System Innovation for Sustainability 1
Perspectives on Radical Changes to Sustainable Consumption and Production
Sustainable consumption and production (SCP) was adopted as a priority area during the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002 and has since become one of the main vehicles for targeting international sustainability policy. Sustainable consumption focuses on formulating equitable strategies that foster the highest quality of life, the efficient use of natural resources, and the effective satisfaction of human needs while simultaneously promoting equitable social development, economic competitiveness, and technological innovation. But this is a complex topic and, as the challenges of sustainability grow larger, there is a need to re-imagine how SCP policies can be formulated, governed and implemented. The EU-funded project "Sustainable Consumption Research Exchanges" (SCORE!) consists of around 200 experts in the field of sustainable innovation and sustainable consumption. The SCORE! philosophy is that innovation in SCP policy can be achieved only if experts that understand business development, (sustainable) solution design, consumer behaviour and system innovation policy work together in shaping it. Sustainable technology design can be effective only if business can profitably make the products and consumers are attracted to them. To understand how this might effectively happen, the expertise of systems thinkers must be added to the mix. System Innovation for Sustainability 1 is the first result of a unique positive confrontation between experts from all four communities. It examines what SCP is and what it could be, provides a state-of-the-art review on the governance of change in SCP policy and looks at the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches. The SCORE! experts are working with actors in industry, consumer groups and eco-labelling organisations in the key consumption areas of mobility, food and agriculture, and energy use and housing – responsible for 70% of the life-cycle environmental impacts of Western societies – with the aim of stimulating, fostering or forcing change to SCP theory in practice. The System Innovation for Sustainability series will continue with three further volumes of comprehensive case studies in each of these three critical consumption areas. Each chapter of this book examines problems and suggests solutions from a business, design, consumer and system innovation perspective. It primarily examines the differing solutions necessary in the consumer economies of the West, but also comments on the differing needs in rapidly emerging economies such as China, as well as base-of-the-pyramid economies. The System Innovation for Sustainability series is the fruit of the only major international research network on SCP and will set the standard in this field for some years to come. It will be required reading for all involved in the policy debate on sustainable production and consumption from government, business, academia and NGOs for designers, scientists, businesses and system innovators.
Table of Contents
Preface Part I: The context of this book 1. Introduction Arnold Tukker, Sophie Emmert, Martin Charter, Carlo Vezzoli, Eivind Stø, Maj Munch Andersen, Theo Geerken, Ursula Tischner and Saadi Lahlou 2. Sustainability: A multi-interpretable notion – the book's normative stance Arnold Tukker, TNO, The Netherlands Part II: Business perspective3. Review: The role of business in realising sustainable consumption and production Martin Charter, Casper Gray, Tom Clark and Tim Woolman, The Centre for Sustainable Design, UK 4. Business models for sustainable energy Rolf Wüstenhagen and Jasper Boehnke, Institute for Economy and the Environment, Switzerland 5. Alternative business models for a sustainable automotive industry Peter Wells, Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society, UK 6. Sustainability-related innovation and the Porter Hypothesis: How to innovate for energy-efficient consumption and production Marcus Wagner, BETA and TUM Business School, Germany 7. Marketing in the age of sustainable development Frank-Martin Belz, Technische Universität München, Germany Part III: Design perspective8. Review: Design for sustainable consumption and production systems Carlo Vezzoli, Design and Innovation for Sustainability, Italy, and Ezio Manzini, INDACO-Politecnico di Milano, Italy 9. Design for (social) sustainability and radical change Ursula Tischner, econcept, Agency for Sustainable Design, Cologne, Germany 10. Social innovation and design of promising solutions towards sustainability: Emerging demand for sustainable solutions (EMUDE) François Jégou, Strategic Design Scenarios, Belgium 11. Eco-Innovative Cities Australia: A pilot project for the ecodesign of services in eight local councils Chris Ryan, University of Melbourne, Australia 12. Is a radical systemic shift toward sustainability possible in China? Benny C.H. Leong, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China Part IV: Consumer perspective13. Review: A multi-dimensional approach to the study of consumption in modern societies and the potential for radical sustainable changes Eivind Stø, Harald Throne-Holst, Pål Strandbakken and Gunnar Vittersø, SIFO, Norway 14. Product-service systems: Taking a functional and a symbolic perspective on usership Gerd Scholl, Institut für ökologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IÖW), Germany 15. Social capital, lifestyles and consumption patterns Dario Padovan, University of Torino, Italy 16. Linking sustainable consumption to everyday life: A social-ecological approach to consumption research Irmgard Schultz and Immanuel Stieß, Institute for Social-Ecological Research, Germany 17. Emerging sustainable consumption patterns in Central Eastern Europe, with a specific focus on Hungary Edina Vadovics, Central European University, Hungary Part V: System innovation policy perspective18. Review: System transition processes for realising sustainable consumption and production Maj Munch Andersen, Oe-DTU, Denmark 19. System innovations in innovation systems: Conceptual foundations and experiences with Adaptive Foresight in Austria K. Matthias Weber and Klaus Kubeczko, ARC systems research, Austria, and Harald Rohracher, IFZ–Inter-University Research Centre, Austria 20. Transition management for sustainable consumption and production René Kemp, UNU-MERIT, ICIS, Drift and TNO, The Netherlands 21. Systemic changes and sustainable consumption and production: Cases from product-service systems Oksana Mont and Tareq Emtairah, International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Sweden Part VI: Conclusions and integration22. Conclusions: Change management for sustainable consumption and production Arnold Tukker, TNO, The Netherlands