This four-volume set is edited by leading experts on the evolving role of forests in providing raw materials and environmental services to meet society’s changing needs. It brings together in one collection the major works that have helped to shape thinking on forests as a key sustainable resource. The collection includes classic papers but also assembles more recent publications at the cutting edge of thinking on forests and their sustainable use. The set includes a general introduction and each volume is introduced by a new overview essay, placing the selected materials in context. The breadth of subject matter is considerable, ranging from the management and conservation of forest landscapes, soils, hydrology and tree-atmosphere relations, socio-economic aspects, including the livelihoods of indigenous people, policy and economics, to contemporary issues such as ecosystem services and climate change.
Volume I covers forest conservation, now recognized as crucial to the mitigation of climate change, and its overall implications for forest landscapes, as well as forest ecology and biodiversity conservation within forests. Volume II addresses the more technical biological, physical, and chemical aspects of trees and forests and their environment, including physiological aspects and plant-atmosphere, soil and water relationships. Volume III considers the livelihoods of people working or living in forests, including non-timber forest products, rights and tenure and community forestry, as well as on-farm forestry and urban forestry. The final volume provides an overview of policy, governance, legal, and economic aspects of forests and forest management, including the important topics of decentralization and the ownership of forests.
The set provides students and teachers, confronted with thousands of journal articles, book chapters and grey literature, with a ready-made selection of—and commentary on—the most important key writings on sustainable forests. It is an essential reference for libraries concerned with geography, environmental studies, ecology, natural resource management, and forestry.
Volume I: Forests, Landscapes, and Conservation
Part 1: Overview and Contexts
1. D. B. Lindenmayer, ‘Forest Wildlife Management and Conservation’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2009, 1162, 284–310.
2. A. Balmford, K. J. Gaston, S. Blyth, A. James, and V. Kapos, ‘Global Variation in Terrestrial Conservation Costs, Conservation Benefits, and Unmet Conservation Needs’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2003, 100, 1046–50.
3. T. K. Rudel, O. T. Coomes, E. Moran, F. Achard, A. Angelsen, J. Xu, and E. Lambin, ‘Forest Transitions: Towards a Global Understanding of Land Use Change’, Global Environmental Change, 2005, 15, 23–31.
4. M. B. Bush and M. R. Silman, ‘Amazonian Exploitation Revisited: Ecological Asymmetry and the Policy Pendulum’, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2007, 5, 457–65.
Part 2: History and Modern Classics
5. S. E. Kingsland, ‘Creating a Science of Nature Reserve Design: Perspectives from History’, Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 2002, 7, 61–9.
6. C. Murcia, ‘Edge Effects in Fragmented Forests: Implications for Conservation’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 1995, 10, 58–62.
7. I. M. Turner and R. T. Corlett, ‘The Conservation Value of Small, Isolated Fragments of Lowland Tropical Rain Forest’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 1996, 11, 330–3.
8. F. H. J. Crome, ‘Researching Tropical Forest Fragmentation: Shall We Keep on Doing What We’re Doing?’, in William F. Laurence and Richard O. Bierregaard, Jr. (eds.), Tropical Forest Remnants: Ecology, Management, and Conservation of Fragmented Communities (University of Chicago Press, 1997), pp. 485–501.
Part 3: Beyond Pristine
9. A. D. Manning, P. Gibbons, and D. B. Lindenmayer. ‘Scattered Trees: A Complementary Strategy for Facilitating Adaptive Responses to Climate Change in Modified Landscapes?’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 2009, 46, 915–19.
10. R. L. Chazdon, C. A. Peres, D. Dent, D. Sheil, A. E. Lugo, D. Lamb, N. E. Stork, and S. Miller, ‘The Potential for Species Conservation in Tropical Secondary Forests’, Conservation Biology, 2009, 23, 6, 1406–17.
11. C. J. Clark, J. R. Poulsen, R. Malonga, and P. W. Elkan, Jr. ‘Logging Concessions Can Extend the Conservation Estate for Central African Tropical Forests’, Conservation Biology, 2009, 23, 1281–93.
12. E. G. Brockerhoff, H. Jactel, J. A. Parrotta, C. P. Quine, and J. Sayer, ‘Plantation Forests and Biodiversity: Oxymoron or Opportunity?’, Biodiversity and Conservation, 2008, 17, 925–51.
13. S. A. Bhagwat, C. G. Kushalappa, P. H. Williams, and N. D. Brown, ‘A Landscape Approach to Biodiversity Conservation of Sacred Groves in the Western Ghats of India’, Conservation Biology, 2005, 19, 1853–62.
14. R. J. Hobbs, S. Arico, J. Aronson, J. S. Baron, P. Bridgewater, V. A.Cramer, P. R. Epstein, J. J. Ewel, C. A. Klink, A. E. Lugo, D. Norton, D. Ojima, D. M. Richardson, E. W. Sanderson, F. Valladares, M. Vila, R. Zamora, and M. Zobel, ‘Novel Ecosystems: Theoretical and Management Aspects of the New Ecological World Order’, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2006, 15, 1–7.
15. A. E. Lugo, ‘The Emerging Era of Novel Tropical Forests’, Biotropica, 2009, 41, 5, 589–91.
Part 4: Concerning Methods
16. T. A. Gardner, J. Barlow, I. S. Araujo, T. C. Ávila-Pires, A. B. Bonaldo, J. E. Costa, M. C. Esposito, L. V. Ferreira, J. Hawes, M. I. M. Hernandez, M. S. Hoogmoed, R. N. Leite, N. F. Lo-Man-Hung, J. R. Malcolm, M. B. Martins, L. A. M. Mestre, R. Miranda-Santos, W. L. Overal, L. Parry, S. L. Peters, M. A. Ribeiro Jr., M. N. F. Da Silva, C. Da Silva Motta, and C. A. Peres, ‘The Cost-effectiveness of Biodiversity Surveys in Tropical Forests’, Ecology Letters, 2008, 11, 139–50.
17. G. Rambaldi, ‘Who Owns the Map Legend?’, Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 2005, 17, 1, 5–13.
18. R. DeFries, F. Rovero, P. Wright, J. Ahumada, S. Andelman, K. Brandon, J. Dempewolf, A. Hansen, J. Hewson, and J. Liu, ‘From Plot to Landscape Scale: Linking Tropical Biodiversity Measurements Across Spatial Scales’, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2009, 8, 153–60.
Part 5: Governance and Oversight
19. S. J. Wright, G. A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, C. Portillo-Quintero, and D. Davies, ‘Poverty and Corruption Compromise Tropical Forest Reserves’, Ecological Applications, 2007, 17, 1259–66.
20. D. Nepstad, S. Schwartzman, B. Bamberger, M. Santilli, D. Ray, P. Schlesinger, P. Lefebvre, A. Alencar, E. Prinz, G. Fiske, and A. Rolla, ‘Inhibition of Amazon Deforestation and Fire by Parks and Indigenous Lands’, Conservation Biology, 2006, 20, 65–73.
21. D. B. Bray, E. A. Ellis, N. Armijo-Canto, and C. T. Beck, ‘The Institutional Drivers of Sustainable Landscapes: A Case Study of the "Mayan Zone" in Quintana Roo, Mexico’, Land Use Policy, 2004, 21, 333–46.
Part 6: Taking Stock
22. W. F. Laurance, ‘Have We Overstated the Tropical Biodiversity Crisis?’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 2007, 22, 65–70.
23. T. M. Brooks, S. J. Wright, and D. Sheil, ‘Evaluating the Success of Conservation Actions in Safeguarding Tropical Forest Biodiversity’, Conservation Biology, 2009, 23, 6, 1448–57.
24. D. Sheil and D. Murdiyarso, ‘How Forests Attract Rain: An Examination of a New Hypothesis’, Bioscience, 2009, 59, 341–7.
Part 7: The Road Ahead
25. J. Sayer, G. Bull, and C. Elliott, ‘Mediating Forest Transitions: "Grand Design" or "Muddling Through"?’, Conservation and Society, 2008, 6, 4, 320–7.
26. K. A. Wilson, E. Meijaard, S. Drummond, H. S. Grantham, L. Boitani, G. Catullo, L. Christie, R. Dennis, I. Dutton, A. Falcucci, L. Maiorano, H. P. Possingham, C. Rondinini, W. R. Turner, O. Venter, and M. Watts, ‘Conserving Biodiversity in Production Landscapes’, Ecological Applications, 2010, 20, 1721–32.
27. D. Lindenmayer, R. J. Hobbs, R. Montague-Drake, J. Alexandra, A. Bennett, M. Burgman, P. Cale, A. Calhoun, V. Cramer, P. Cullen, D. Driscoll, L. Fahrig, J. Fischer, J. Franklin, Y. Haila, M. Hunter, P. Gibbons, S. Lake, G. Luck, C. MacGregor, S. McIntyre, R. M. Nally, A. Manning, J. Miller, H. Mooney, R. Noss, H. Possingham, D. Saunders, F. Schmiegelow, M. Scott, D. Simberloff, T. Sisk, G. Tabor, B. Walker, J. Wiens, J. Woinarski, and E. Zavaleta, ‘A Checklist for Ecological Management of Landscapes for Conservation’, Ecology Letters, 2008, 11, 78–91.
Volume II: Forests and the Biological, Chemical, and Physical Environment
Part 1: Forest and Tree Properties
28. P. G. Jarvis and D. G. Fowler, ‘Forests and the Atmosphere’, in J. Evans (ed.), The Forests Handbook, Vol. 1 (Blackwell, 2001), pp. 229–81.
29. Y. Malhi, D. D. Baldocchi, and P. G. Jarvis, ‘The Carbon Balance of Tropical, Temperate and Boreal Forests’, Plant, Cell and Environment, 1999, 22, 715–40.
30. Y. Malhi, C. Doughty, and D. Galbraith, ‘The Allocation of Ecosystem Net Primary Productivity in Tropical Forests’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2011, 366, 3225–45.
31. R. H. Waring, P. E. Schroeder, and R. Oren, ‘Application of the Pipe Model Theory to Predict Canopy Leaf Area’, Journal of Forest Research, 1982, 12, 556–60.
32. Y. P. Wang, P. G. Jarvis, and M. L. Benson, ‘The Two-Dimensional Needle Area Density Distribution within the Crowns of Pinus Radiata Trees’, Forest Ecology and Management, 1990, 32, 217–37.
33. P. G. Jarvis and S. Linder, ‘Forests Remove Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere: Spruce Forest Tales!’, in P. H. Freer-Smith, M. S. J. Broadmeadow, and J. Lynch (eds.), Forestry and Climate Change: Proceedings of the OECD Wilton Park Conference 2006 (CABI, 2007), pp. 60–72.
Part 2: Radiation, Energy, and Production
34. S. Linder, ‘Potential and Actual Production in Australian Forest Stands’, in J. J. Landsberg and W. Parsons (eds.), Research for Forest Management (CSIRO, 1985), pp. 11–35.
35. P. G. Jarvis and J. W. Leverenz, ‘Productivity of Temperate, Deciduous and Evergreen Forests’, in O. L. Lange, P. S. Nobel, C. B. Osmond, and H. Ziegler (eds.), Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology (Physiological Plant Ecology IV, Vol. 12D) (Springer-Verlag, 1983), pp. 233–80.
36. J. J. Landsberg, S. D. Prince, P. G. Jarvis, R. E. McMurtrie, R. Luxmoore, and B. E. Medlyn, ‘Energy Conversion and Use in Forests: The Analysis of Forest Production in Terms of Radiation Utilisation Efficiency (ε)’, in H. L. Gholz, K. Nakane, and H. Shimoda (eds.), The Use of Remote Sensing in the Modelling of Forest Productivity at Scales from the Stand to the Globe (Kluwer, 1996), pp. 283–98.
Part 3: Transpiration and Evaporation
37. J. L. Monteith, ‘Fifty Years of Potential Evaporation’, in T. Keane and E. Daly (eds.), The Balance of Water: Present and Future (Trinity College, Dublin, 1994), pp. 29–45.
38. P. G. Jarvis and K. G. McNaughton, ‘Stomatal Control of Transpiration: Scaling up from Leaf to Region’, Advances in Ecology Research, 1986, 15, 1–49.
39. P. G. Jarvis, ‘The Interpretation of the Variations in Leaf Water Potential and Stomatal Conductance Found in Forest Canopies in the Field’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 1976, 273, 593–610.
40. J. R. Philip, ‘The Physical Principles of Water Movement During the Irrigation Cycle’, Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of Irrigation and Drainage (ICID, 1957), pp. 125–54.
Part 4: Forest Carbon, Tropospheric CO2 and Forest Management
41. J. Grace, ‘Role of Forest Biomes in the Global Carbon Balance’, in H. Griffiths and P. G. Jarvis (eds.), The Carbon Balance of Forest Biomes (Taylor & Francis, 2005), pp. 19–45.
42. B. E. Law, E. Falge, L. Gu, D. D. Baldocchi, P. Bakwin, P. Berbigier, K. Davis, A. J. Dolman, M. Falk, J. D. Fuentes, A. Goldstein, A. Granier, A. Grelle, D. Hollinger, I. A. Janssens, P. Jarvis, N. O. Jensen, G. Katul, Y. Malhi, G. Matteuchi, T. Meyers, R. Monson, W. Munger, W. Oechel, R. Olson, K. Pilegaard, K. T. Paw U, H. Thorgeirsson, R. Valentini, S. Verma, T. Vesala, K. Wilson, and S. Wofsy, ‘Environmental Controls Over Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour Exchange of Terrestrial Vegetation’, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2002, 113, 97–120.
43. R. Hyvönen, G. I. Ågren, S. Linder, T. Persson, M. F. Cotrufo, A. Ekblad, M. Freeman, A. Grelle, I. A. Janssens, P. G Jarvis, S. Kellomäki, A. Lindroth, D. Loustau, T. Lundmark, R. J. Norby, R. Oren, K. Pilegaard, M. G. Ryan, B. D. Sigurdsson, M. Strömgren, M. van Oijen, and G. Wallin, ‘The Likely Impact of Elevated [CO2], Nitrogen Deposition, Increased Temperature and Management on Carbon Sequestration in Temperate and Boreal Forest Ecosystems: A Literature Review’, New Phytologist, 2007, 173, 463–80.
44. P. Meir, B. Kruijt, M. Broadmeadow, E. Barbosa, O. Kull, A. Nobre, and P. G. Jarvis, ‘Acclimation of Photosynthetic Capacity to Irradiance in Tree Canopies in Relation to Leaf Nitrogen Concentration and Leaf Mass Per Unit Area’, Plant, Cell and Environment, 2002, 25, 343–57.
Part 5: Likely Impacts of Climate Change
45. M. G. R. Cannell, J. H. M. Thornley, D. C. Mobbs, and A. D. Friend, ‘UK Conifer Forests May Be Growing Faster in Response to Increased Nitrogen Deposition, Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature’, Forestry, 1998, 71, 277–96.
46. W. Mojeremane, R. M. Rees, and M. Mencuccini, ‘The Effects of Site Preparation Practices on Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from a Peaty-gley Soil’, Forestry, 2012, 85, 1–15.
Volume III: A review of the state of knowledge
Part 1: Access and Tenure
47. E. Ostrom, ‘Self-Governance and Forest Resources’, CIFOR Occasional Paper, 20 (Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia, 1999).
48. B. Campbell, A. Mandondo, N. Nemarundwe, B. Sithole, W. De Jong, M. Luckert, and F. Matose, ‘Challenges to Proponents of Common Property Resource Systems: Despairing Voices from the Social Forests of Zimbabwe’, World Development, 2001, 29, 589–600.
49. M. Richards, ‘Common Property Resource Institutions and Forest Management in Latin America’, Development and Change, 1997, 28, 95–117.
50. L. A. Wily, ‘Can We Own the Forest? Looking at the Changing Tenure Environment for Community Forestry in Africa’, Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 2004, 14, 217–28.
51. H. Rangan and M. B. Lane, ‘Indigenous Peoples and Forest Management: Comparative Analysis of Institutional Approaches in Australia and India’, Society and Natural Resources, 2001, 14, 145–60.
Part 2: Importance of Traditional and Indigenous Uses
52. W. D. Sunderlin, B. Belcher, L. Santoso, A. Angelsen, P. Burgers, R. Nasi, and S. Wunder, ‘Livelihoods, Forests, and Conservation in Developing Countries: An Overview’, World Development, 2005, 33, 1383–402.
53. K. F. Wiersum, ‘Indigenous Exploitation and Management of Tropical Forest Resources: An Evolutionary Continuum in Forest-People Interactions’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 1997, 63, 1–16.
54. S. A. Vosti and J. Witcover, ‘Slash-and-Burn Agriculture: Household Perspectives’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 1996, 58, 23–38.
55. D. Sheil and S. Wunder, ‘The Value of Tropical Forest to Local Communities: Complications, Caveats, and Cautions’, Conservation Ecology, 2002, 6, 2.
Part 3: Emerging Markets for NTFPS
56. K. Kusters, R. Achdiawan, B. Belcher, and M. Ruiz Perez, ‘Balancing Development and Conservation? An Assessment of Livelihood and Environmental Outcomes of Nontimber Forest Product Trade in Asia, Africa, and Latin America’, Ecology and Society, 2006, 11, 2.
57. A. K. O. Homma, ‘Modernisation and Technological Dualism in the Extractive Economy in Amazonia’, in M. Ruiz Perez and J. E. M. Arnold (eds.), Current Issues in Non-Timber Forest Products Research Proceedings of the Workshop "Research on NTFP", Hot Springs, Zimbabwe, 28 August–2 September 1995 (Centre for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia, 1996), pp. 59–82.
58. C. Bunt and R. Leakey. ‘Domestication Potential and Marketing of Canarium Indicum Nuts in the Pacific: Commercialization and Market Development’, Forests Trees and Livelihoods, 2008, 18, 271–89.
Part 4: Participation and Gender
59. D. Rocheleau and D. Edmunds, ‘Women, Men and Trees: Gender, Power and Property in Forest and Agrarian Landscapes’, World Development, 1997, 25, 1351–71.
60. S. Tuler and T. Webler, ‘Voices from the Forest: What Participants Expect of a Public Participation Process’, Society and Natural Resources, 1999, 12, 437–53.
61. G. Lescuyer, A. Emerit, E. E. Mendoula, and J. J. Seh, ‘Community Involvement in Forest Management: A Full-Scale Experiment in the South Cameroon Forest’, Network Paper—Rural Development Forestry Network, No. 24 (Overseas Development Institute, London, 2001).
62. E. D. G. Fraser, A. J. Dougill, W. E. Mabee, M. Reed, and P. McAlpine, ‘Bottom Up and Top Down: Analysis of Participatory Processes for Sustainability Indicator Identification as a Pathway to Community Empowerment and Sustainable Environmental Management’, Journal of Environmental Management, 2006, 78, 114–27.
Part 5: Challenges in Implementing Community Forestry
63. Y. B. Malla, H. R. Neupane, and P. J. Branney, ‘Why Aren’t Poor People Benefiting More from Community Forestry?’, Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 2003, 3, 78–90.
64. P. E. Levang, E Dounias, and S. Sitorius, ‘Out of the Forest, Out of Poverty?’, Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 2007, 15, 211–36.
Part 6: Agroforestry, Small-Holder Farm Forestry, and Urban Forestry
65. D. Pearce, F. E. Putz, and J. K. Vanclay, ‘Sustainable Forestry in the Tropics: Panacea or Folly?’, Forest Ecology and Management, 2003, 172, 2–3, 229–47.
66. O. T. Coomes and G. J. Burt, ‘Indigenous Market-Oriented Agroforestry: Dissecting Local Diversity in Western Amazonia’, Agroforestry Systems, 1997, 37, 27–44.
67. A. A. Nawir, H. Kassa, M. Sandewall, D. Dore, B. Campbell, B. Ohlsson, and M. Bekele, ‘Stimulating Smallholder Tree Planting: Lessons from Africa and Asia’, Unasylva, 2007, 228, 58, 53–8.
68. A. J. P. Long and P. K. Ramachandran Nair, ‘Trees Outside Forests: Agro-, Community, and Urban Forestry’, New Forests, 1999, 17, 145–74.
69. C. C. Konijnendijk, ‘A Decade of Urban Forestry in Europe’, Forest Policy and Economics, 2003, 5, 173–86.
Part 7: Lessons for the West?
70. C. Forner, J. Blaser, F. Jotzo, and C. Robledo, ‘Keeping the Forest for the Climate’s Sake: Avoiding Deforestation in Developing Countries Under the UNFCCC’, Climate Policy, 2006, 6, 275–94.
Volume IV: Forest Policy, Economics, and Governance
Part 1: Emerging Regime of Global Forest Governance
71. J. Rayner, H. Hoogeveen, K. McNutt, P. Verkooijen and C. WildburgerJ. Rayner, A. Buck, and P. Katila, ‘Conclusions’, Embracing Complexity: Meeting the Challenges of International Forest Governance: A Global Assessment Report Prepared by the Global Forest Expert Panel on the International Forest Regime (IUFRO World Series, Vol. 28, Vienna, 2010), pp. 137–45.
72. A. Agrawal, A. Chhatre, and R. Hardin, ‘Changing Governance of the World’s Forests’, Science, 2008, 320, 1460–2.
73. D. M. Konisky and T. C. Beierle, ‘Innovations in Public Participation and Environmental Decision Making: Examples from the Great Lakes Region’, Society and Natural Resources, 2001, 14, 815–26.
74. G. Broekhoven, S. Von Scheliha, M. Shannon, and H. Savenije, ‘Moving Forward with Forest Governance: A Synthesis’, European Tropical Forest Research Network News, April 2012, 53, vii–xv.
75. D. Humphreys, ‘Intergovernmental Panel on Forests’, Logjam: Deforestation and the Crisis of Global Governance (Earthscan, 2006), pp. 22–47.
76. L. E. Eastwood, ‘Civil Society, NGOs, Transnational Corporations: Setting the Stage for International Environmental Policy Negotiations’, The Social Organization of Policy: An Institutional Ethnography of the United Nations Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (Routledge, 2005), pp. 1–25.
77. B. Arts and M. Buizer, ‘Forests Discourses, Institutions: A Discursive-institutional Analysis of Global Forest Governance’, Forest Policy and Economics, 2009, 11, 5–6, 340–7.
78. V. Teplyakov, ‘The Power of the Past’, Silva Carelica of Joensuu University, 2004, 46, 17–40.
Part 2: Role of Science and Economics in Forest Policy and Governance
79. M. Shannon, G. Buttoud, and R. Paivinen, ‘Science is Endogenous to Sustainable Forestry: Implications for Scientists and Policymakers’, in K. Reynolds, A. J. Thomson, M. Mohl, M. A. Shannon, and K. Rennolls (eds.), Sustainable Forestry: From Monitoring and Modeling to Knowledge Management and Policy Science (CABI Publishing, 2007), pp. 1–13.
80. B. Arts, ‘Forests Policy Analysis and Theory Use: Overview and Trends’, Forest Policy and Economics, 2012, 16, 7–13.
81. S. Wang, ‘One Hundred Faces of Sustainable Forest Management’, Forest Policy and Economics, 2004, 6, 205–13.
82. S. Kant, ‘Extending the Boundaries of Forest Economics’, Forest Policy and Economics, 2003, 5, 39–56.
83. I. Røpke, ‘The Early History of Modern Ecological Economics’, Ecological Economics, 2004, 50, 293–314.
84. G. Heal, G. C. Daily, P. R. Ehrlich, J. Salzman, C. Boggs, J. Hellmann, J. Hughes, C. Kremen, and T. Ricketts, ‘Protecting Natural Capital Through Ecosystem Service Districts’, Stanford Environmental Law Journal, 2001, 20, 333–64.
Part 3: Markets as Models for Policy and New Modes of Governance
85. D. Klooster, ‘Environmental Certification of Forests: The Evolution of Environmental Governance in a Commodity Network’, Journal of Rural Studies, 2005, 21, 403–17.
86. E. Meidinger, ‘Forest Certification and Democracy’, European Journal of Forest Research, 2010, 130, 407–19.
87. E. Ramensteiner, ‘The Role of Governments in Forest Certification - A Normative Analysis Based Upon New Institutional Economics Theories’, Forest Policy and Economics, 2002, 4, 163–73.
88. B. Cashore, ‘Legitimacy and the Privatization of Environmental Governance: How Non-State Market-Driven (NSMD) Governance Systems Gain Rule-Making Authority’, Governance, 2002, 15, 4, 503–29.
89. D. Kaimowitz, ‘The Prospects for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in Mesoamerica’, International Forestry Review, 2008, 10, 3, 485–95.
90. S. Wunder, ‘Payments for Environmental Services: Some Nuts and Bolts’, CIFOR Occasional Paper, 42 (Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia, 2005), pp. 1–24.
91. S. Engel, S. Pagiola, and S. Wunder, ‘Designing Payments for Environmental Services in Theory and Practice: An Overview of the Issues’, Ecological Economics, 2008, 65, 4, 663–74.
92. R. B. Norgaard, ‘Ecosystem Services: From Eye-Opening Metaphor to Complexity Blinder’, Ecological Economics, 2010, 69, 1219–27.