1st Edition

Sustainable Energy Policies for Europe Towards 100% Renewable Energy

By Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes Copyright 2013
    200 Pages
    by CRC Press

    218 Pages
    by CRC Press

    The discussion about energy perspectives beyond 2020, up to 2030 and eventually 2050 has started. There seems to be a verbal consensus on the necessity of ambitious climate change mitigation policies, without a convincing perspective of the necessary policy decisions to be reached in due time. Methods to achieve greenhouse gas reduction as well as energy security vary from aiming for 100% renewable energies and setting up appropriate policy frameworks to implementing a mix of renewables comprising so-called clean fossil and nuclear energy. This book provides an analysis of the different approaches and the reasons why there is no sustainable alternative to aiming for 100% renewables – and how this vision could come true. The book provides an overview and in-depth analysis of a vital debate. It describes how the present policy framework with 2020-targets for the share of renewables, for increase of energy efficiency and for greenhouse gas emissions reduction was developed and how it has been implemented so far. Furthermore, it describes and analyses the emerging debate about the future of our energy system and the necessary next steps and targets leading up to 2030.

    About the book series
    Editorial board
    Foreword by Günther Oettinger
    Foreword by Fiona Hall
    Author’s preface
    About the author
    About the contributors

    The importance of sustainable energy policies for Europe – an introduction
    Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
    1 Climate change: The challenge to be met
    2 Climate negotiations: Stagnation for years
    3 Renewable energy: The solution at hand
    4 European Union: Frontrunners on their way
    5 Scenarios and visions: Towards a post-2020 framework
    6 Facilitating the paradigm shift towards renewable energy

    Section I The European climate and energy policy framework

    1. Introducing a groundbreaking legislative framework
    Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
    1.1 How today’s policy framework was developed
    1.2 How the framework was refined and implemented
    1.3 Which questions are to be addressed and answered

    2. From cradle to adult life: European climate and energy policies until 2007
    Christine Lins
    2.1 The beginnings of community support for renewable energy
    2.2 The first community support programmes
    2.3 The promotion of renewable energy as central pillar in the fight against climate change
    2.4 The break-through: The 1997 white paper being the first legislative element on renewable energy in the EU
    2.5 The campaign for take-off
    2.6 Legislation for renewable energy use in the electricity and transport sector as well as for buildings
    2.6.1 The RES-electricity Directive
    2.6.2 Legislation on biofuels
    2.6.3 Directive on the promotion of energy performance of buildings
    2.7 Renewables heating & cooling: The missing link

    3. The European climate and energy package for 2020
    Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 The council agreement of March 2007
    3.3 Implementing the council agreement
    3.4 The Emissions Trading Directive
    3.5 Effort sharing decision
    3.6 CCS Directive
    3.7 Renewable Energies Directive
    3.7.1 Binding overall targets and indicative trajectories
    3.7.2 National support schemes and cooperation mechanisms
    3.7.3 National Renewable Energy Actions Plans (NREAPs)
    3.7.4 Guarantees of Origin (GOs)
    3.7.5 Removing barriers
    3.7.6 The heating and cooling sector
    3.7.7 Renewable energy in the transport sector
    3.7.8 Sustainable biofuels and other biomass
    3.7.9 Review in 2014
    3.8 The importance of the climate and energy package

    4. From agreement via legislation to implementation – will the climate and energy package deliver until 2020?
    Jan Geiss
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 The climate and energy package
    4.3 Status and prospects: Renewable energy sources
    4.3.1 Legislative background: The RES-Directive
    4.3.2 Status: The National Renewable Energy Action Plans – NREAPs
    4.3.3 Policy recommendations
    4.3.4 Status: Implementation of the RES-Directive
    4.3.5 Conclusions: Prospects for renewable energy
    4.4 Status and prospects: Energy efficiency
    4.4.1 Legislative background – energy efficiency policies
    4.4.2 Status of the efficiency policies – gaps and remaining policy requirements
    4.4.3 The new Energy Efficiency Directive Key elements of the Energy Efficiency Directive Remaining gaps
    4.4.4 Conclusions: Prospects of energy efficiency
    4.5 Status and prospects: Greenhouse gas reduction
    4.5.1 The logic and functioning of the EU emissions trading system Phase 1: 2005–2007 – “Testing phase” Phase 2: 2008–2012 – “Serious business phase” Phase 3: 2013–2020 – “Improve-to-deliver phase?”
    4.5.2 Conclusions: Prospects of greenhouse gas reductions
    4.6 Conclusions

    5. Legal assessment of “discriminating market barriers” in national support systems
    Markus Kahles & Thorsten Müller
    5.1 Introduction 63
    5.2 Basic conflict: free movement of goods versus national support schemes
    5.3 Legalisation of discriminating support schemes by the RES-Directive
    5.4 Article 34 of TFEU as a test criterion for national support schemes?
    5.4.1 Compatibility of the second subparagraph of Article 3(3) of the RES-Directive with the primary law
    5.4.2 Suspensory effect of the second subparagraph of Article 3(3) of the RES-Directive
    5.5 Summary and prognosis

    6. Powerful national support systems versus Europe-wide harmonisation – assessment of competing and converging support instruments
    Markus Kahles & Thorsten Müller
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Overview of the support schemes in the Member States
    6.2.1 Feed-in tariffs
    6.2.2 Feed-in premium
    6.2.3 Quota obligations
    6.2.4 Differences and similarities
    6.3 Harmonisation of the support scheme as an alternative?
    6.4 The competition among support schemes in the Union
    6.4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of competition among systems
    6.4.2 Avoiding disadvantages by means of binding targets
    6.4.3 Establishment of an institutional framework for information exchange
    6.5 Process of convergence of the support schemes?
    6.5.1 Statistical transfer
    6.5.2 Joint projects Joint projects between Member States Joint projects with third countries
    6.5.3 Joint support schemes
    6.6 Summary

    7. Internal energy market – Implementation still pending
    Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
    7.1 Introduction: Environment, energy, free movement of goods
    7.2 The first internal energy market package
    7.3 The second internal energy market package
    7.3.1 Trying to overcome the weaknesses of the first package
    7.3.2 Consumer protection
    7.3.3 Transmission System Operators (TSOs)
    7.3.4 Market opening
    7.4 Moving to the next package
    7.5 The third internal energy market package
    7.5.1 Electricity and gas market directives overhauled
    7.5.2 Establishing ACER
    7.6 Still to be achieved: Completing the internal market
    7.6.1 Some progress until 2012
    7.6.2 Chicken or egg: renewable energies in the internal market
    7.6.3 Outlook

    Section II The way forward: 2020 and beyond

    8. Scenario development and policy debates
    Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

    9. Scenarios up to 2050 – assumptions, figures and more
    Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
    9.1 Introduction: Scenario overview
    9.2 Scenarios for 2020: Preparing and assessing the 2020-target
    9.3 2030: Evaluating and questioning the 2020 framework
    9.3.1 Forging proof for harmonisation gains
    9.3.2 Harmonisation gains in question
    9.4 2050: Low-carbon versus renewables development
    9.5 2050: Reaching 80% greenhouse gas reduction and more
    9.6 The industry’s perspective: 100% renewable energy in 2050
    9.7 2050: Outlining the Energy [R]evolution
    9.8 EU Commission roadmaps 2050: Very high shares of renewable energy
    9.8.1 Low Carbon Roadmap 2050
    9.8.2 Transport Roadmap 2050
    9.8.3 Energy Roadmap 2050
    9.9 After the roadmaps: Striving for 100% renewables in 2050

    10. Learning from best practice – what European legislation and policy development can contribute to global growth of renewables
    Christine Lins
    10.1 Global renewable energy development, where do we currently stand?
    10.2 Stable policy frameworks: The enabling factor of renewable energy deployment
    10.3 Money flows where policy stability is provided
    10.4 Global target setting
    10.5 Future outlook

    11. Towards an integrated post-2020 framework
    Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
    11.1 Looking towards 2030
    11.2 Renewables – a major player in the energy market
    11.3 Renewables and State Aid regulations
    11.4 The future of biofuels and biomass – in transport and beyond
    11.5 Emissions trading: Trying to repair a key system
    11.6 Another round of wishful thinking
    11.7 European parliament calling for a stable 2030-framework
    11.8 Towards a 2030-framework for climate and energy policies
    11.8.1 Green Paper: A 2030 framework for climate and energy policies
    11.8.2 EREC’s Hat-trick 2030

    Outlook – towards 100% renewable energy
    Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
    1 Paving the road towards a truly sustainable energy system in Europe – developing a 2030 framework
    2 An integrated 2030-framework for renewables, efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction
    3 The future of support schemes
    4 Policy decisions to be taken
    5 From integration of renewables to system transformation for renewables

    Subject index


    Hinrichs-Rahlwes, Rainer

    "…the discussion about EU energy policy beyond 2020 and up to 2050 has started. An in-depth analysis of this debate is what mostly concerns this book, as well as reviewing the 2020 policy framework, its implementation and its current chances of success. …Not an easy read, but this title holds valuable information from a renewables champion very much on the inside of European energy policymaking."
    ––Renewable UK, Autumn 2013