow Award for the Best Book of 2000 from the National Academy of Public Administration and the 2001 Charles Levine Prize from the International Political Science Association for a major contribution to the public policy literature. It is a definitive work in the field.
Born in Milan in 1950, Fabio Casiroli is a freelance specialist who has been working in the field of territorial and transport planning since 1975.
He’s been a contract professor in Transport Planning since 1998 in the Faculty of Civil Architecture at the Polytechnic of Milan. He has held contract professor positions in the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Cagliari and the Faculty of Architecture in Palermo and has taught at IUAV (Istituto Universitario di Architettura di Venezia) in Venice. He has participated in research projects for universities, the CNR (National Center for Researches), the European Union and the Banco Interamericano de Desarollo.
In 1989 he founded Systematica, a public limited company of which he is chairman that offers consultancy services, territorial and transport planning, traffic engineering and design services. He has worked in Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia on studies, plans and projects on both an urban and a regional scale where applied techniques for evaluating the interventions were supplied by advanced simulation codes and sophisticated methods of demand analysis. He has led or been the specialist consultant on the design of dozens of urban traffic plans as well as specialist studies for regional and provincial transport plans, railway and subway systems, goods hubs, road and motorway infrastructures, traditional and innovative transport services. For several years he has provided specialist consultancy for some of the most noteable contemporary architects on large projects in Italy and abroad. He has curated the "traffic and mobility" section of the Venice Architecture Biennale 2006, where he presented studies on 12 world megacities.
Specialization in logistics and supply chain management, infrastructure and transportation systems, services management, and operation research. Research, consultancy, case studies and publications focus includes railways, ports and shipping, air and road sector, service organizations and issues in logistics and supply chain management. Taught at Northwestern University and Tulane University, USA. Visiting faculty at universities in USA, Canada, Yugoslavia, Singapore and several institutions in India. Consulted for over 75 organizations in the area of Logistics and Supply Chain Management, and Infrastructure Development. Published over 30 papers and written over 100 case studies.
Co-editor of three books: "Shipping Management: Cases and Concepts" (1998), "Infrastructure Development and Financing: Towards a Public-Private Partnership" (1999), and "Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Cases and Concepts" (2000). President of Operational Research Society of India (1999-2000). Member of Boards and Government Committees related to Infrastructure and Logistics: Committee on Railway Restructuring; Chairman, Toll Review Committee; Government of Gujarat; Member, Coastal Area Development Board, Government of Gujarat; Member, Project Advisory Board, RITES; Member, Board of Directors, Alcock Ashdown (Gujarat) Ltd, Take Solutions, Chennai, India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited, Delhi, and Sequel Logistics Pvt. Ltd, Ahmedabad
Geetam Tiwari obtained her B. Arch form the University of Roorkee and Master of Urban Planning and Policy, and Ph.D. in Transport Planning and Policy, with specialisation in travel demand models and traffic flow studies from the University of Illinois, Chicago. Currently she is TRIPP Chair Associate Professor for Transport Planning at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. She has extensive research experience in dealing with transportation issues of special relevance to low income countries. These include development of systems and designs that would make transportation efficient, safer and less polluting with a special focus on vulnerable road users and commuters. She has published over 60 research papers on transportation planning and safety in national and international journals and peer reviewed seminar proceedings. Edited four books on transportation planning and road safety. Received International Velocity Falco Lecture 2nd Prize, Barcelona, Spain, the Stockholm Partnerships Award for local impact, innovative thinking and a potential for replication or transferability. She was invited to be part of the Principal Voices program on urbanization sponsored by CNN-Time and Shell in 2006. At present, involved with planning and designing Bus Rapid Transit systems in several Indian cities
Gerald E Frug
Gerald Frug is the Louis D. Brandeis Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. Educated at the University of California at Berkeley and Harvard Law School, he worked as a Special Assistant to the Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, in Washington, D.C., and as Health Services Administrator of the City of New York before he began teaching in 1974 at the University of Pennsylvania Law School. He joined the Harvard faculty in 1981. Professor Frug’s specialty is local government law, a subject he has taught for more than twenty-five years. He has published dozens of articles on the topic and is the author, among other works, of a casebook on Local Government Law (4th edition 2006, with David Barron and Richard T. Ford), Dispelling the Myth of Home Rule (2004, with David Barron and Rick Su), and City Making: Building Communities without Building Walls (Princeton University Press 1999).
Prof. Pan Haixiao has been Director of Land Use/Transport Studies, in the Department of Urban Planning, Tongji University since 1996. He has been a Board Member of Shanghai Urban Economics Institute and holds a Ph.D in Shanghai Jiaotong University(1989) and Diploma in Planning from the University of Sheffield, UK. Pan’s recent work includes major master planning and transportation planning exercises including: The Transport Management Framework for Shanghai 2010 Expo
The Transport Strategy Study for Shengyang and Zibo City. The Impact of the China Coastal Freeway on the Development of Shanghai, The Integration of Land Use and Transport Planning System Study, the Master Plan of Laiwu City in Shandong Province and the Regulatory Plan of the New District, Urban Transportation Plans of Yueqing City (Zhejiang Province), Linan City (Zhejiang Province), Shaoxing City, the Baoshan New District of Shanghai and the Qingpu District of Shanghai.
Harry Terrence Dimitriou
Harry Dimitriou has been Bartlett Professor of Planning Studies at the Bartlett School of Planning, University College London, since 1998, and its Head of School between 1998 and 2004. He is currently Director of the OMEGA Centre – a global centre of excellence for the study of mega urban transport projects at UCL funded by the Volvo Research and Education Foundations (VREF). Professor Dimitriou holds a Diploma in Town and Regional Planning from Leeds School of Town Planning, a MSc in Urban Science from University of Birmingham and a PhD in Transport and Urban Development from the University of Wales.
Professor Dimitriou has held numerous overseas advisory positions in city and regional planning, transportation policy-making and planning, and in institution-building in Greece, China, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia - for the European Commission, the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Harvard International Development Institute, Hong Kong Government, Lagos State Government and the Government of Indonesia. Professor Dimitriou has been a member of: the Transport Working Group for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; UK Government Office of Science and Technology Foresight Built Environment and Transport Panel; Committees of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Washington D.C. on socio-economic aspects of transportation and transport in developing countries and is currently member of UK Government Task Force (nCRISP) examining research in major projects.
Hermann Knoflacher obtained his Doctorate in technical Science from the Technical University of Vienna . Currently he is University Professor and Head of the Institute for Transport Planning and Traffic Engineering, University of Technology Vienna (TU Wien). He has been Head of the Institute for Transport, Austrian Road Safety Board. His main research focus includes design of transport elements; transport system user behaviour; traffic-infrastructure and mobility; sustainable development of cities and mobility; traffic safety; energy-consumption; environment; basic interdisciplinary research. He has published 5 books and more than 400 scientific publications.
Julie Touber received her Master of Science in Urban Planning from the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation at Columbia University. She also holds an equivalent planning degree from La Sorbonne in Paris, France. Julie has extensive experience in the developing world. Following an internship at the World Heritage Center at UNESCO, she wrote her first thesis on the impacts of preservation policies on World Heritage Sites based on the case of Luang Prabang in Laos. She was part of the Columbia University urban planning studio team that was sent to Accra to study disaster mitigation. Following this experience, she wrote a paper on the "Sanitation Crisis in Accra, Ghana". Her Master’s thesis was related to the scale of planning practices and development policies in the developing world, using the case study of Sana’a in Yemen.
Matthijs J. Koornstra (1941) studied psychology and computational mathematics and graduated in psychology at Leiden University, where he worked from 1961 to 1986. The first five years as research-assistant, the second five years as researcher at the Computer Centre and the Psychological Institute, subsequently from 1971 to 1978 as senior researcher at the Department of Data Theory of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, and from 1978 to 1986 as (crown-appointed) vice-president of Leiden University. In 1986 he was appointed as director of SWOV (Research Institute for Road Safety, The Netherlands) and after1999 as director of SARA (National Centre for Advanced Supercomputing and Networking, Amsterdam). Meanwhile he lectured road safety for 10 years at the Delft University of Technology and was or is president or member of governing boards for scientific foundations, academic visiting committees, and (inter)national scientific councils. Since 2002 he works independently as research advisor for international organisations (EU, ETSC, OECD, ECMT, WB, WHO, and WBCSD). He is author of the book "Changing Choices: Psychological Relativity Theory" on judgment, preference and risk behaviour, co-editor or co-author of a few other books on road safety, and author or co-author of over 120 scientific articles or reports on data analysis methods, road safety, and many diverse domains in applied and theoretical psychology, meanwhile obtaining his PhD at Leiden University.
Philipp Rode is Executive Director of the Urban Age Programme and Associate with the Cities Programme at the London School of Economics and Political Science. As researcher and consultant he is involved in interdisciplinary projects comprising urban governance, transport, city planning and urban design. Rode organised Urban Age conferences in partnership with Deutsche Bank’s Alfred Herrhausen Society in New York, Shanghai, London, Mexico City, Johannesburg and Berlin bringing together political leaders, city mayors, urban practitioners, private sector representatives and academic experts. He manages the Urban Age research efforts and co-edits the programme’s newspaper and bulletin. He has previously been part of several multidisciplinary research and consultancy projects focusing on transport in New York and Berlin. This included work on surface transport systems with his study on ‘The Case for Light Rail Transit on Manhattan’s East Side’ (1999) as well as on airport and airport-access planning with DaimlerChrysler DornierSystem Consult and Hochtief AirPort. In 2000, he was awarded the Schinkel Urban Design Prize for an urban development proposal for the re-use of Berlin Tegel Airport. At the Institute for Transport Economics and Policy of Technical University Berlin, he was part of the German government funded research project on ‘Urban-Rural Partnerships’ (2000) and published his diploma thesis on ‘Dynamic Spaces: A more flexible use of urban street space’ (2001). Rode obtained an MSc in City Design and Social Science at LSE and earlier a degree as Graduate Engineer in Transport Planning and Management at Technical University Berlin.
Robert Cervero is Professor and Chair of the Department of City and Regional Planning, University of California, Berkeley. He is the author of numerous articles and research monographs in sustainable transportation policy and planning, including Transit Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects (2004, National Academy Press) as well as six books, including The Transit Metropolis (Island Press, 1998); Informal Transport in the Developing World (UN Press, 2000); Transit Villages for the 21st Century (McGraw-Hill, 1997) and Paratransit in America (Praeger, 1997). In recent years, Professor Cervero has been an advisor and consultant on transport projects in China, Colombia, Brazil, Ireland, and numerous U.S. cities. His current research includes a comparative study of transport and social exclusion among G7 countries, a comparative analysis of sustainable transport planning under the Volvo Foundation, an evaluation of the travel behavior impacts of carsharing in San Francisco, infrastructure decentralization in Indonesia, and the sustainability implications of jobs-housing balance versus housing-retail balance. Over the past five years, he has been a regular instructor of transportation planning courses for the National Transit Institute and the World Bank Institute. In 2004, Professor Cervero was the first-ever recipient of the Dale Prize for Excellence in Urban Planning Research and also won the 2003 Article of the Year award from the Journal of the American Planning Association. Professor Cervero presently serves on the editorial boards of Urban Studies, Journal of Planning Literature, and Journal of Public Transportation, chairs the National Advisory Committee of the Active Living Research Program of the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation, and is a Fellow with the Urban Land Institute and World Bank Institute.
Dr. Roger Behrens is Convenor of the postgraduate Transport Studies Programme of the Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Cape Town, and a founder member of the multi-disciplinary Urban Transport Research Group. He is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Civil Engineering. He graduated with a Master Degree in City and Regional Planning (with distinction) from UCT in 1991 and with a PhD degree in 2002. In 1996, he became a Corporate Member of the South African Planning Institution, and a registered professional Town and Regional Planner. He has 15 years of experience in research and in the management of commissioned research projects. His core research and consultancy experience is in travel surveys and travel behaviour, site layout planning and neighbourhood movement networks, growth management, and low-income housing and infrastructure provision. He serves on the Transport Appeal Tribunal which considers appeals related to the issuing of operating licenses to paratransit minibus-taxi operators. He has been invited to chair conference sessions, and act as a conference rapporteur. He referees international journal articles. His papers have been published in international peer-reviewed journals, he has authored chapters in books, and he has presented peer-reviewed papers at numerous international and national conferences. His current research is on: non-motorised transportation, changing travel behaviour, scholar travel, and policy analysis of urban passenger transport and land use-transport interaction. He teaches courses on transport system supply and demand management, local area transport planning and management, and non-motorised transportation.
Shirish B. Patel
Shirish B Patel founded a firm of Consulting Civil Engineers in 1960 that has undertaken design and supervision of construction of a wide variety of civil works all over the country, including road and rail bridges, railway stations and elevated rail track. He has personally had a long and sustained interest in urban affairs. He was one of the three original authors who suggested the New Bombay project in 1965. In 1970, when Government accepted the project and set up CIDCO, the new town authority, he was appointed in charge of all planning, design and execution, a position he left 5 years later because he was unhappy with the lack of sustained political interest in the project. He was then a Member of the Executive Committee of the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board, the overall planning authority for the region, for 13 years. Later, his firm in association with Rahul Mehrotra Associates carried out the work of preparing the Development Plan for the southern half of the Vasai-Virar Region in northern Mumbai, and plan that included a scheme for making the infrastructure development self-financing. He is currently a Member of the Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee, and a Governor on the Board of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Heritage Conservation Society. He has retired from the Consultancy firm he founded, of which he is now Chairman Emeritus, and devotes his time to work on urban development and urban affairs.
Sivaramakrishnan K C
K.C. Sivaramakrishnan has been Honorary Visiting Professor at the Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi since 2996 and Senior Fellow, Institute of Social Sciences since 2003. Presently he is also Chairman of the CPR Board.
After joining the Indian Administrative Services (IAS) in 1958 and holding various assignments in West Bengal, he moved to Delhi in 1985 to become the first Project Director of the Central Ganga Authority and Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Environment. In 1988, he became Secretary in the Ministry of Urban Development. In that capacity Sivaramakrishnan was personally involved in the legislation to amend the Constitution to provide a framework for decentralization and empowerment of rural and urban local bodies. Eventually the 73rd and 74th Amendments became part of the Constitution.
Sivramakrishnan retired from the I.A.S. in 1992. Thereafter he joined the World Bank as Sr. Advisor, Urban Management. Since his return to the country in 1996 Sivaramakrishnan has been with the Centre for Policy Research as Professor and is also associated with the Institute of Social Sciences, Delhi and Lok Satta, a movement for electoral reforms.
In the academic sphere Sivaramakrishnan was a Pravin Fellow at Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University in 1965. Visiting Professor and Homi Bhabha Fellow at the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta in 1977 and Senior Lecturer at the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank from 1978 to 1982.
Trained in economics, political science and law, he has authored several books and papers on urban management, decentralization and urban environment.