Synchronous Generators: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Synchronous Generators

2nd Edition

By Ion Boldea

CRC Press

478 pages | 347 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2015-10-05
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Synchronous Generators,the first of two volumes in the Electric Generators Handbook, offers a thorough introduction to electrical energy and electricity generation, including the basic principles of electric generators. The book devotes a chapter to the most representative prime mover models for transients used in active control of various generators. Then, individual chapters explore large- and medium-power synchronous generator topologies, steady state, modeling, transients, control, design, and testing. Numerous case studies, worked-out examples, sample results, and illustrations highlight the concepts.

Fully revised and updated to reflect the last decade’s worth of progress in the field, this Second Edition adds new sections that:

  • Discuss high-power wind generators with fewer or no permanent magnets (PMs)
  • Cover PM-assisted DC-excited salient pole synchronous generators
  • Present multiphase synchronous machine inductances via the winding function method
  • Consider the control of autonomous synchronous generators
  • Examine additional optimization design issues
  • Illustrate the optimal design of a large wind generator by the Hooke–Jeeves method
  • Detail the magnetic equivalent circuit population-based optimal design of synchronous generators
  • Address online identification of synchronous generator parameters
  • Explain the small-signal injection online technique
  • Explore line switching (on or off) parameter identification for isolated grids
  • Describe synthetic back-to-back load testing with inverter supply

The promise of renewable, sustainable energy rests on our ability to design innovative power systems that are able to harness energy from a variety of sources. Synchronous Generators, Second Edition supplies state-of-the-art tools necessary to design, validate, and deploy the right power generation technologies to fulfill tomorrow's complex energy needs.

Table of Contents

Electric Energy and Electric Generators


Major Energy Sources

Limitations of Electric Power Generation

Electric Power Generation

From Electric Generators to Electric Loads



Principles of Electric Generators

Three Types of Electric Generators

Synchronous Generators

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators

Homopolar Synchronous Generator

Induction Generator

Wound-Rotor Doubly Fed Induction Generator

Parametric Generators

Electric Generator Applications

High-Power Wind Generators



Prime Movers


Steam Turbines

Steam Turbine Modeling

Speed Governors for Steam Turbines

Gas Turbines

Diesel Engines

Stirling Engines

Hydraulic Turbines

Wind Turbines



Large- and Medium-Power Synchronous Generators: Topologies and Steady State


Construction Elements

Excitation Magnetic Field

Two-Reaction Principle of Synchronous Generators

Armature Reaction Field and Synchronous Reactances

Equations for Steady State with Balanced Load

Phasor Diagram

Inclusion of Core Losses in the Steady-State Model

Autonomous Operation of Synchronous Generators

SG Operation at Power Grid (in Parallel)

Unbalanced Load Steady-State Operation

Measuring Xd, Xq, Z, Z0

Phase-to-Phase Short Circuit

Synchronous Condenser

PM-Assisted DC-Excited Salient Pole Synchronous Generators

Multiphase Synchronous Machine Inductances via Winding Function Method



Synchronous Generators: Modeling for Transients


Phase-Variable Model

dq Model

Per Unit (P.U.) dq Model

Steady State via the dq Model

General Equivalent Circuits

Magnetic Saturation Inclusion in the dq Model

Operational Parameters

Standstill Time-Domain Response Provoked Transients

Standstill Frequency Response

Simplified Models for Power System Studies

Mechanical Transients

Small Disturbance Electromechanical Transients

Large Disturbance Transients Modeling

Finite-Element SG Modeling

SG Transient Modeling for Control Design



Control of Synchronous Generators in Power Systems


Speed Governing Basics

Time Response of Speed Governors

Automatic Generation Control

Time Response of Speed (Frequency) and Power Angle

Voltage and Reactive Power Control Basics

Automatic Voltage Regulation Concept


Exciter’s Modeling

Basic AVRs

Underexcitation Voltage

Power System Stabilizers

Coordinated AVR-PSS and Speed Governor Control

FACTS-Added Control of SG

Subsynchronous Oscillations

Subsynchronous Resonance

Note on Autonomous Synchronous Generators’ Control



Design of Synchronous Generators


Specifying Synchronous Generators for Power Systems

Output Power Coefficient and Basic Stator Geometry

Number of Stator Slots

Design of Stator Winding

Design of Stator Core

Salient: Pole Rotor Design

Damper Cage Design

Design of Cylindrical Rotors

Open-Circuit Saturation Curve

On-Load Excitation mmf F1n

Inductances and Resistances

Excitation Winding Inductances

Damper Winding Parameters

Solid Rotor Parameters

SG Transient Parameters and Time Constants

Electromagnetic Field Time Harmonics

Slot Ripple Time Harmonics

Losses and Efficiency

Exciter Design Issues

Optimization Design Issues

Generator/Motor Issues



Testing of Synchronous Generators

Acceptance Testing

Testing for Performance (Saturation Curves, Segregated Losses, and Efficiency)

Excitation Current under Load and Voltage Regulation

Need for Determining Electrical Parameters

Per Unit Values

Tests for Parameters under Steady State

Tests to Estimate the Subtransient and Transient Parameters

Transient and Subtransient Parameters from d and q Axis Flux Decay Test at Standstill

Subtransient Reactances from Standstill Single-Frequency AC Tests

Standstill Frequency Response Tests

Online Identification of SG Parameters



About the Author

Ion Boldea is a professor of electrical engineering at the University Politehnica Timisoara, Romania. A life fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Professor Boldea has worked, published, lectured, and consulted extensively on the theory, design, and control of linear and rotary electric motors and generators for more than 40 years.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical