Sustainable Energy Policies for Europe: Towards 100% Renewable Energy, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Sustainable Energy Policies for Europe

Towards 100% Renewable Energy, 1st Edition

By Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

CRC Press

200 pages

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The discussion about energy perspectives beyond 2020, up to 2030 and eventually 2050 has started. There seems to be a verbal consensus on the necessity of ambitious climate change mitigation policies, without a convincing perspective of the necessary policy decisions to be reached in due time. Methods to achieve greenhouse gas reduction as well as energy security vary from aiming for 100% renewable energies and setting up appropriate policy frameworks to implementing a mix of renewables comprising so-called clean fossil and nuclear energy. This book provides an analysis of the different approaches and the reasons why there is no sustainable alternative to aiming for 100% renewables – and how this vision could come true. The book provides an overview and in-depth analysis of a vital debate. It describes how the present policy framework with 2020-targets for the share of renewables, for increase of energy efficiency and for greenhouse gas emissions reduction was developed and how it has been implemented so far. Furthermore, it describes and analyses the emerging debate about the future of our energy system and the necessary next steps and targets leading up to 2030.


"…the discussion about EU energy policy beyond 2020 and up to 2050 has started. An in-depth analysis of this debate is what mostly concerns this book, as well as reviewing the 2020 policy framework, its implementation and its current chances of success. …Not an easy read, but this title holds valuable information from a renewables champion very much on the inside of European energy policymaking."

––Renewable UK, Autumn 2013

Table of Contents

About the book series

Editorial board

Foreword by Günther Oettinger

Foreword by Fiona Hall

Author’s preface

About the author

About the contributors



The importance of sustainable energy policies for Europe – an introduction

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

1 Climate change: The challenge to be met

2 Climate negotiations: Stagnation for years

3 Renewable energy: The solution at hand

4 European Union: Frontrunners on their way

5 Scenarios and visions: Towards a post-2020 framework

6 Facilitating the paradigm shift towards renewable energy

Section I The European climate and energy policy framework

1. Introducing a groundbreaking legislative framework

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

1.1 How today’s policy framework was developed

1.2 How the framework was refined and implemented

1.3 Which questions are to be addressed and answered

2. From cradle to adult life: European climate and energy policies until 2007

Christine Lins

2.1 The beginnings of community support for renewable energy

2.2 The first community support programmes

2.3 The promotion of renewable energy as central pillar in the fight against climate change

2.4 The break-through: The 1997 white paper being the first legislative element on renewable energy in the EU

2.5 The campaign for take-off

2.6 Legislation for renewable energy use in the electricity and transport sector as well as for buildings

2.6.1 The RES-electricity Directive

2.6.2 Legislation on biofuels

2.6.3 Directive on the promotion of energy performance of buildings

2.7 Renewables heating & cooling: The missing link

3. The European climate and energy package for 2020

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The council agreement of March 2007

3.3 Implementing the council agreement

3.4 The Emissions Trading Directive

3.5 Effort sharing decision

3.6 CCS Directive

3.7 Renewable Energies Directive

3.7.1 Binding overall targets and indicative trajectories

3.7.2 National support schemes and cooperation mechanisms

3.7.3 National Renewable Energy Actions Plans (NREAPs)

3.7.4 Guarantees of Origin (GOs)

3.7.5 Removing barriers

3.7.6 The heating and cooling sector

3.7.7 Renewable energy in the transport sector

3.7.8 Sustainable biofuels and other biomass

3.7.9 Review in 2014

3.8 The importance of the climate and energy package

4. From agreement via legislation to implementation – will the climate and energy package deliver until 2020?

Jan Geiss

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The climate and energy package

4.3 Status and prospects: Renewable energy sources

4.3.1 Legislative background: The RES-Directive

4.3.2 Status: The National Renewable Energy Action Plans – NREAPs

4.3.3 Policy recommendations

4.3.4 Status: Implementation of the RES-Directive

4.3.5 Conclusions: Prospects for renewable energy

4.4 Status and prospects: Energy efficiency

4.4.1 Legislative background – energy efficiency policies

4.4.2 Status of the efficiency policies – gaps and remaining policy requirements

4.4.3 The new Energy Efficiency Directive Key elements of the Energy Efficiency Directive Remaining gaps

4.4.4 Conclusions: Prospects of energy efficiency

4.5 Status and prospects: Greenhouse gas reduction

4.5.1 The logic and functioning of the EU emissions trading system Phase 1: 2005–2007 – “Testing phase” Phase 2: 2008–2012 – “Serious business phase” Phase 3: 2013–2020 – “Improve-to-deliver phase?”

4.5.2 Conclusions: Prospects of greenhouse gas reductions

4.6 Conclusions

5. Legal assessment of “discriminating market barriers” in national support systems

Markus Kahles & Thorsten Müller

5.1 Introduction 63

5.2 Basic conflict: free movement of goods versus national support schemes

5.3 Legalisation of discriminating support schemes by the RES-Directive

5.4 Article 34 of TFEU as a test criterion for national support schemes?

5.4.1 Compatibility of the second subparagraph of Article 3(3) of the RES-Directive with the primary law

5.4.2 Suspensory effect of the second subparagraph of Article 3(3) of the RES-Directive

5.5 Summary and prognosis

6. Powerful national support systems versus Europe-wide harmonisation – assessment of competing and converging support instruments

Markus Kahles & Thorsten Müller

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Overview of the support schemes in the Member States

6.2.1 Feed-in tariffs

6.2.2 Feed-in premium

6.2.3 Quota obligations

6.2.4 Differences and similarities

6.3 Harmonisation of the support scheme as an alternative?

6.4 The competition among support schemes in the Union

6.4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of competition among systems

6.4.2 Avoiding disadvantages by means of binding targets

6.4.3 Establishment of an institutional framework for information exchange

6.5 Process of convergence of the support schemes?

6.5.1 Statistical transfer

6.5.2 Joint projects Joint projects between Member States Joint projects with third countries

6.5.3 Joint support schemes

6.6 Summary

7. Internal energy market – Implementation still pending

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

7.1 Introduction: Environment, energy, free movement of goods

7.2 The first internal energy market package

7.3 The second internal energy market package

7.3.1 Trying to overcome the weaknesses of the first package

7.3.2 Consumer protection

7.3.3 Transmission System Operators (TSOs)

7.3.4 Market opening

7.4 Moving to the next package

7.5 The third internal energy market package

7.5.1 Electricity and gas market directives overhauled

7.5.2 Establishing ACER

7.6 Still to be achieved: Completing the internal market

7.6.1 Some progress until 2012

7.6.2 Chicken or egg: renewable energies in the internal market

7.6.3 Outlook

Section II The way forward: 2020 and beyond

8. Scenario development and policy debates

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

9. Scenarios up to 2050 – assumptions, figures and more

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

9.1 Introduction: Scenario overview

9.2 Scenarios for 2020: Preparing and assessing the 2020-target

9.3 2030: Evaluating and questioning the 2020 framework

9.3.1 Forging proof for harmonisation gains

9.3.2 Harmonisation gains in question

9.4 2050: Low-carbon versus renewables development

9.5 2050: Reaching 80% greenhouse gas reduction and more

9.6 The industry’s perspective: 100% renewable energy in 2050

9.7 2050: Outlining the Energy [R]evolution

9.8 EU Commission roadmaps 2050: Very high shares of renewable energy

9.8.1 Low Carbon Roadmap 2050

9.8.2 Transport Roadmap 2050

9.8.3 Energy Roadmap 2050

9.9 After the roadmaps: Striving for 100% renewables in 2050

10. Learning from best practice – what European legislation and policy development can contribute to global growth of renewables

Christine Lins

10.1 Global renewable energy development, where do we currently stand?

10.2 Stable policy frameworks: The enabling factor of renewable energy deployment

10.3 Money flows where policy stability is provided

10.4 Global target setting

10.5 Future outlook

11. Towards an integrated post-2020 framework

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

11.1 Looking towards 2030

11.2 Renewables – a major player in the energy market

11.3 Renewables and State Aid regulations

11.4 The future of biofuels and biomass – in transport and beyond

11.5 Emissions trading: Trying to repair a key system

11.6 Another round of wishful thinking

11.7 European parliament calling for a stable 2030-framework

11.8 Towards a 2030-framework for climate and energy policies

11.8.1 Green Paper: A 2030 framework for climate and energy policies

11.8.2 EREC’s Hat-trick 2030

Outlook – towards 100% renewable energy

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes

1 Paving the road towards a truly sustainable energy system in Europe – developing a 2030 framework

2 An integrated 2030-framework for renewables, efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction

3 The future of support schemes

4 Policy decisions to be taken

5 From integration of renewables to system transformation for renewables


Subject index

About the Author

Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes (*1954, Germany) is currently the President of the European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), the Brussels based umbrella organisation of the European renewable energy sector. He is the President of EREC’s member association, the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF), the voice of independent producers of energy from renewable sources, and he is a Board Member and the spokesperson for European and International Affairs of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), the national umbrella orginsation of the renewable energy sector.

He is closely engaged in European policy development for renewable energies in the European Union as well as in his home country, keeping close contacts with government representatives, parliamentarians, European Commission and other stakeholders. He is convinced that a complete shift of our energy system to renewable energy is necessary for the sake of energy security and climate protection and that it is technically and economically feasible – much faster and less costly than supporters and beneficiaries of conventional and nuclear energy are trying to make believe. Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes has delivered speeches and presentations and participated in panel discussions all over the world – on behalf of the organisations he is representing or advising, and as an independent consultant providing policy advice and knowledge about sustainable renewable energy development and policies for scaling up renewables on local, national, regional and global level in order to facilitate their becoming the mainstream energy sources already in the near future.

Representing EREC he is a member of the Renewable Energy Industry Advisory Board (RIAB) of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a member of the Steering Committee of the global Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21) with headquarters in Paris (France), which was founded as an outcome of the first “International Renewable Energy Conference” (IREC), the renewables2004-conference in Bonn. He is also a member of the WREN-Council, the advisory structure of theWorld Renewable Energy Network/Congress.

Before engaging with the renewable energy sector in Germany and in Europe, from November 1998 to December 2005, Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes was a Director General in the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), in charge of renewable energies, climate protection and various other dossiers. As a representative of BMU, he was one of the two chairmen of the International Steering Committee preparing the first IREC, the renewables2004 in Bonn. After the conference, until he left the ministry at the end of 2005, he served as BMU’s representative and a founding co-chair and later a member of the Bureau of the Global Policy Network, now known as REN21.

Christine Lins was appointed as Executive Secretary of REN21, the Renewable Energy Policy Network of the 21st Century, in July 2011. REN21 is a global public-private multi-stakeholder network on renewable energy regrouping international organizations, governments, industry associations, science and academia as well as NGOs working in the field of renewable energy. REN21 has its headquarters at UNEP, the United Nations Environment Programme in Paris/France. Between 2001 and 2011, she served as Secretary General of the European Renewable Energy Council, the united voice of Europe’s renewable energy industry. She has more than 17 years of working experience in the field of renewable energy sources. Previously, she worked in a regional energy agency in Austria promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. Christine Lins holds a Masters degree in international economics and applied languages.

Dr. Jan Geiss is Secretary General of EUFORES – The European Forum for Renewable Energy Sources, a network of Members of the European Parliament and the EU28 national parliaments promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency policy and markets in the European Union. He has been running the Brussels based organisation since 2006. Before becoming the Secretary General, he was Policy Advisor and Managing Director of EUFORES. Since 2011, he is also the President of the Renewable Energy House in Brussels. Since 2012, he is a member of the Business Council of the German Foundation for the Environment. 1999–2012, he was Chair of the Board of the Sustainable Development Forum Germany. He holds a PhD in Political Science and Economics from the University of Passau, Germany in the field of “Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Service Contracting”. He finished his studies of International Cultural and Business Management in 1997.

Thorsten Müller is research director and chairman of the executive board of the Foundation on Environmental Energy Law (Stiftung Umweltenergierecht – SUER) in Würzburg (Germany). After studying lawfrom 1996 to 2001 inWürzburg and Salzburg (Austria) and a legal traineeship at the OLG Celle (higher regional court, Germany) he worked as counsel for the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety on 2003 and 2004-amendment of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG). Starting November 2004 he also worked as research assistant at the chair of Prof. Dr. Schulze-Fielitz for Public, Environmental and Administrative Law at the University of Würzburg. From 2006 to 2011 he was the head of the Forschungsstelle Umweltenergierecht (Research Centre for Energy and Environmental Law) in cooperation with the University of Würzburg. He published in legal journals and contributed to law commentaries and handbooks. He co-edits “Zeitschrift für Neues Energierecht – ZNER” (New Energy Law Journal), “Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review (RELP)” and “Schriften zum Umweltenergierecht” (Writings on Renewable Energy Law) published by Nomos-Verlag. His focus in legal research lies on European and national renewable energies law as well as energy efficiency law and the interactions between the different legal instruments. Repeatedly he acted as legal expert in hearings held by the German Bundestag as well as regional parliaments (Landtage) and governments.

Since 2010 Markus Kahles has been research assistant at the Foundation for Environmental Energy Law. His research focus lies on European renewable energies law in general and especially on state aid law and the law of free movement of goods. From 2004 to 2010 he studied law combined with accompanying studies in European law at the University of Würzburg (Germany) and the University of Bergen (Norway). At the moment he is doing his legal traineeship at the OLG Bamberg (higher regional court) and writing his doctoral thesis in the field of European renewable energy law.

About the Series

Sustainable Energy Developments

ISSN 2164-0645

Renewable energy sources and sustainable policy options, including energy efficiency and energy conservation, can provide long-term solutions for key-problems of industrialized, developing and transition countries by providing clean and domestically available energy and, at the same time, decreasing dependence on fossil fuel imports and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The book series will serve as a multi-disciplinary resource linking renewable energy with human society. The book series fulfils the rapidly growing worldwide interest in sustainable energy solutions. It covers all fields of renewable energy and their possible applications will be addressed not only from a technical point of view, but also from economic, financial, social, political, legislative and regulatory viewpoints.
The book series is considered to become a state-of-the-art source for a large group of readers comprising different stakeholders and professionals, including government and non-governmental organizations and institutions, international funding agencies, universities, public energy institutions, public health and other relevant institutions as well as to civil society.

Editorial Board
Jochen Bundschuh (Series Editor)
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Morgan Bazilian Senior Advisor on Energy and Climate Change to the Director-General, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria
Maria da Graça Carvalho Member of the European Parliament, Brussels & professor at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Robert K. Dixon Leader, Climate and Chemicals, The Global Environment Facility, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes President of the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF); Board Member of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, Germany
Veena Joshi Senior Advisor-Energy, Section Climate Change and Development, Embassy of Switzerland, New Delhi, India
Eric Martinot Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Nakano, Tokyo & Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center, Beijing, China

FIELDS COVERED• Access to clean energy • Bioenergy • Biofuels • Bio-inspired solar fuel production • Capacity building and communication strategies • Climate policy • Electric, hybrid plug-in, and hybrid vehicles • Energizing development • Energy autonomy and cities • Energy behavior • Energy conservation • Energy efficiency • Energy for the poor: The renewable options for rural electrification • Energy meteorology • Energy scenarios • Energy security • Energy storage • Energy-efficient buildings • Energy-efficient lighting • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) • Financing energy efficiency • Fuel cells • Gender and energy • Geothermal energy for direct use (district heating, industry, agriculture, etc.) • Geothermal power generation • Green and greening computing • Green construction materials • Heat pumps • Hydrogen technologies • Labeling energy performance • Low energy architecture • Nano-energy • Renewable energy scenarios • Renewable energy strategies and policies • Renewable vehicle energy • Renewables energy for drinking water solutions • Renewables for poverty reduction • Renewables for small islands • Solar cars • Solar PV • Solar heating and cooling • Sustainable energy policies • Sustainable hydropower • Sustainable public transportation • Tidal energy • Water desalination using renewables • Wave power • Wind energy

Suresh K. Aggarwal, Chicago, USA - Ishfaq Ahmad, Arlington, USA - Sergio M. Alcocer, Mexico - Said Al-Hallaj, Chicago, USA - Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Al-Ain, UAE - Hussain Al-Towaie, Aden, Yemen - Joel R. Anstrom, University Park, USA - Kalyan Annamalai, College Station, USA - Jaco Appelman, Delft, The Netherlands - Santiago Arnaltes, Madrid, Spain - François Avellan, Lausanne, Switzerland - AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Southampton, UK - Ronald Bailey, Chattanooga, USA - Ramesh C Bansal, Brisbane, Australia - Ruggero Bertani, Rome, Italy - Prosun Bhattacharya, Stockholm, Sweden - Peter Birkle, Cuernavaca, Mexico - John Boland, Adelaide, Australia - Frances Brazier, Delft, The Netherlands - Gary W. Brudvig, New Haven, USA - Jens Burgtorf, New Delhi, India - Kirk W. Cameron, Blacksburg, USA - Thameur Chaibi, Tunis, Tunisia - Shih Hung Chan, Taipei, Taiwan - D. Chandrashekharam, Mumbai, India - S.K. Jason Chang, Taipei, Taiwan - Shanta Chatterji, Mumbai, India - Falin Chen, Taipei, Taiwan - Siaw Kiang Chou, Singapore - Daniel Cohn, Cambridge, USA - Erik Dahlquist, Västerås, Sweden - Holger Dau, Berlin, Germany - Sudipta De, Kolkata, India - Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi, Campinas, S.P., Brazil - Kristin Deason, Berlin, Germany & Washington, USA - Tom Denniss, Macquarie Park, Australia - Roland Dimai, Dornbirn, Austria - Gregory Dolan, Alexandria, USA - Claus Doll, Karlsruhe, Germany - Peter Droege, Newcastle, Australia - Gautam Dutt, Buenos Aires, Argentina - James Edmonds, College Park, USA - Adeola Ijeoma Eleri, Abuja, Nigeria - Ali Emadi, Chicago, USA - Hans-Josef Fell, Berlin, Germany - Bruno Francois, Paris, France - Andrew Frank, Davis, USA - Petra Fromme, Phoenix, USA - Chris Gearhart, Dearborn, USA - John Golbeck, University Park, USA - José Goldemberg, Sao Paulo, Brazil - Barbara Goodman, Golden, USA - James Gover, Flint, USA - Amelia Hadfield, Brussel, Belgium - Jan Hoinkis, Karlsruhe, Germany - Einar Hope, Bergen, Norway - Yoichi Hori, Tokyo, Japan - Ernst Huenges, Potsdam, Germany - Iqbal Husain, Akron, USA - Gerald W. Huttrer, Frisco, USA - Tetsunari Iida, Tokyo, Japan - Rainer Janssen, München, Germany - Ma Jiming, Beijing, P.R. China - Guðni Jóhannesson, Reykjavík, Island - Thomas B. Johansson, Lund, Sweden - Perry T. Jones, Knoxville, USA - Soteris Kalogirou, Limasol, Cyprus - Ghazi A. Karim, Calgary, Canada - Arun Kashyap, New York, USA - Pertti Kauranen, Tampere, Finland - Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Golden, USA - Claudia Kemfert, Berlin, Germany - Thomas Kempka, Potsdam, Germany - Madhu Khanna, Urbana, USA - Ånund Killingtveit, Trondheim, Norway - Rob Kool, Utrecht, The Netherlands - Israel Koren, Amherst, USA - Arun Kumar, Uttarakhand, India - Naveen Kumar, Delhi, India - Chung K. Law, Princeton, NJ, USA - Harry Lehmann, Dessau, Germany - Dennis Leung, Hong Kong - Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canada - Søren Linderoth, Roskilde, Denmark - Hongtan Liu, Miami,  USA - Wolfgang Lubitz, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany - Thomas Ludwig, Hamburg,Germany - Wolfgang F. Lutz, Ter Aar, The Netherlands / Asunción, Paraguay - Thomas Lynge Jensen, Suva, Fiji Islands - Sébastien Martinet, Grenoble, France - Omar R. Masera, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico - Chang Mei, Cambridge, MA, USA - Pietro Menga, Milan, Italy - Gerd Michelsen, Lüneburg, Germany - James Miller, Argonne, USA - Daniel Mosse, Pittsburgh, USA - Urs Muntwyler, Burgdorf, Switzerland - Jayant K. Nayak, Mumbai, India - Emily Nelson, Cleveland, USA - Kim Nielsen, Virum, Denmark - Galal Osman, Cairo, Egypt - Alessandro Palmieri, Jakarta, Indonesia - Jérôme Perrin, Guyancourt, France - Gianfranco Pistoia, Rome, Italy - Josep Puig, Barcelona, Spain - Kaushik Rajashekara, Indianapolis, USA - Wattanapong Rakwichian, Chiang Mai, Thailand - Sanjay Ranka, Gainesville, USA - Klaus Rave, Kiel, Germany / Brussels, Belgium - Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Washington, USA - Jack Rosebro, Los Angeles, USA - Marc A. Rosen, Oshawa, ON, Canada - Harald N. Røstvik, Stavanger, Norway - Ladislaus Rybach, Zurich, Switzerland - Ambuj D. Sagar, New Delhi, India - Roberto Schaeffer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Frank Scholwin, Leipzig, Germany - Lisa Schipper, Bangkok, Thailand - Dietrich Schmidt, Kassel, Germany - Jamal Shrair, Budapest, Hungary - Semida Silveira, Stockholm, Sweden - Subhash C. Singhal, Richland, USA - Erik J. Spek, Newmarket, Canada - Gregory Stephanopoulos, Cambridge, MA, USA - Robert Stüssi, Lisboa, Portugal - Mario-César Suarez-Arriaga, Morelia, Mexico - Lawrence E. Susskind, Cambridge, MA, USA - Eoin Sweeney, Dublin, Ireland - Antoni Szumanowski, Warsaw, Poland - Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Alberto Troccoli, Canberra, Australia - Eftihia Tzen, Pikermi, Greece - Hamdi Ucarol, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey - Veerle Vandeweerd, New York, USA - Peter F. Varadi, Chevy Chase, USA - Maria Wall, Lund, Sweden - Martin Wietschel, Karlsruhe, Germany - Sheldon S. Williamson, Montreal, Canada - Wolfgang Winkler, Hamburg, Germany - Ramon Wyss, Stockholm, Sweden - Jinyue Yan, Royal Stockholm, Sweden - Laurence T. Yang, Antigonish, Canada - Guillermo Zaragoza, Almería, Spain - Tim S. Zhao, Hong Kong

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Alternative & Renewable