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Sustainable Energy Solutions in Agriculture





ISBN 9781138077744
Published April 20, 2017 by CRC Press
480 Pages

 
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Book Description

Sustainability in agriculture and associated primary industries, which are both energy-intensive, is crucial for the development of any country. Increasing scarcity and resulting high fossil fuel prices combined with the need to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, make the improvement of energy efficient farming and increased use of renewable energy essential.

This book provides a technological and scientific endeavor to assist society and farming communities in different regions and scales to improve their productivity and sustainability. To fulfill future needs of a modern sustainable agriculture, this book addresses highly actual topics providing innovative, effective and more sustainable solutions for agriculture by using sustainable, environmentally friendly, renewable energy sources and modern energy efficient, cost-improved technologies. The book highlights new areas of research, and further R&D needs. It helps to improve food security for the rapidly growing world population and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use in agriculture, which presently contributes 22% of the global carbon dioxide emissions. This book provides a source of information, stimuli and incentives for what and how new and energy efficient technologies can be applied as effective tools and solutions in agricultural production to satisfy the continually increasing demand for food and fibre in an economically sustainable way, while contributing to global climate change mitigation. It will be useful and inspiring to decision makers working in different authorities, professionals, agricultural engineers, researchers, and students concerned with agriculture and related primay industries, sustainable energy development and climate change mitigation projects.

Table of Contents

Section 1: Introduction

1. Towards a sustainable energy technologies based agriculture
Jochen Bundschuh, Guangnan Chen & Shahbaz Mushtaq
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Challenges
1.2 Sustainable energy options in agriculture
1.2.1 Energy efficiency and energy conservation
1.2.1.1 Enhancing irrigation and energy efficiency of the irrigated systems
1.2.1.2 Cooling and heating
1.2.2 Use of biomass and biomass waste for carbon-neutral production of biofuel, electricity and bio-coal fertilizers
1.2.3 Decentralized renewable energy systems (solar, wind, geothermal)
1.2.4 Economic benefit of green food
1.3 Conclusions


Section 2: Energy efficiency and management

2. Global energy resources, supply and demand, energy security and on-farm energy efficiency
Ralph E.H. Sims
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Energy access
2.1.2 Environmental impacts
2.1.3 Food price and energy nexus
2.2 Global energy trends
2.2.1 Bridging the emissions gap
2.3 Other major related issues
2.3.1 Economic viability
2.3.2 Competing land uses
2.3.3 Dangerous climate change
2.3.4 Existing efforts are inadequate
2.4 Global energy supply for agriculture
2.5 Energy efficiency in agriculture
2.5.1 Tractors and machinery
2.5.2 Irrigation
2.5.3 Fertilizers
2.5.4 Dairy farms
2.5.5 Sheep and beef farms
2.5.6 Intensive livestock production and fishing
2.5.7 Greenhouse production
2.5.8 Fruit production
2.5.9 Cropping
2.6 Conclusions

3. Energy in crop production systems
Jeff N. Tullberg
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Energy distribution in farming systems
3.3 Input energy efficiency
3.3.1 Farm machinery operations
3.3.2 Tractive power transmission
3.3.3 Efficiency of tractor-powered tillage
3.4 Land preparation by tillage
3.4.1 Tillage equipment
3.4.2 Tillage objectives and functions
3.5 Embodied energy
3.5.1 Machinery
3.5.2 Fertilizer
3.5.3 Agricultural chemicals
3.6 More energy-efficient cropping systems
3.6.1 General considerations
3.6.2 No-till and conservation agriculture
3.6.3 Controlled traffic farming
3.6.4 Precision and high-technology
3.6.4.1 Precision agriculture
3.6.4.2 Precision guidance
3.6.4.3 Robotics
3.6.5 Cropping system energy comparisons
3.7 Conclusion

4. The fossil energy use and CO2 emissions budget for Canadian agriculture
James Arthur Dyer, Raymond Louis Desjardins & Brian Glenn McConkey
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Energy use issues
4.1.1.1 GHG emissions
4.1.1.2 Energy supply
4.1.1.3 Food security
4.1.1.4 Biofuel crops
4.1.1.5 CC adaptation
4.1.2 Defining the farm energy budget
4.1.2.1 Group 1
4.1.2.2 Group 2
4.1.2.3 Group 3
4.1.2.4 Excluded energy terms
4.2 Methodology
4.2.1 Modeling farm energy consumption
4.2.2 Computations for field operations
4.2.3 Response to tillage systems
4.2.4 Converting energy use to fossil CO2 emissions
4.2.5 Interfacing farm energy use with other GHG emission models
4.3 Farm energy use calculations
4.3.1 Land use areas
4.3.1.1 Land use
4.3.1.2 Farm field operations
4.3.1.3 Farm energy use budget
4.3.1.4 Fossil energy use for livestock production
4.4 Results
4.5 Discussion and conclusions

5. Energy efficiency technologies for sustainable agriculture and food processing
LijunWang
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Energy consumption in the agricultural production and food processing
5.2.1 Energy consumption in the agricultural production
5.2.2 Energy consumption in the food industry
5.2.2.1 Overview of energy consumption in the food industry
5.2.2.2 Energy use in different food manufacturing sectors
5.2.2.3 Energy use for production of different food products
5.2.3 Energy sources in the agricultural and food industry
5.2.3.1 Energy sources for agricultural production
5.2.3.2 Energy sources for food processing
5.2.4 Energy efficiency in agricultural production and food processing
5.3 Energy conservation and management in agricultural production and food processing
5.3.1 Energy conservation in agricultural production
5.3.2 Energy conservation in the utilities in food processing facilities
5.3.2.1 Energy savings in steam supply
5.3.2.2 Energy savings in compressed air supply
5.3.2.3 Energy savings in power supply
5.3.2.4 Energy savings in heat exchanger
5.3.2.5 Energy savings by recovering waste heat
5.3.3 Energy conservation in energy-intensive unit operations of food processes
5.3.3.1 Energy savings in thermal food processing
5.3.3.2 Energy savings in concentration, dehydration and drying
5.3.3.3 Energy savings in refrigeration and freezing
5.4 Utilizations of energy efficiency technologies in agricultural production and food processing
5.4.1 Application of novel thermodynamic cycles
5.4.1.1 Heat pump
5.4.1.2 Novel refrigeration cycles
5.4.1.3 Heat pipes
5.4.2 Application of non-thermal food processes
5.4.2.1 Food irradiation
5.4.2.2 Pulsed electric fields
5.4.2.3 High-pressure processing
5.4.2.4 Membrane processing
5.4.2.5 Supercritical fluid processing
5.4.3 Application of novel heating methods
5.4.3.1 Microwave and radio frequency heating
5.4.3.2 Ohmic heating
5.4.3.3 Infrared radiation heating
5.5 Summary

6. Energy-smart food – technologies, practices and policies
Ralph E.H. Sims & Alessandro Flammini
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 The key challenges
6.1.2 Scales of agricultural production
6.1.2.1 Subsistence
6.1.2.2 Small family farms
6.1.2.3 Small businesses
6.1.2.4 Large farms
6.2 Energy inputs and GHG emissions
6.2.1 Energy inputs for primary production
6.2.1.1 Tractors and machinery
6.2.1.2 Irrigation
6.2.1.3 Fertilizers
6.2.1.4 Livestock
6.2.1.5 Protected cropping in greenhouses
6.2.1.6 Fishing and aquaculture
6.2.1.7 Forestry
6.2.2 Energy inputs for secondary production
6.2.2.1 Drying, cooling and storage
6.2.2.2 Transport and distribution
6.2.3 Food processing
6.2.3.1 Preparation and cooking
6.3 The human dimension
6.3.1 Food losses and wastage
6.3.2 Changing diets
6.3.3 Modern energy services
6.4 Renewable energy supplies from agriculture
6.4.1 Renewable energy resources
6.4.2 Renewable energy systems
6.4.2.1 Biomass and bioenergy
6.4.2.2 Non-biomass renewable energy
6.4.3 The potential for energy-smart agriculture
6.4.3.1 A landscape approach to farming systems
6.4.3.2 Institutional arrangements and innovative business models
6.5 Policy options
6.5.1 Present related policies
6.5.2 Future policy requirements
6.5.2.1 Agriculture
6.5.2.2 Energy access
6.5.2.3 Climate change
6.5.2.4 Efficient energy use
6.5.2.5 Renewable energy deployment
6.5.2.6 Human behavior
6.6 Achieving energy-smart food

7. Energy, water and food: exploring links in irrigated cropping systems
Tamara Jackson & Munir A. Hanjra
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Energy in agriculture
7.2 The energy-water nexus in crop production
7.2.1 Energy for irrigation
7.2.1.1 Factors affecting irrigation energy use
7.2.2 Energy and fertilizer
7.2.3 Energy and agrochemicals
7.2.4 Energy for machinery and equipment
7.2.4.1 Factors affecting input energy use for crop production
7.3 Patterns of energy consumption in irrigated agriculture
7.3.1 Study sites
7.3.2 Data requirements
7.3.3 Analyzing water application and energy consumption
7.3.3.1 Crop water requirements
7.3.3.2 Energy accounting
7.3.4 Results and discussion
7.3.4.1 Water application and energy consumption: baseline conditions
7.3.4.2 Potential energy and water savings using pressurized irrigation systems
7.3.5 Summary
7.4 Options for sustainable energy and water management in irrigated cropping systems
7.4.1 Technical interventions
7.4.2 Policy strategies
7.5 Conclusions

8. Energy use and sustainability of intensive livestock production
Jukka Ahokas, Mari Rajaniemi, Hannu Mikkola, Jüri Frorip, Eugen Kokin, Jaan Praks, Väino Poikalainen, Imbi Veermäe &Winfried Schäfer
8.1 Energy and livestock production
8.1.1 What is energy
8.1.2 Energy consumption and emissions
8.1.3 Direct and indirect energy
8.1.4 Efficiency
8.1.5 Energy analysis
8.1.5.1 Methodology of energy analysis
8.1.5.2 Energy ratio
8.1.5.3 Specific energy consumption
8.1.5.4 Types of energy analysis
8.2 Livestock production sustainability
8.2.1 Sustainability
8.2.2 CO2 – equivalents
8.2.3 Livestock GHG emissions
8.3 Energy consumption in livestock production
8.3.1 Feed material production
8.3.1.1 Crop production
8.3.1.2 Grass and hay production
8.3.1.3 Concentrate production
8.3.2 Ventilation
8.3.3 Illumination
8.3.4 Heating of animal houses
8.3.4.1 Heat conduction
8.3.4.2 Heat losses by ventilation
8.3.5 Energy use follow-up
8.4 Energy use and saving in livestock production
8.4.1 Energy consumption in livestock production
8.4.2 Energy consumption in milk production
8.4.2.1 Milk production system
8.4.2.2 Energy used in milk production
8.4.2.3 Feed production and feed material
8.4.2.4 Use of direct energy
8.4.2.5 Milking and milk cooling
8.4.2.6 Lighting
8.4.2.7 Ventilation
8.4.2.8 Water pumping and hot water
8.4.2.9 Bringing up young cattle
8.4.3 Energy consumption in pork production
8.4.3.1 Pork production
8.4.3.2 Pork production energy consumption
8.4.3.3 Feed production and feed material
8.4.4 Energy consumption in broiler production
8.4.4.1 Broiler production
8.4.4.2 Energy consumption in broiler production
8.4.4.3 Lighting
8.4.4.4 Ventilation
8.4.4.5 Heating
8.4.4.6 Feed and feeding
8.5 Conclusions

9. Diesel engine as prime power for agriculture: emissions reduction for sustainable mechanization
Xinqun Gui
9.1 Diesel engine as prime power for agriculture
9.2 Global non-road emissions regulations
9.3 Building blocks of diesel engines
9.3.1 Combustion system
9.3.2 Electronic engine control system
9.3.3 Fuel injection system
9.3.4 Turbocharching
9.3.5 Exhaust gas recirculation
9.4 After treatment technologies
9.4.1 Particulate matter and NOx
9.4.2 Exhaust filtration
9.4.3 Regeneration types
9.4.4 Active regeneration technologies
9.4.5 Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC)
9.4.6 Diesel particulate filter (DPF)
9.4.7 Catalyst canning
9.4.8 Exhaust fuel dosing system
9.4.9 After treatment system integration and controls
9.4.9.1 DOC outlet temperature control
9.4.9.2 Soot loading prediction
9.4.9.3 Active regeneration control
9.4.10 Diesel engine NOx aftertreatment technologies
9.4.10.1 Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
9.5 Meeting diesel emissions through tiers
9.5.1 Tier 3 and earlier engines
9.5.2 Meeting US EPA Tier 4
9.6 Biofuel for modern diesel engines
9.7 Summary and perspectives


Section 3: Biofuels

10. Biofuels from microalgae
Malcolm R. Brown & Susan I. Blackburn
10.1 Introduction
10.1.1 Introduction to biofuels
10.1.2 History of investigation of biofuels from microalgae
10.1.3 Potential advantages of microalgae as biofuel feedstock
10.1.4 Overview of the production of biofuel from microalgae
10.1.5 Current status of commercial microalgal biofuel production and future prospects
10.2 General properties of microalgae
10.2.1 Taxonomy and general characteristics
10.2.2 Sourcing and maintaining microalgae species or strains
10.2.3 Chemical profiles of microalgae
10.2.3.1 Proximate composition
10.2.3.2 Qualitative aspects of proximate composition – amino acids and sugars
10.2.3.3 Lipid class and fatty acids
10.2.3.4 Other chemical components within microalgae of commercial interest 
10.3 Selection of strains as candidates for biofuel feedstock
10.3.1 Growth rates and environmental tolerances from small-scale cultures
10.3.2 Screening for total lipid, and fatty acid quality
10.3.3 Other strain selection criteria
10.4 Scaling up production of microalgae biomass
10.4.1 General considerations
10.4.1.1 Light and temperature
10.4.1.2 Inorganic nutrients
10.4.1.3 CO2
10.4.1.4 Land and water
10.4.2 Pond systems
10.4.3 Photobioreactors (PBRs)
10.4.4 Fermentation systems
10.4.5 Hybrid growth systems
10.4.6 Productivities of microalgae growth systems
10.4.7 Improving productivity through technical and biological approaches
10.4.7.1 Culture system design
10.4.7.2 Ecological approaches
10.4.7.3 Breeding and genetic engineering
10.5 Harvesting of microalgal biomass
10.5.1 Flocculation
10.5.2 Gravity sedimentation
10.5.3 Flotation
10.5.4 Centrifugation
10.5.5 Filtration
10.5.6 Other separation techniques
10.6 Conversion of biomass to biofuels
10.6.1 Drying of microalgae biomass
10.6.2 Extraction of oil
10.6.3 Processes and biofuel products from microalgae
10.6.3.1 Biodiesel production
10.6.3.2 Bio-oil production by hydrothermal liquefaction
10.6.3.3 Gasification for syngas
10.6.3.4 Pyrolysis for bio-oil, biochar and syngas
10.6.3.5 Direct combustion
10.6.3.6 Fermentation processes to produce ethanol
10.6.3.7 Hydrogen through fermentation or biophotolysis
10.6.3.8 Anaerobic digestion for methane production
10.7 Towards commercial production
10.7.1 Current industry state
10.7.2 Economics of biofuel production
10.7.3 The concept of an integrated biorefinery
10.7.4 Environmental sustainability and life cycle analysis (LCA)
10.7.5 Political and social factors
10.8 Conclusion

11. Biodiesel emissions and performance
Syed Ameer Basha
11.1 Introduction
11.1.1 Need of biodiesel
11.1.2 Biofuel
11.1.3 Production of biodiesel
11.2 Biodiesel emissions
11.2.1 NOx
11.2.2 COx
11.2.3 HC emissions of biodiesel
11.2.4 Particulate matter (PM) emissions
11.3 Biodiesel performance
11.3.1 Brake specific fuel consumption
11.3.2 Efficiency
11.4 Effect of a catalyst or additive
11.4.1 Effect of a catalyst on biodiesel emissions
11.4.2 Effect of catalysts and additives on biodiesel performance
11.4.2.1 Brake specific fuel consumption
11.4.2.2 Efficiency
11.5 Conclusions

12. Biogas
Paul Harris & Hans Oechsner
12.1 Introduction
12.2 What is biogas?
12.3 Brief history
12.4 Anaerobic digestion
12.5 Uses of biogas
12.6 Uses for liquid/sludge
12.7 Modeling digester performance
12.8 Digester performance
12.9 Types of digesters
12.10 Gas storage
12.11 Safety
12.11.1 Fire/explosion
12.11.2 Disease
12.11.3 Asphyxiation
12.11.4 Summary
12.12 Advanced digestion
12.12.1 High rate digesters
12.12.2 Two stage digesters
12.12.3 Anaerobic filters
12.12.4 Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters
12.12.5 Suspended growth digesters
12.12.6 Salt water digesters
12.12.7 Solid digestion
12.13 Packaged units
12.14 Startup
12.15 Monitoring digester operation
12.15.1 Indication of CO2 percentage
12.15.2 Measuring gas pressure
12.16 Burners
12.17 Fault finding
12.18 Construction tips
12.19 Conclusions

13. Thermal gasification of waste biomass from agriculture production for energy purposes
Janusz Piechocki, Dariusz Wisniewski & Andrzej Białowiec
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Biomass waste
13.2.1 Properties of biomass
13.2.2 Biomass for energy production
13.3 Thermal gasification
13.3.1 Pyrolysis as the basic process of biomass gasification
13.3.2 Biomass torrefaction
13.3.3 Gasification – basic reactions
13.3.4 Biomass gasification methods
13.3.5 Byproducts of biomass gasification and elimination methods
13.3.6 Design parameters of gasification reactors
13.4 Summary

14. An innovative perspective: Transition towards a bio-based economy
Nicole van Beeck, Albert Moerkerken, Kees Kwant & Bert Stuij
14.1 Introduction: Why we need a bio-based economy
14.1.1 Towards a sustainable future
14.1.2 Relationship between agriculture and energy
14.1.3 What are the challenges?
14.1.4 The smart approach: a bio-based economy
14.2 Agriculture: The foundation of a bio-based economy
14.2.1 Agriculture and food
14.2.2 Soil fertility
14.2.3 Land use
14.2.4 Wastes in the food chain
14.2.5 Agrification policy at the origin of non-food industrial applications of biomass
14.3 Biomass at the basis of sustainable energy supply
14.3.1 Current energy demand
14.3.2 Food for thought: energy demand versus food demand
14.3.3 The carbon balance: the theoretical potential for a bio-based economy
14.3.4 Sustainability of biomass 396
14.4 A cascading approach for sustainable deployment of biomass and the Trias Biologica
14.5 Case studies of cascading in The Netherlands
14.5.1 Facts and figures of The Netherlands
14.5.2 The Trias Biologica: the sugar case
14.5.2.1 De-carbonization
14.5.2.2 Substitution of fossil carbon with bio-based carbon
14.5.2.3 Cascading
14.5.2.4 De-carbonization
14.5.2.5 Substitution
14.5.2.6 Cascading
14.5.3 Bio-refinery: the grass cascading case
14.5.4 Making circular chains: the manure case
14.6 Discussion and conclusions on impact and prospects


Section 4: Access to energy

15. Increasing energy access in rural areas of developing countries
Xavier Lemaire
15.1 Introduction
15.1.1 The current situation of energy access in developing countries and the opportunity offered by the RETs
15.1.1.1 Contrasting situation across continents
15.1.1.2 The rationale for decentralized generation with RETs
15.1.1.3 How to deliver energy services to remote places, and what services to deliver?
15.2 Policy and institutions for energy access
15.2.1 The role of energy regulators and rural electrification agencies
15.2.1.1 Light-handed regulation
15.2.1.2 Standards and codes of practices
15.2.1.3 Planning
15.2.1.4 Who should be regulating off-grid electricity services, and why?
15.2.2 Funding and the question of subsidies
15.2.2.1 Targeted subsidies
15.2.2.2 Subsidies for mini-grid technologies
15.2.2.3 Subsidies for decentralized stand-alone systems
15.2.3 The role of rural energy service companies (RESCOs)
15.2.3.1 Different business models for increasing energy access in rural areas with small decentralized RET systems
15.2.3.2 Cash purchase and micro-credit models
15.2.3.3 Fee-for-service models
15.2.3.4 Fee-for-service versus micro-credit models
15.2.3.5 Increasing energy access by using by-product of agriculture
15.3 Conclusion

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Editor(s)

Biography

Jochen Bundschuh (1960, Germany), finished his PhD on numerical modeling of heat transport in aquifers in Tübingen in 1990. He is working in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. From 1993 to 1999 he served as an expert for the German Agency of Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and as a long-term professor for the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) in Argentine. From 2001 to 2008 he worked within the framework of the German governmental cooperation (Integrated Expert Program of CIM; GTZ/BA) as adviser in mission to Costa Rica at the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE). Here, he assisted the country in evaluation and development of its huge low-enthalpy geothermal resources for power generation. Since 2005, he is an affiliate professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. In 2006, he was elected Vice-President of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development ISGSD. From 2009–2011 he was visiting professor at the Department of Earth Sciences at the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. By the end of 2011 he was appointed as professor in hydrogeology at the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia where he leads a working group of 26 researchers working on the wide field of water resources and low/middle enthalpy geothermal resources, water and wastewater treatment and sustainable and renewable energy resources (http://www.ncea.org.au/groundwater). In November 2012, Prof. Bundschuh was appointed as president of the newly established Australian Chapter of the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA).
Dr. Bundschuh is author of the books “Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation” (2008) (Balkema/Taylor & Francis/CRC Press) and “Introduction to the Numerical Modeling of Groundwater and Geothermal Systems: Fundamentals of Mass, Energy and Solute Transport in Poroelastic Rocks”. He is editor of the books “Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries” (2002), “Natural Arsenic in Groundwater” (2005), and the two-volume monograph “Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards” (2007), “Groundwater for Sustainable Development” (2008), “Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America (2008). Dr. Bundschuh is editor of the book series “Multiphysics Modeling”, “Arsenic in the Environment”, and “Sustainable Energy Developments” (all Balkema/CRC Press/Taylor & Francis).

Dr. Guangnan Chen graduated from the University of Sydney, Australia, with a PhD degree in 1994. Before joining the University of Southern Queensland as an academic in early 2002, he worked for two years as a post-doctoral fellow and more than five years as a Senior Research Consultant in a private consulting company based in New Zealand. Dr. Chen has extensive experience in conducting both fundamental and applied research. His current research focuses on the sustainable agriculture and energy use. The researches aim to develop a common framework and tools to assess energy uses and greenhouse gas emissions in different agricultural sectors. These projects are funded by various government agencies and farmer organsations. In addition, Dr Chen has also conducted significant research to compare the life cycle energy consumption of alternative farming systems, including the impact of machinery operation, conservation farming practice, irrigation, and applications of new technologies and alternative and renewable energy. Dr. Chen has so far published 80 papers in international journals and conferences, including 7 invited book chapters. He serves as a member of editorial board for the International Journal ofAgricultural&Biological Engineering (IJABE), and was
the Guest Editor of a special issue on agricultural engineering, Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering in both 2009 and 2011. He is currently a member of Board ofTechnical Section IV (Energy inAgriculture), CIGR (Commission Internationale du Génie Rural), one of the world’s top professional bodies in agricultural and biosystems engineering.