Sustainable Energy Solutions in Agriculture: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Sustainable Energy Solutions in Agriculture

1st Edition

Edited by Jochen Bundschuh, Guangnan Chen

CRC Press

480 pages

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Description

Sustainability in agriculture and associated primary industries, which are both energy-intensive, is crucial for the development of any country. Increasing scarcity and resulting high fossil fuel prices combined with the need to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, make the improvement of energy efficient farming and increased use of renewable energy essential.

This book provides a technological and scientific endeavor to assist society and farming communities in different regions and scales to improve their productivity and sustainability. To fulfill future needs of a modern sustainable agriculture, this book addresses highly actual topics providing innovative, effective and more sustainable solutions for agriculture by using sustainable, environmentally friendly, renewable energy sources and modern energy efficient, cost-improved technologies. The book highlights new areas of research, and further R&D needs. It helps to improve food security for the rapidly growing world population and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use in agriculture, which presently contributes 22% of the global carbon dioxide emissions. This book provides a source of information, stimuli and incentives for what and how new and energy efficient technologies can be applied as effective tools and solutions in agricultural production to satisfy the continually increasing demand for food and fibre in an economically sustainable way, while contributing to global climate change mitigation. It will be useful and inspiring to decision makers working in different authorities, professionals, agricultural engineers, researchers, and students concerned with agriculture and related primay industries, sustainable energy development and climate change mitigation projects.

Table of Contents

Section 1: Introduction

1. Towards a sustainable energy technologies based agriculture

Jochen Bundschuh, Guangnan Chen & Shahbaz Mushtaq

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 Challenges

1.2 Sustainable energy options in agriculture

1.2.1 Energy efficiency and energy conservation

1.2.1.1 Enhancing irrigation and energy efficiency of the irrigated systems

1.2.1.2 Cooling and heating

1.2.2 Use of biomass and biomass waste for carbon-neutral production of biofuel, electricity and bio-coal fertilizers

1.2.3 Decentralized renewable energy systems (solar, wind, geothermal)

1.2.4 Economic benefit of green food

1.3 Conclusions

Section 2: Energy efficiency and management

2. Global energy resources, supply and demand, energy security and on-farm energy efficiency

Ralph E.H. Sims

2.1 Introduction

2.1.1 Energy access

2.1.2 Environmental impacts

2.1.3 Food price and energy nexus

2.2 Global energy trends

2.2.1 Bridging the emissions gap

2.3 Other major related issues

2.3.1 Economic viability

2.3.2 Competing land uses

2.3.3 Dangerous climate change

2.3.4 Existing efforts are inadequate

2.4 Global energy supply for agriculture

2.5 Energy efficiency in agriculture

2.5.1 Tractors and machinery

2.5.2 Irrigation

2.5.3 Fertilizers

2.5.4 Dairy farms

2.5.5 Sheep and beef farms

2.5.6 Intensive livestock production and fishing

2.5.7 Greenhouse production

2.5.8 Fruit production

2.5.9 Cropping

2.6 Conclusions

3. Energy in crop production systems

Jeff N. Tullberg

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Energy distribution in farming systems

3.3 Input energy efficiency

3.3.1 Farm machinery operations

3.3.2 Tractive power transmission

3.3.3 Efficiency of tractor-powered tillage

3.4 Land preparation by tillage

3.4.1 Tillage equipment

3.4.2 Tillage objectives and functions

3.5 Embodied energy

3.5.1 Machinery

3.5.2 Fertilizer

3.5.3 Agricultural chemicals

3.6 More energy-efficient cropping systems

3.6.1 General considerations

3.6.2 No-till and conservation agriculture

3.6.3 Controlled traffic farming

3.6.4 Precision and high-technology

3.6.4.1 Precision agriculture

3.6.4.2 Precision guidance

3.6.4.3 Robotics

3.6.5 Cropping system energy comparisons

3.7 Conclusion

4. The fossil energy use and CO2 emissions budget for Canadian agriculture

James Arthur Dyer, Raymond Louis Desjardins & Brian Glenn McConkey

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Energy use issues

4.1.1.1 GHG emissions

4.1.1.2 Energy supply

4.1.1.3 Food security

4.1.1.4 Biofuel crops

4.1.1.5 CC adaptation

4.1.2 Defining the farm energy budget

4.1.2.1 Group 1

4.1.2.2 Group 2

4.1.2.3 Group 3

4.1.2.4 Excluded energy terms

4.2 Methodology

4.2.1 Modeling farm energy consumption

4.2.2 Computations for field operations

4.2.3 Response to tillage systems

4.2.4 Converting energy use to fossil CO2 emissions

4.2.5 Interfacing farm energy use with other GHG emission models

4.3 Farm energy use calculations

4.3.1 Land use areas

4.3.1.1 Land use

4.3.1.2 Farm field operations

4.3.1.3 Farm energy use budget

4.3.1.4 Fossil energy use for livestock production

4.4 Results

4.5 Discussion and conclusions

5. Energy efficiency technologies for sustainable agriculture and food processing

LijunWang

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Energy consumption in the agricultural production and food processing

5.2.1 Energy consumption in the agricultural production

5.2.2 Energy consumption in the food industry

5.2.2.1 Overview of energy consumption in the food industry

5.2.2.2 Energy use in different food manufacturing sectors

5.2.2.3 Energy use for production of different food products

5.2.3 Energy sources in the agricultural and food industry

5.2.3.1 Energy sources for agricultural production

5.2.3.2 Energy sources for food processing

5.2.4 Energy efficiency in agricultural production and food processing

5.3 Energy conservation and management in agricultural production and food processing

5.3.1 Energy conservation in agricultural production

5.3.2 Energy conservation in the utilities in food processing facilities

5.3.2.1 Energy savings in steam supply

5.3.2.2 Energy savings in compressed air supply

5.3.2.3 Energy savings in power supply

5.3.2.4 Energy savings in heat exchanger

5.3.2.5 Energy savings by recovering waste heat

5.3.3 Energy conservation in energy-intensive unit operations of food processes

5.3.3.1 Energy savings in thermal food processing

5.3.3.2 Energy savings in concentration, dehydration and drying

5.3.3.3 Energy savings in refrigeration and freezing

5.4 Utilizations of energy efficiency technologies in agricultural production and food processing

5.4.1 Application of novel thermodynamic cycles

5.4.1.1 Heat pump

5.4.1.2 Novel refrigeration cycles

5.4.1.3 Heat pipes

5.4.2 Application of non-thermal food processes

5.4.2.1 Food irradiation

5.4.2.2 Pulsed electric fields

5.4.2.3 High-pressure processing

5.4.2.4 Membrane processing

5.4.2.5 Supercritical fluid processing

5.4.3 Application of novel heating methods

5.4.3.1 Microwave and radio frequency heating

5.4.3.2 Ohmic heating

5.4.3.3 Infrared radiation heating

5.5 Summary

6. Energy-smart food – technologies, practices and policies

Ralph E.H. Sims & Alessandro Flammini

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1 The key challenges

6.1.2 Scales of agricultural production

6.1.2.1 Subsistence

6.1.2.2 Small family farms

6.1.2.3 Small businesses

6.1.2.4 Large farms

6.2 Energy inputs and GHG emissions

6.2.1 Energy inputs for primary production

6.2.1.1 Tractors and machinery

6.2.1.2 Irrigation

6.2.1.3 Fertilizers

6.2.1.4 Livestock

6.2.1.5 Protected cropping in greenhouses

6.2.1.6 Fishing and aquaculture

6.2.1.7 Forestry

6.2.2 Energy inputs for secondary production

6.2.2.1 Drying, cooling and storage

6.2.2.2 Transport and distribution

6.2.3 Food processing

6.2.3.1 Preparation and cooking

6.3 The human dimension

6.3.1 Food losses and wastage

6.3.2 Changing diets

6.3.3 Modern energy services

6.4 Renewable energy supplies from agriculture

6.4.1 Renewable energy resources

6.4.2 Renewable energy systems

6.4.2.1 Biomass and bioenergy

6.4.2.2 Non-biomass renewable energy

6.4.3 The potential for energy-smart agriculture

6.4.3.1 A landscape approach to farming systems

6.4.3.2 Institutional arrangements and innovative business models

6.5 Policy options

6.5.1 Present related policies

6.5.2 Future policy requirements

6.5.2.1 Agriculture

6.5.2.2 Energy access

6.5.2.3 Climate change

6.5.2.4 Efficient energy use

6.5.2.5 Renewable energy deployment

6.5.2.6 Human behavior

6.6 Achieving energy-smart food

7. Energy, water and food: exploring links in irrigated cropping systems

Tamara Jackson & Munir A. Hanjra

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Energy in agriculture

7.2 The energy-water nexus in crop production

7.2.1 Energy for irrigation

7.2.1.1 Factors affecting irrigation energy use

7.2.2 Energy and fertilizer

7.2.3 Energy and agrochemicals

7.2.4 Energy for machinery and equipment

7.2.4.1 Factors affecting input energy use for crop production

7.3 Patterns of energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

7.3.1 Study sites

7.3.2 Data requirements

7.3.3 Analyzing water application and energy consumption

7.3.3.1 Crop water requirements

7.3.3.2 Energy accounting

7.3.4 Results and discussion

7.3.4.1 Water application and energy consumption: baseline conditions

7.3.4.2 Potential energy and water savings using pressurized irrigation systems

7.3.5 Summary

7.4 Options for sustainable energy and water management in irrigated cropping systems

7.4.1 Technical interventions

7.4.2 Policy strategies

7.5 Conclusions

8. Energy use and sustainability of intensive livestock production

Jukka Ahokas, Mari Rajaniemi, Hannu Mikkola, Jüri Frorip, Eugen Kokin, Jaan Praks, Väino Poikalainen, Imbi Veermäe &Winfried Schäfer

8.1 Energy and livestock production

8.1.1 What is energy

8.1.2 Energy consumption and emissions

8.1.3 Direct and indirect energy

8.1.4 Efficiency

8.1.5 Energy analysis

8.1.5.1 Methodology of energy analysis

8.1.5.2 Energy ratio

8.1.5.3 Specific energy consumption

8.1.5.4 Types of energy analysis

8.2 Livestock production sustainability

8.2.1 Sustainability

8.2.2 CO2 – equivalents

8.2.3 Livestock GHG emissions

8.3 Energy consumption in livestock production

8.3.1 Feed material production

8.3.1.1 Crop production

8.3.1.2 Grass and hay production

8.3.1.3 Concentrate production

8.3.2 Ventilation

8.3.3 Illumination

8.3.4 Heating of animal houses

8.3.4.1 Heat conduction

8.3.4.2 Heat losses by ventilation

8.3.5 Energy use follow-up

8.4 Energy use and saving in livestock production

8.4.1 Energy consumption in livestock production

8.4.2 Energy consumption in milk production

8.4.2.1 Milk production system

8.4.2.2 Energy used in milk production

8.4.2.3 Feed production and feed material

8.4.2.4 Use of direct energy

8.4.2.5 Milking and milk cooling

8.4.2.6 Lighting

8.4.2.7 Ventilation

8.4.2.8 Water pumping and hot water

8.4.2.9 Bringing up young cattle

8.4.3 Energy consumption in pork production

8.4.3.1 Pork production

8.4.3.2 Pork production energy consumption

8.4.3.3 Feed production and feed material

8.4.4 Energy consumption in broiler production

8.4.4.1 Broiler production

8.4.4.2 Energy consumption in broiler production

8.4.4.3 Lighting

8.4.4.4 Ventilation

8.4.4.5 Heating

8.4.4.6 Feed and feeding

8.5 Conclusions

9. Diesel engine as prime power for agriculture: emissions reduction for sustainable mechanization

Xinqun Gui

9.1 Diesel engine as prime power for agriculture

9.2 Global non-road emissions regulations

9.3 Building blocks of diesel engines

9.3.1 Combustion system

9.3.2 Electronic engine control system

9.3.3 Fuel injection system

9.3.4 Turbocharching

9.3.5 Exhaust gas recirculation

9.4 After treatment technologies

9.4.1 Particulate matter and NOx

9.4.2 Exhaust filtration

9.4.3 Regeneration types

9.4.4 Active regeneration technologies

9.4.5 Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC)

9.4.6 Diesel particulate filter (DPF)

9.4.7 Catalyst canning

9.4.8 Exhaust fuel dosing system

9.4.9 After treatment system integration and controls

9.4.9.1 DOC outlet temperature control

9.4.9.2 Soot loading prediction

9.4.9.3 Active regeneration control

9.4.10 Diesel engine NOx aftertreatment technologies

9.4.10.1 Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)

9.5 Meeting diesel emissions through tiers

9.5.1 Tier 3 and earlier engines

9.5.2 Meeting US EPA Tier 4

9.6 Biofuel for modern diesel engines

9.7 Summary and perspectives

Section 3: Biofuels

10. Biofuels from microalgae

Malcolm R. Brown & Susan I. Blackburn

10.1 Introduction

10.1.1 Introduction to biofuels

10.1.2 History of investigation of biofuels from microalgae

10.1.3 Potential advantages of microalgae as biofuel feedstock

10.1.4 Overview of the production of biofuel from microalgae

10.1.5 Current status of commercial microalgal biofuel production and future prospects

10.2 General properties of microalgae

10.2.1 Taxonomy and general characteristics

10.2.2 Sourcing and maintaining microalgae species or strains

10.2.3 Chemical profiles of microalgae

10.2.3.1 Proximate composition

10.2.3.2 Qualitative aspects of proximate composition – amino acids and sugars

10.2.3.3 Lipid class and fatty acids

10.2.3.4 Other chemical components within microalgae of commercial interest

10.3 Selection of strains as candidates for biofuel feedstock

10.3.1 Growth rates and environmental tolerances from small-scale cultures

10.3.2 Screening for total lipid, and fatty acid quality

10.3.3 Other strain selection criteria

10.4 Scaling up production of microalgae biomass

10.4.1 General considerations

10.4.1.1 Light and temperature

10.4.1.2 Inorganic nutrients

10.4.1.3 CO2

10.4.1.4 Land and water

10.4.2 Pond systems

10.4.3 Photobioreactors (PBRs)

10.4.4 Fermentation systems

10.4.5 Hybrid growth systems

10.4.6 Productivities of microalgae growth systems

10.4.7 Improving productivity through technical and biological approaches

10.4.7.1 Culture system design

10.4.7.2 Ecological approaches

10.4.7.3 Breeding and genetic engineering

10.5 Harvesting of microalgal biomass

10.5.1 Flocculation

10.5.2 Gravity sedimentation

10.5.3 Flotation

10.5.4 Centrifugation

10.5.5 Filtration

10.5.6 Other separation techniques

10.6 Conversion of biomass to biofuels

10.6.1 Drying of microalgae biomass

10.6.2 Extraction of oil

10.6.3 Processes and biofuel products from microalgae

10.6.3.1 Biodiesel production

10.6.3.2 Bio-oil production by hydrothermal liquefaction

10.6.3.3 Gasification for syngas

10.6.3.4 Pyrolysis for bio-oil, biochar and syngas

10.6.3.5 Direct combustion

10.6.3.6 Fermentation processes to produce ethanol

10.6.3.7 Hydrogen through fermentation or biophotolysis

10.6.3.8 Anaerobic digestion for methane production

10.7 Towards commercial production

10.7.1 Current industry state

10.7.2 Economics of biofuel production

10.7.3 The concept of an integrated biorefinery

10.7.4 Environmental sustainability and life cycle analysis (LCA)

10.7.5 Political and social factors

10.8 Conclusion

11. Biodiesel emissions and performance

Syed Ameer Basha

11.1 Introduction

11.1.1 Need of biodiesel

11.1.2 Biofuel

11.1.3 Production of biodiesel

11.2 Biodiesel emissions

11.2.1 NOx

11.2.2 COx

11.2.3 HC emissions of biodiesel

11.2.4 Particulate matter (PM) emissions

11.3 Biodiesel performance

11.3.1 Brake specific fuel consumption

11.3.2 Efficiency

11.4 Effect of a catalyst or additive

11.4.1 Effect of a catalyst on biodiesel emissions

11.4.2 Effect of catalysts and additives on biodiesel performance

11.4.2.1 Brake specific fuel consumption

11.4.2.2 Efficiency

11.5 Conclusions

12. Biogas

Paul Harris & Hans Oechsner

12.1 Introduction

12.2 What is biogas?

12.3 Brief history

12.4 Anaerobic digestion

12.5 Uses of biogas

12.6 Uses for liquid/sludge

12.7 Modeling digester performance

12.8 Digester performance

12.9 Types of digesters

12.10 Gas storage

12.11 Safety

12.11.1 Fire/explosion

12.11.2 Disease

12.11.3 Asphyxiation

12.11.4 Summary

12.12 Advanced digestion

12.12.1 High rate digesters

12.12.2 Two stage digesters

12.12.3 Anaerobic filters

12.12.4 Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters

12.12.5 Suspended growth digesters

12.12.6 Salt water digesters

12.12.7 Solid digestion

12.13 Packaged units

12.14 Startup

12.15 Monitoring digester operation

12.15.1 Indication of CO2 percentage

12.15.2 Measuring gas pressure

12.16 Burners

12.17 Fault finding

12.18 Construction tips

12.19 Conclusions

13. Thermal gasification of waste biomass from agriculture production for energy purposes

Janusz Piechocki, Dariusz Wisniewski & Andrzej Białowiec

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Biomass waste

13.2.1 Properties of biomass

13.2.2 Biomass for energy production

13.3 Thermal gasification

13.3.1 Pyrolysis as the basic process of biomass gasification

13.3.2 Biomass torrefaction

13.3.3 Gasification – basic reactions

13.3.4 Biomass gasification methods

13.3.5 Byproducts of biomass gasification and elimination methods

13.3.6 Design parameters of gasification reactors

13.4 Summary

14. An innovative perspective: Transition towards a bio-based economy

Nicole van Beeck, Albert Moerkerken, Kees Kwant & Bert Stuij

14.1 Introduction: Why we need a bio-based economy

14.1.1 Towards a sustainable future

14.1.2 Relationship between agriculture and energy

14.1.3 What are the challenges?

14.1.4 The smart approach: a bio-based economy

14.2 Agriculture: The foundation of a bio-based economy

14.2.1 Agriculture and food

14.2.2 Soil fertility

14.2.3 Land use

14.2.4 Wastes in the food chain

14.2.5 Agrification policy at the origin of non-food industrial applications of biomass

14.3 Biomass at the basis of sustainable energy supply

14.3.1 Current energy demand

14.3.2 Food for thought: energy demand versus food demand

14.3.3 The carbon balance: the theoretical potential for a bio-based economy

14.3.4 Sustainability of biomass 396

14.4 A cascading approach for sustainable deployment of biomass and the Trias Biologica

14.5 Case studies of cascading in The Netherlands

14.5.1 Facts and figures of The Netherlands

14.5.2 The Trias Biologica: the sugar case

14.5.2.1 De-carbonization

14.5.2.2 Substitution of fossil carbon with bio-based carbon

14.5.2.3 Cascading

14.5.2.4 De-carbonization

14.5.2.5 Substitution

14.5.2.6 Cascading

14.5.3 Bio-refinery: the grass cascading case

14.5.4 Making circular chains: the manure case

14.6 Discussion and conclusions on impact and prospects

Section 4: Access to energy

15. Increasing energy access in rural areas of developing countries

Xavier Lemaire

15.1 Introduction

15.1.1 The current situation of energy access in developing countries and the opportunity offered by the RETs

15.1.1.1 Contrasting situation across continents

15.1.1.2 The rationale for decentralized generation with RETs

15.1.1.3 How to deliver energy services to remote places, and what services to deliver?

15.2 Policy and institutions for energy access

15.2.1 The role of energy regulators and rural electrification agencies

15.2.1.1 Light-handed regulation

15.2.1.2 Standards and codes of practices

15.2.1.3 Planning

15.2.1.4 Who should be regulating off-grid electricity services, and why?

15.2.2 Funding and the question of subsidies

15.2.2.1 Targeted subsidies

15.2.2.2 Subsidies for mini-grid technologies

15.2.2.3 Subsidies for decentralized stand-alone systems

15.2.3 The role of rural energy service companies (RESCOs)

15.2.3.1 Different business models for increasing energy access in rural areas with small decentralized RET systems

15.2.3.2 Cash purchase and micro-credit models

15.2.3.3 Fee-for-service models

15.2.3.4 Fee-for-service versus micro-credit models

15.2.3.5 Increasing energy access by using by-product of agriculture

15.3 Conclusion

Subject index

Book series page

About the Editors

Jochen Bundschuh (1960, Germany), finished his PhD on numerical modeling of heat transport in aquifers in Tübingen in 1990. He is working in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. From 1993 to 1999 he served as an expert for the German Agency of Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and as a long-term professor for the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) in Argentine. From 2001 to 2008 he worked within the framework of the German governmental cooperation (Integrated Expert Program of CIM; GTZ/BA) as adviser in mission to Costa Rica at the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE). Here, he assisted the country in evaluation and development of its huge low-enthalpy geothermal resources for power generation. Since 2005, he is an affiliate professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. In 2006, he was elected Vice-President of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development ISGSD. From 2009–2011 he was visiting professor at the Department of Earth Sciences at the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. By the end of 2011 he was appointed as professor in hydrogeology at the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia where he leads a working group of 26 researchers working on the wide field of water resources and low/middle enthalpy geothermal resources, water and wastewater treatment and sustainable and renewable energy resources (http://www.ncea.org.au/groundwater). In November 2012, Prof. Bundschuh was appointed as president of the newly established Australian Chapter of the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA).

Dr. Bundschuh is author of the books “Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation” (2008) (Balkema/Taylor & Francis/CRC Press) and “Introduction to the Numerical Modeling of Groundwater and Geothermal Systems: Fundamentals of Mass, Energy and Solute Transport in Poroelastic Rocks”. He is editor of the books “Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries” (2002), “Natural Arsenic in Groundwater” (2005), and the two-volume monograph “Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards” (2007), “Groundwater for Sustainable Development” (2008), “Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America (2008). Dr. Bundschuh is editor of the book series “Multiphysics Modeling”, “Arsenic in the Environment”, and “Sustainable Energy Developments” (all Balkema/CRC Press/Taylor & Francis).

Dr. Guangnan Chen graduated from the University of Sydney, Australia, with a PhD degree in 1994. Before joining the University of Southern Queensland as an academic in early 2002, he worked for two years as a post-doctoral fellow and more than five years as a Senior Research Consultant in a private consulting company based in New Zealand. Dr. Chen has extensive experience in conducting both fundamental and applied research. His current research focuses on the sustainable agriculture and energy use. The researches aim to develop a common framework and tools to assess energy uses and greenhouse gas emissions in different agricultural sectors. These projects are funded by various government agencies and farmer organsations. In addition, Dr Chen has also conducted significant research to compare the life cycle energy consumption of alternative farming systems, including the impact of machinery operation, conservation farming practice, irrigation, and applications of new technologies and alternative and renewable energy. Dr. Chen has so far published 80 papers in international journals and conferences, including 7 invited book chapters. He serves as a member of editorial board for the International Journal ofAgricultural&Biological Engineering (IJABE), and was

the Guest Editor of a special issue on agricultural engineering, Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering in both 2009 and 2011. He is currently a member of Board ofTechnical Section IV (Energy inAgriculture), CIGR (Commission Internationale du Génie Rural), one of the world’s top professional bodies in agricultural and biosystems engineering.

About the Series

Sustainable Energy Developments

ISSN 2164-0645

Renewable energy sources and sustainable policy options, including energy efficiency and energy conservation, can provide long-term solutions for key-problems of industrialized, developing and transition countries by providing clean and domestically available energy and, at the same time, decreasing dependence on fossil fuel imports and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The book series will serve as a multi-disciplinary resource linking renewable energy with human society. The book series fulfils the rapidly growing worldwide interest in sustainable energy solutions. It covers all fields of renewable energy and their possible applications will be addressed not only from a technical point of view, but also from economic, financial, social, political, legislative and regulatory viewpoints.
The book series is considered to become a state-of-the-art source for a large group of readers comprising different stakeholders and professionals, including government and non-governmental organizations and institutions, international funding agencies, universities, public energy institutions, public health and other relevant institutions as well as to civil society.

Editorial Board
Jochen Bundschuh (Series Editor)
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Morgan Bazilian Senior Advisor on Energy and Climate Change to the Director-General, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria
Maria da Graça Carvalho Member of the European Parliament, Brussels & professor at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Robert K. Dixon Leader, Climate and Chemicals, The Global Environment Facility, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes President of the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF); Board Member of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, Germany
Veena Joshi Senior Advisor-Energy, Section Climate Change and Development, Embassy of Switzerland, New Delhi, India
Eric Martinot Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Nakano, Tokyo & Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center, Beijing, China

FIELDS COVERED• Access to clean energy • Bioenergy • Biofuels • Bio-inspired solar fuel production • Capacity building and communication strategies • Climate policy • Electric, hybrid plug-in, and hybrid vehicles • Energizing development • Energy autonomy and cities • Energy behavior • Energy conservation • Energy efficiency • Energy for the poor: The renewable options for rural electrification • Energy meteorology • Energy scenarios • Energy security • Energy storage • Energy-efficient buildings • Energy-efficient lighting • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) • Financing energy efficiency • Fuel cells • Gender and energy • Geothermal energy for direct use (district heating, industry, agriculture, etc.) • Geothermal power generation • Green and greening computing • Green construction materials • Heat pumps • Hydrogen technologies • Labeling energy performance • Low energy architecture • Nano-energy • Renewable energy scenarios • Renewable energy strategies and policies • Renewable vehicle energy • Renewables energy for drinking water solutions • Renewables for poverty reduction • Renewables for small islands • Solar cars • Solar PV • Solar heating and cooling • Sustainable energy policies • Sustainable hydropower • Sustainable public transportation • Tidal energy • Water desalination using renewables • Wave power • Wind energy

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD:
Suresh K. Aggarwal, Chicago, USA - Ishfaq Ahmad, Arlington, USA - Sergio M. Alcocer, Mexico - Said Al-Hallaj, Chicago, USA - Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Al-Ain, UAE - Hussain Al-Towaie, Aden, Yemen - Joel R. Anstrom, University Park, USA - Kalyan Annamalai, College Station, USA - Jaco Appelman, Delft, The Netherlands - Santiago Arnaltes, Madrid, Spain - François Avellan, Lausanne, Switzerland - AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Southampton, UK - Ronald Bailey, Chattanooga, USA - Ramesh C Bansal, Brisbane, Australia - Ruggero Bertani, Rome, Italy - Prosun Bhattacharya, Stockholm, Sweden - Peter Birkle, Cuernavaca, Mexico - John Boland, Adelaide, Australia - Frances Brazier, Delft, The Netherlands - Gary W. Brudvig, New Haven, USA - Jens Burgtorf, New Delhi, India - Kirk W. Cameron, Blacksburg, USA - Thameur Chaibi, Tunis, Tunisia - Shih Hung Chan, Taipei, Taiwan - D. Chandrashekharam, Mumbai, India - S.K. Jason Chang, Taipei, Taiwan - Shanta Chatterji, Mumbai, India - Falin Chen, Taipei, Taiwan - Siaw Kiang Chou, Singapore - Daniel Cohn, Cambridge, USA - Erik Dahlquist, Västerås, Sweden - Holger Dau, Berlin, Germany - Sudipta De, Kolkata, India - Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi, Campinas, S.P., Brazil - Kristin Deason, Berlin, Germany & Washington, USA - Tom Denniss, Macquarie Park, Australia - Roland Dimai, Dornbirn, Austria - Gregory Dolan, Alexandria, USA - Claus Doll, Karlsruhe, Germany - Peter Droege, Newcastle, Australia - Gautam Dutt, Buenos Aires, Argentina - James Edmonds, College Park, USA - Adeola Ijeoma Eleri, Abuja, Nigeria - Ali Emadi, Chicago, USA - Hans-Josef Fell, Berlin, Germany - Bruno Francois, Paris, France - Andrew Frank, Davis, USA - Petra Fromme, Phoenix, USA - Chris Gearhart, Dearborn, USA - John Golbeck, University Park, USA - José Goldemberg, Sao Paulo, Brazil - Barbara Goodman, Golden, USA - James Gover, Flint, USA - Amelia Hadfield, Brussel, Belgium - Jan Hoinkis, Karlsruhe, Germany - Einar Hope, Bergen, Norway - Yoichi Hori, Tokyo, Japan - Ernst Huenges, Potsdam, Germany - Iqbal Husain, Akron, USA - Gerald W. Huttrer, Frisco, USA - Tetsunari Iida, Tokyo, Japan - Rainer Janssen, München, Germany - Ma Jiming, Beijing, P.R. China - Guðni Jóhannesson, Reykjavík, Island - Thomas B. Johansson, Lund, Sweden - Perry T. Jones, Knoxville, USA - Soteris Kalogirou, Limasol, Cyprus - Ghazi A. Karim, Calgary, Canada - Arun Kashyap, New York, USA - Pertti Kauranen, Tampere, Finland - Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Golden, USA - Claudia Kemfert, Berlin, Germany - Thomas Kempka, Potsdam, Germany - Madhu Khanna, Urbana, USA - Ånund Killingtveit, Trondheim, Norway - Rob Kool, Utrecht, The Netherlands - Israel Koren, Amherst, USA - Arun Kumar, Uttarakhand, India - Naveen Kumar, Delhi, India - Chung K. Law, Princeton, NJ, USA - Harry Lehmann, Dessau, Germany - Dennis Leung, Hong Kong - Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canada - Søren Linderoth, Roskilde, Denmark - Hongtan Liu, Miami,  USA - Wolfgang Lubitz, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany - Thomas Ludwig, Hamburg,Germany - Wolfgang F. Lutz, Ter Aar, The Netherlands / Asunción, Paraguay - Thomas Lynge Jensen, Suva, Fiji Islands - Sébastien Martinet, Grenoble, France - Omar R. Masera, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico - Chang Mei, Cambridge, MA, USA - Pietro Menga, Milan, Italy - Gerd Michelsen, Lüneburg, Germany - James Miller, Argonne, USA - Daniel Mosse, Pittsburgh, USA - Urs Muntwyler, Burgdorf, Switzerland - Jayant K. Nayak, Mumbai, India - Emily Nelson, Cleveland, USA - Kim Nielsen, Virum, Denmark - Galal Osman, Cairo, Egypt - Alessandro Palmieri, Jakarta, Indonesia - Jérôme Perrin, Guyancourt, France - Gianfranco Pistoia, Rome, Italy - Josep Puig, Barcelona, Spain - Kaushik Rajashekara, Indianapolis, USA - Wattanapong Rakwichian, Chiang Mai, Thailand - Sanjay Ranka, Gainesville, USA - Klaus Rave, Kiel, Germany / Brussels, Belgium - Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Washington, USA - Jack Rosebro, Los Angeles, USA - Marc A. Rosen, Oshawa, ON, Canada - Harald N. Røstvik, Stavanger, Norway - Ladislaus Rybach, Zurich, Switzerland - Ambuj D. Sagar, New Delhi, India - Roberto Schaeffer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Frank Scholwin, Leipzig, Germany - Lisa Schipper, Bangkok, Thailand - Dietrich Schmidt, Kassel, Germany - Jamal Shrair, Budapest, Hungary - Semida Silveira, Stockholm, Sweden - Subhash C. Singhal, Richland, USA - Erik J. Spek, Newmarket, Canada - Gregory Stephanopoulos, Cambridge, MA, USA - Robert Stüssi, Lisboa, Portugal - Mario-César Suarez-Arriaga, Morelia, Mexico - Lawrence E. Susskind, Cambridge, MA, USA - Eoin Sweeney, Dublin, Ireland - Antoni Szumanowski, Warsaw, Poland - Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Alberto Troccoli, Canberra, Australia - Eftihia Tzen, Pikermi, Greece - Hamdi Ucarol, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey - Veerle Vandeweerd, New York, USA - Peter F. Varadi, Chevy Chase, USA - Maria Wall, Lund, Sweden - Martin Wietschel, Karlsruhe, Germany - Sheldon S. Williamson, Montreal, Canada - Wolfgang Winkler, Hamburg, Germany - Ramon Wyss, Stockholm, Sweden - Jinyue Yan, Royal Stockholm, Sweden - Laurence T. Yang, Antigonish, Canada - Guillermo Zaragoza, Almería, Spain - Tim S. Zhao, Hong Kong

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI011000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General